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err 


THE  GENERAL 


BIOGRAPHICAL    DICTIONARY, 


A  NEW  EDITION. 


VOL.  XXIX. 


Printed  by  Nichols,  Son,  and  Bentley» 
Ked  lion  Passagei  Fleet  Street,  London* 


THE   GENERAL 


BIOGRAPHICAL  DICTIONARY 


CONTAINING  _J:       ^  — 

AN  HISTORICAL  AND  CRITICAL  ACCOUNT 

O.F  THB 

LIVES   AND   WRITINGS 

/  OF   THE 

MOST    EMINENT    PERSON^ 

IN   EVERY  NATION; 

PARTICULARLY  THE  BRITISH  AND  IRISHi 
FROM  THE  EARLIESTS  ACCOUNT  TO  THE  PRESENT  TIME. 


A  NEW  EDITION, 

.     REVISED  AND  ENLARGED   BY 

ALEXANDER  CHALMERS,  E;  S.  A. 


VOL.  XXIX. 


LONDONt 

PRIKTEO  FOR  J.  NICHOLS  AND  SON ;  F.  C.  AND  J.  RIVINOTON  |  T.  PAYNE ; 
OTRIDGB  AND  SON;  O.  AND  W.  NICOL ;  O.  WILKIE ;  J.  WALKER;  W. 
LOWNDES;  T.  EGERTON;  LACRINGTON,  ALLEN,  AND  CO.;  J.'  CARPENTER | 
LONGMAN,  HtJRST,  REES,  ORME,  AND  BROWN;  CADBLL  AND  DA  VIES;  LAW 
AND  WHITTAKER ;  J.  BOOKER ;  J.  CUTHELL ;  CLARKE  AND  SONS ;  J.  AND 
A.  ARCH;  J.  HARRIS;  BLACK,  PARBURY,  AND  ALLEN  ;  J.  BLACK;  J.  BOOTH; 
J.  MAWMAN;  GALE  AND  FENNER;  R.  H.  EVANS;  J.  HATCHARD ;  J.  MURRAY  | 
BALDWIN,  CRADOCK,  AMD  JOY;  B.  BENTLEY ;  OGLE  AND  CO.;  W.  GINGER; 
RODWELL  AMD  MARTIN;  P.  WRIGHT;  J.  DBIOHTON  AND  SON,  CAMBRIDQX| 
CONSTAB]LB  AND  CO.  EDINBURGH;  AND  WILSON  ANp  SON,  YORK. 

1816. 


A 


«> 


A  NEW  AND    GENERAL 


BIOGEAPHICAL  DICTIONARY. 


OUAREZ  (FfiANCis)y  A  Spanish  Jesuit,  born  at  Grenada, 
Jan.  5,  £548,  was  a  professor  of  reputation  at  Alcala,  at 
Salamanca,  and  at  Rome.  He  was  afterwards  invited 
to  Coimbra  in  Portugal,  where  he  became  the  princi- 
pal professor  of  divinity.  He  is  an  author  of  the  most 
voluminous  kind:  his  works  extended  to  twenty -three 
volumes,  in  folio ;  and  so  extraordinary  was  his  memory, 
that  if  any  passage  was  cited  from  them,  he  could  imme* 
diately  go  on  to  the  end  of  the  chapter  or  book.  Yet, 
with  all  his  talents,  his  examiners  had  such  an  indifferent 
opinion  of  him,  that  it  was  with  some  diiBcuity  he  gained 
admission  into  the  order  of  Jesuits.  He  died  at  Lisbon, 
Sept.  215,  161 7.  B^  order  of  pope  Paul  V.  he  wrote  u 
book  *'  against  the  errors  of  the  English  sect,*'  which 
James  I.  caused  to  be  publicly  burnt  at  St.  Paul's.  ^*  Happy^ 
should  I  be,"  said  he,  '^  could  I  seal  with  my  blood  the 
truths  I  have  defended  with  my  pen."  Yet  unpopular  aa 
this  work  must  have  rendered  his  name  in  this  country, 
his  treatise  on  law,  '*  Tractatus  de  Legibus,'^  was  printed 
in  London  in  1679,  in  folio.  His  works  are  chiefly  on 
the  subjects  of  metaphysics,  morality,  and  theology ;  and 
what  seeois  to  recommend  them  is,  that  he  alAiost  every 
where  relates  and  explains,  with  great  fidelity  and  precis 
sion,  the  different  sentiments  of  divines  concerning  the 
subjects  on  which  he  treats.  The  Jesuits  consider  Suarez 
as  the  greatest  and  best  scholastic  divine  their  order  has 
produced,  and  lavish  the  highest  encooiiums  upon  him. 
He  was  the  principal  author  of  the  system  of  Congruisi^, 
which  is  at  bottom  only  that  of  Molina,  although,  perhaps, 
better  adapted  to  the  method  and  language  of  the  theo- 
VOL.  XXIX.  B 


S  S  U  A  R  E  Z. 

logiansy  and  disguised  under  a  less  offensive  form*  Father 
Noel,  a  French  Jesuit,  made  an  abridgment  of  the  works* 
of  this  commentator,  which  was  published  at  Geneva  in 
1732,  in  fo\io.  There  is  a  prolix  life  of  him  by  Antony- 
Ignatius  Deschamp»,  printed  at  Perpignan  in  1671,  a  4to 
of  800  pages.  *  ,  - 

SUCKLING  (Sir  John),  an  accomplished  courtier,  scho- 
lar, and  poet,  was  the  son  of  sir  John  Suckling,   cooop- 
troller  of  the  royal  household,  and  was  born  at  Whitton  in 
Middlesex,  where  his  father  resided,  in  1609.     His  bio- 
graphers have  hitherto  fixed  the  time  of  his  birth  in  1612, 
but,  according  to  some  extracts  from  the  parish-register 
of  Twickenham,  in  Lysons's  '<  Environs,^*  it  appears,  that 
he  was  baptised  Feb.  10,  1608-9.     Lloyd,  from  whom  we 
have  the  first  account  of  this  poet,  mentions  a  circumstance 
relating  to  his  birth,  from  which  more  was  presaged  tbai>. 
folbwed.     He  was  born,  according  to  his  mother^s  compu« 
tation,  in  th^  eleventh  month,  and  long  life  and  health, 
were  expected  from  so  extraordinary  an  occurrence.    Du- 
ring his  infancy  he  certainly  displayed  an  uncommon  fa- 
cility of  acquiring  every  branch  of  education.     He  spoke 
Latin  at  five  years  of  age,  and  could  write  in  that  language 
at  the  age  of  nine.    It  is  probable  that  he  was  taught  more 
languages  than  one  at  the  same  time,  and  by  practising 
frequently  with  men  of  education  who  kept  company  with, 
bis  fiither,  soon  acquired  an  ease  and  elegance  of  address 
which  qualified  him  for  the  court  as  well  as  for  foreiga 
^travel.    His  father  is  represented  as  a  man  of  a  serious  turiv 
and  grave  manners ;  the  son  volatile,  good-tempered,  and. 
thoughtless ;  characteristics  which  be  seems  to  have  pre- 
^inerved  throughout  life.     His  tutors  found  him  particularly 
tuboiissive,  docile,  easy  to  be  taught,  and  quick  in  learn- 
ing,    it  does  not  appear  that  he  was  sent  to  either  uni- 
versity, jret  a  perusal  of  his  prose  works  can  leave  no  doubt 
that  be  laid  a  very  solid  and  extensive  foundation  for  va- 
rious learning,  and  studied,  not  only  such  authors  as  were 
suitable  to  the'vivacity  of  his  disposition,  but  made  him- 
self acquainted  with  those  political  and  religious  controver- 
sies which  were  about  to  involve  his  country  in  all  the  mi- 
series of  civil  war. 

'After  continuing  for  some  years  Under  his  father^s  tutor- 
age, he  travelled  over  the  kingdom,  and  tbeo  went  to  the 


SUCKLING.  J 

cantinent,  where,  his  biographer  informs  us,  '^  he  made  an 
honourable  collection  of  the  virtues  of  each  nation,  withr 
out  any  tincture  of  theirs,  unless  it  were  a  httle  too  much 
of  the  French  air»  which  was  indeed  the  fault  of  bis  com* 
plexion,  rather  than  his  person."  It  was  about  this  time» 
probably  in  his  twentieth  year,  that  he  joined  the  standard 
of  the  illustrious  Gustavus  Adolphus,  and  was  present  at 
three  battles  and  (ive  sieges,  besides  lesser  engagements^ 
within  the  space  of  six  months. 

On  his  return  he  employed  his  time,  and  expended  his 
fortune,  among  the  wits  of  his  age,  to  whom  he  was  re- 
commended,- not  only  by  generous  and  social  habits,  but 
by  a  solid  sense  in  argument  and  conversation  far  beyond 
whati  might  be  expected  from  his  years,  and  the  apparent 
lightness  of  his  disposition.  Among  bis  principal  asso* 
ciates,  we  find  the  names  of  lord  Falkland,  Davenant,  Ben 
Jonson,  Digby,  Carew,  sir  Toby  Matthews,  and  the  "ever 
memprabje'*  Hales  of  Eton,  to  whom  he  addresses  a  lively 
invitation  to  come  to  town*  His  plays,  "  Aglaura,** 
^^  Brennoralt,*'  "The  Goblins/'  and  an  unfinished  piece 
entitled  "  The  Sad  One,"  added  considerably  to  his  fame^ 
although  they  have  not  been  able  to  perpetuate  it.  The  first 
only  was  printed  in  his  life-time.  All  bis  plays,  we  aretoldj 
were  acted  with  applause,  and  he  spared  no  expence  in 
costly  dresses  and  decorations. 

While  thus  seemingly  devoted  to  pleasure  only,  the  un- 
fortunate aspect  of  public  affairs  roused  him  to  a  sense  of 
duty,  and  induced  him  to  offer  his  services,  and  devote 
bis  life  and  fortune,  t^^the  causes  of  royaltyl  ^  How  justly 
be  could  contemplate  the  unfortunate  disptite  between  the 
court  and  nation,  appears  in  his  letter  to^Mr.Germaine  (af- 
terwards lord  Albemarle),  a  cooipo^tion  Almost  unrivaned 
in  that  age  for  elegance  of  styl^  andHepth  of  obse/vation. 
It  was,  however,  too  much  the  practice ;  with  4%%9e^  who 
made  voluntary  offers  of  soldiers,  to  equip  them  in  Sa 
expensive  and  useless  manner.  Suckling,  who  was  mag- 
nificent in  all  his  expenses,  was  not  to  be  outdone  in  an 
article  which  be  had  studied  more  \han  became  a  soldier, 
and  which  he  might  suppose  would  afford  unquestionable 
proof  of  his  attachment  to  the  royal  cause ;  and,  having 
been  permitted  to  raise  a  troop  of  horse,  consisting  of  aii 
hundred,  he  equipped  them  so '"richly,  that  they  ari  said 
to  have  cost  him  the  sum  of  twelve  thousand  pounds. 


A  SUCKLING. 

Thi$  exposed  him  to  soine  degree  of  ridiculei  a  weapotk 
ivliioh  the  republicans  often  wielded  with  successfol  dex«- 
terityi  and  which,  in  this  instance,  was  sharpened  by  tli« 
-misconduct  of  his  gaudy  soldiers.  The  particulars  of  this 
Afiair  are  not  recorded;  but  it  appears,  that  in  1639,  the 
royai  army,  of  which  his  troop  formed  a  part,  was  defeated 
by  the  tScotch,  and  that  sir  John*s  men  behaved  remark^ 
ably  ill.  All  this  is  possible,  without  any  imputation  on 
the  courage  of  their  commander ;  but  it  afforded  his  ene- 
mies an  opportunity  of  turning  the  expedition  into  ridi- 
cole  with  an  effect  that  is  yet  r emembered*  The  lines  in 
Dr.  Percy's  collection,  by  sir  John  Mennis,  are  not  the  only 
specimen  of  the  wit  of  the  times  at  our  author's  expense. 

This  unhappy  affair  is  said  by  Lloyd  to  have  contributed 
to  shorten  his  days ;  but  Oldys,  in  his  MS  notes  on  Lang^^ 
4>aine,  attributes  his  death  to  another  cause.  Lord  Oxford 
informed  Oldys,  on  the  authority  of  dean  Chetwood,  who 
feaid  he  had  it  from  lord  Roscommon,  that  sir  John  Suck- 
ling, in  his'  way  to  France,  was  robbed  of  a  casket  of  gold 
%nd  jewels,  by  his  valet,  who  gave  him  poison,  and  besides 
utttck  the  blade  of  a  pen-knife  into  his  boot  in  such  a  inan«> 
tier,  that  sir  John  was  disabled  from  pursuing  the  villain, 
And  was  wounded  incurably  in  the  heel.  Dr.  Warton,  in  a 
«K)to  to  bis  Essay  on  Pope,  relates  the  story  somewhat 
differently  :  <*  Sir  John  Suckling  was  robbed  by  his  valet- 
^e^diambre ;  the  moment  he  discovered  it,  he  clapped  on 
liis  boots  in  a  f>as9ionate  hnrry,  and  perceived  not  a  large 
fusty  nail  that  was  concealed  at  the  bottom,  which  pierced 
fm  feed,  and  brought  on  a  mortification.^*  He  died  May  7, 
'1641,  in  the  thirty-second  year  of  his  age.  That  he  was 
■on  his  way  to  France,  when  he  met  mih  the  occasion  of  his 
<dealh,  seems  to  be  confirmed  by  a  ludicrous  poem,  lately^ 
re-printed  in  the  "  Censura  Literaria,"  entitled  "ALet- 
<ter  sent  by  sir  John  Suckling  from  Franoe,  deploring  bis 
«ad  estate  and  flight :  with  a  discoverie  of  the  plot  and 
conspiraeie,  intended  by  him  and  bis  adherents  against 
England.  Imprinted  at  London,  1641.*'  This  poem  is 
dated  Paris,  June  16,  1641,  at  which  time  the  author  pro- 
l»ably  had  not  learned  that  the  object  of  his  satire  was  be- 
yond his  reach. 

As  a  poet,  he  was  one  of  those  who  wrote  for  amuse- 
inent,  Imd  was  not  stimulated  by  ambition,  or  anxious  for 
fame.  His  pieces  were  sent  loose  about  the  world  ;  and 
not  having  been  collected  until  after  his  death,  they  are 


SUCKLING.  1^ 

probs^ly  le!is  correct  than  be  left  them;  Jtlany  of  hU  yerscm 
are  as  rugged  and  unharmonioiis  as  thos^e  of  Donne ;  butbia 
aongs  and  ballads  are  elegant  and  graceful.  He  was  par- 
tictilarly  bappy  and  original  in  expressing  tba  feelings  of 
artificial  love,  disdain,  or  disappointmeDt.  The  **  Session, 
of  the  Poets/'  tbe  <<  Lines  lo  a  Rival/*  the  *'<  HoMb 
Lover/'  and  the  ^rfiallad  upon  a  Wedding/'  are  sufficient 
td  entitle  hipa  to  the  honours. of  poetry,  which  the  autho( 
of  tbe  lives  published  under  the  name  of  Cibber,isestreiKiely 
anxious  to  wrest  from  him. 

His  works  have  been  often  reprinted  ;  first  in  1646,  9vQ| 
again  in  1 6i9^  and  1 676  ;  very  correctly  by  Tonscm  in  1 7  I9f 
and  elegantly,  but  incorrectly,  by  Davies  in  1770.  Tb9 
edition  of  Tonson  has  been  followed  in  the  late  edition  of 
the  ^'  English  Poets/'  with  the  omission  of  such  pieces  aa 
were  thought  degrading  to  his  meoiory,  and  insulting  to 
publio  decency  *.  But  whatever  opinion  is  entertained  of 
Suckling  as  a  poet,  it  may  be  doubted  whether  his  prose 
writings  are  not  calculated  to  raise  a  yet  higher  opinion  of 
bis  talents.  His  letters,  with  a  dash  of  gallantry  piore 
free  than  modern  times  will  admit,  are  shrewd  in  observa«* 
tion,  and  often  elegant  in  style.  That  addressed  to  Mr. 
Germaine  has  already  been  noticed,  and  bis  **  Account  <4 
Religion  by  Reason/'  is  remarkable  for  soundness  of  argu* 
ment,  and  purity  of  expression,  far  exceeding  the  oon« 
troversial  writings  of  that  age.  This  piece  affords  a  pre^ 
sumption  that  he  was  even  now  no  stranger  to  those  re-» 
flections  which  elevate  the  human  character,  and  that  if 
bis  life  had  been  spared,  it  would  have  been  probably  d^«« 
voted  to  more  honourable  objects  than  those  in  which  b^ 
had  employed  his  youthful  days.^ 

SUETONIUS  (Caius  Suetonius  Traijouiiaus),  an 
ancient  historian  and  biographer,  was  born  at  Rome  aboul 
the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  Vespasian,  perhaps  in  th<| 
year  70,  as  may  be  collected  from  his  own  words  in  the 
life  of  Nero.  His  father  Suetonius  Lenis  was  tribune  of  4 
legion,  in  the  service  of  the  emperor  Otho,  against  Vitel** 
lius.  He  passed  his  first  years  probably  at  Rome;  mkA 
when  groyvn  up,  applied  himself  to  the  bar.  He  appears 
to  have  very  early  acquired  tbe  friendship  of  the  youngev 

^  There  is  m  manuscript  poem  from     is  of  that  gross  kin4  w^ich  delicacy 
his  pen  ia  the  British  Maseura*  re-     ivill  not  now  tolerate.) 
^lete  wiUi  humour  1  but  tbe  subjeot 

1  En^lith  Poetf,  21  ▼ob.Sro,  IS  10,  k<i* 


6  SUETONIUS. 

Pliny, /who  procured  for  him  the  office  of  tribune;  and 
afterwards,  upon  his  resignation,  transferred  it  to  his  kins- 
than,  at  Suetonius*s  request.  He  obtained  also  for  him 
the  "  Jus  trium  Hberorum;"  a  favour  seldom  granted,  and 
which  Pliny  could  not  have  obtained,  if,  beisides  his  great 

Interest  at  court,  he  had  not  very  earnestly  solicited  the 
fenperor  Trajan,  in  a  letter  written  from  Bitliynia,  of 
which  he  was  at  that  tihfft  oovernor.  In  this  letter  he  de* 
Scribes  Suetonius  as  a  man  of  great  integritjf,  honour,  arid 
learning,  whose  manners  and  studies  were^  the  same  with 
his  own  ;  and  he  aiids,  *'  the  better  I  have  known  him,  the 
more  I  have  loved  him.  He  has  been  rather  unhappy  in 
bis  marriage  ;  and  the  privileges  of  those  who  have  tl^ree 

'  children  are  upon  several  accounts  necessary.  He  begs 
through  mej  therefore,  that  your  bounty  will' supply  what 
bis  ill  fortune  has  denied  him.  1  know,  sir,  the  high  value 
of  the  favour  I  ask  ;  but  I  am  asking  a  sovereign  whose 
indulgence  to  all  my  wishes  I  have  long  experienced.  How 
desirous  I  am  to  obtain  it,  you  wiih  easily  conclude,  from 
iny  applying  to  you  at  this  distance;  which  Ishould  not 
have  done,  if  it  had  been  a  matter  of  indifference  to  me.** 
Suetonius  advanced  himself  to  be  afterwards  secretary  to 
the  emperor  Adrian  ;  but  he  lost  that  place,  fo^  not  paying 
a  due  respect  to  the  empress.  Spartian,  speaking  of  him 
and  others  involved  in  the  same  blame,  uses  the  words 
^  quod  apud  Sabinam  uxorem,  injussu  ejus,  familiarius  se 
tunc  egerant,  quam  reverentia  domus  aulicse  postulabat.*' 
On  the  nature  of  this  disrespect,  or  "  too  great  familiarity,** 
critics  are  not  agreed.  Their  offence  probabl}-  rose  only 
from  the  capricious  temper  of  the  emperor,  who,  we  are 
told,  treated  her  with  great  contempt  himself  for  some 
reason,  and  permitted  others  also  'to  do  so  uiider  certain 
limitations;  which  limitations  Suetonius  and  others  might 
ignorantly  transgress. 

'  We  know  nothing  more  of  Suetonius,  nor  of  the  time  of 
bis  death.  He  wrote  many  books,  none  of  which  are  come 
down  to  us,  except  his  Lives  of  the  first  twelve  emperors, 
and  part  of  his  treatise  concerning  the  illustrious  gram- 
marians and  rhetoricians ;  for  he  applied  himself  much  to 
the  study  of  grammar  and  rhetoric,  and  many  are  of  opi- 
nion that  he  was  a  teacher.  Suidas  ascribes  to  him  seve- 
ral works  of  the  grammatical  kind ;  and  observes,  that  he 
wrote  a  book  respecting  the  Grecian  games,  two  upon  the 
shows  of  the  Romans,  two  upon  the  laws  and  customs  of 


«  U  ET  ON  I  U  S.  f 

itome,  one  upon  the  life  of  Cicero,  or  upoB.  btr  booin 
''  De  Republic^*  and  *'  A  catalogue  of  the  illustrious  meo 
4»f  Roine.^     Matiy  other  pieces  of  his  are  cited  by  variotti 
authors;  and  the  lives  of  Terence,  Horace,  Juvenal,  Per* 
sius,  and  Lucan,  have  usually  gone  under  his  naoiey  and 
been  printed  at  the  end  of  his  works,  though  it  is  not  aln 
sdutely  certain  that  they  are  his.     His  **  History  of  tb# 
Emperors"  is  a  work  of  great  value,  as  illustrative  <^  thft 
manners  of  the  times,  and  the  particular  character  of  thes^ 
sovereigns,  but  is  not  written  strictly  either  in  the  bistort* 
jcal  or  biographical  form.     It  consists  of  a  continued  series 
of  curious  facts,  related  succinctly,  without  digressions  or 
tTeflections.     There  is  in  it  a  character  of  sincerity^  wbicli 
^bews  very  plainly,  that  the  author  feaced  and  hoped  for 
nothings  and  that  his  pen  was  not  directed  ^y  hatred  or 
ilattery.     Suetonius,  says  Politian,  **  has  given  us  evident 
proofs  of  his  dttigence,  veracity,  and  freedom.     There  is 
DO  room  for  any  suspicion  of  partiality  in  bis  books ;  no* 
thing  is  advanced  out  of  favour,  or  suppressed  out  of  fear : 
the  facts  themselves  have  engrossed  bis  whole  attention, 
and  he  has  consulted  truth  in  the  first  place/'     Politian  is 
also  of  opinion,  that  he  forbore  writing  the  lives  of  Nerva, 
Trajan,  and  Adrian,  the  emperors  of  his  time,  because  be 
would  not  be  tempted  to  disregard  the  love  of  truth.     Some 
have  blamed  him  for  his  descriptions  of  the  horrid  debau* 
cberies  of  Tiberius,  Caligula,  Nero,  and  Domitian,  which 
Erasmus  is  willing  to  excuse  on  the  score  of  bis  care  and 
.fidelity  as  an  historian  ;  but  certainly  such  descri|)tions  caB* 
Aot  be  defended,  because  they  cannot  be  necessary  even  to 
fidelity  itself.     A  goad4£nglish  translation  was  published  in 
1796  by  Dr.  Alexander  Thomson,  in  which  he  softened  or 
suppressed  Suetonjus^s  indelicacies,  without  any  injury  to 
the  general  effect  of  the  narrative.     Suetonius  speaks  dis« 
respectfully  of  the  Christians,  catling  them   **  genus  boroi- 
niim  superstitionis  novae  &  maleficae,  a  sort  of  people  of  a 
new  and  nviscbievous  superstition  f '  but  Lardner  has  se* 
lected  froip  him  some  important  corroborations  of  the  facts 
of  gospel  history. 

Suetonius  was  first  printed  at  Rome  in  1470,  fol.  and 
was  often  reprinted  in  tb^t  century,  with  and  without  dates; 
since  when,  the  best  editions  are :  those  of  Stepbanua^ 
1543,  Svo :  *<  Cum  notis  jc  numismatiboa  a  Carolo  Patin/' 
Basil,  1675,  4to :  ^*  Cum  notis  integris  Isaaci  Casauboni, 
Laevini  Torrentii,  Joannis  Georgii  GrsDvii,  &  selectis  alio* 


I  SUETONIUS. 

niin,*^  HagnCooiit  1691,  4to.    <<  Cum  notis  varioMtn  A 
Pirisci,"  L.  Bat.   1692,  2  torn.  8vo.     And,  "  Cum  hotis 
•ttctioribus  Pitisci,''  Leovard.  1714.    This  last  is  by  far 
the  best;  but  tbere  is  another  printed  at  the  Hague  in 
1727,  4to;  "  In  usttm  Delphini,"  Paris,  1684,  2  torn.  4to ; 
•^^  Cum  notis  Burmanni,"  1736,  in  2  vols.  4to;  <<  Emesti,^* 
l^ipsic,  1748—75,  8vo.     "  Oudendorp,"  Leyden,  1751, 
•S  vols.  8 vo ;  and  <*  Wolfius,"  Leipsic,  1 808,  4  vols.  8 vo.  ^ 
'     SUEUR  (EuSTACHE  le),  one  of  the  best  painters  in  his 
-time  which  the  French  nation  had  produced,  was  born  at 
Paris  in  1617,  and  studied  the  principles  of  his  art  und^r 
Simon  Vouet,  whom  he  infinitely  surpassed  ;  and  although 
he  was  never  out  of  France,  carried  the  art  to  a  very 
'high  degree  of  perfection.     His  style  was  formed  upon 
antiquity,  and  after  the  best  Italian  masters.     He  invented 
.with  ease,  and  bis  execution  was  always  worthy  of  his  de- 
signs.    His  attitudes  are  simple  and  noble,  and  bis  ex-i- 
-pr«ssion  well  adapted  to  the  subject.     His  draperies  are 
;  designed  after  the  manner  of  Raphael's  last  works.     Al- 
.though  he  knew  little  of  the  local  colours,  or  the  chiaro 
scuro,  he  was  so  much  master  of  the  other  parts  of  paint- 
.  ing,  that  there  was  a  great  likelihood  of  his  throwing  off 
Vouet's  manner  entirely,  had  he  lived  longer.     Itnmedi- 
ately  after  Vouet's  death,  he  perceived  that  his  master  had 
ied  him  out  of  the  way :  and  by  considering  the  antiques 
that  were  in  France,  and  the  designs  and  prints  of  the  best 
Italian  masters,  particularly  Raphael,  he  contracted  a  more 
refined  style  and  happier  manner.     Le  Brun  could   not 
'  forbear  being  jealous  of  Le  Sueur,  who  did  not  mean, 
however,  to  give  any  man  pain ;  for  he  had  great  simpli- 
'  city  of  manners,  and  much  candour,  and  probity.     He 
died  at  Paris  April  30,  1655,  at  no  more  than  thirty-eight 
years  of  age.     The  life  of  St.  Bruno,  in  twenty  pictures, 
'  originally  preserved  iu  the  Chartreux,  and  which  employed 
him  for  three  years,  have,  as  Mr.  Fuseli  informs  us,  been 
-  **  lately  consigned  to  the  profane  clutch  of  restoration  in 
the  attic  of  the  Luxembourg,  and  are  now  little  more  than 
the  faint  traces  of  what  they  were  when  issuing  from  thig 
liand  of  their  master.     They  have  siiflered  martyrdom  more 
;  than  ovroe.     It  is  well  that  the  naturae  of  the  subject  per- 
,  mitted  little  anore  than  fresco  in  the  colouring  at  first,  and 
Aat  the  grent  merit  of  their  execution  consisted  in  that 

»  Geo.  Diet— riiou  U^fiuU-^Voumi  de  Hjpt  Lat.— te»i  PsOiMsU 


8  U  EC  IL  9 

breadth  of  vehicle  which  monafttic  drapeiy  demands,  else 
we  shddd  have  lost  even  the  fragments  that  remain.  The 
old  man  in  the  fore-ground,  the  head  of  St.  Bruno,  and 
some  of  the  disputants  in  the  hack-ground  of  the  Predica- 
tion ;  the  bishop  and  the  condemned  defunct  in  the  fune* 
fal ;  the  apparition  of  St.  Bruno  himself  in  the  camp ;  the 
female  figure  in  the  eleemosinary  scene,  and  what  has  suf* 
fered  least  of  all,  the  death  of  St.  Bruno,  contain  the  leatt 
disputable  marks  of  the  master's  primitive  touch.  The 
subject  of  the  whole,  abstractly  considered,  is  the'persoin* 
fication  of  sanctity,  and  it  has  been  represented  in  the 
series  with  a  purity  which  seems  to  place  the  artist's  heart 
on  a  level  with  that  of  his  hero.  The  simplicity  which  telb 
that  tale  of  resignation  and  innocence,  despises  vll  contrast 
of  more  varied  composition,  though  not  always  with  equal 
anccess.  St.  Bruno  on  his  bed,  visited  by  angels,  build- 
ing or  viewing  the  plan  for  building  his  rocky  retreat ;  the 
iiunting-scen^,  and  the  apotheosis ;  might  probably  ^ave 
admitted  happier  combinations.  As,  in  the  difiPerent  re* 
touchings,  the  faces  have  suffered  most,  the  expression 
hdust  be  estimated  by  those  that  escaped ;  and  Arom  What 
still  remains,  we  may  conclude  that  it  was  uot  inferior  to 
the  composition.**  * 

SUGER,  theabb^,  a  celebrated  minister  under  Louis  VII. 
was  born  at  Tguri  in  Beauce,  in  1082,  and  being  bred  up 
at  St.  Denis  with  the  young  prince,  afterwards  Louis  le 
Gros,  became  his  principal  guide  and  counsellor.  On  the 
death  of  Adam,  abbot  of  St.  Denis,  in  1122,  Suger  ob- 
tained his*  place,  and  even  in  his  abbey  performed  the 
duties  of  a  minister.  He  reformed  and  improved  not  only 
his  own  society,  as  abbot,  but  all  departments  of  the  state 
as  minister,  and  obtained  sa  high  a  reputation,  that  after 
his  death  it  was  thought  sufficient  to  write  on  his  tomb, 
"  Cy  git  rabb6  Suger."  "  Here  lies  the  abb6  8uger.F» 
He  died' at  St.  Denis,  in  1152.  His  life  has  been  written 
in  3  vols.  12mo,  by  a  Dominican  of  the  name  of  Gervaise,  . 
and  some  works  which  he  wrote  have  been  inserted  by  Du 
Chesne  in  his  historical  collections.* 

SUICER  (John  Gaspard),  a  learned  Gernnm  divine, 
was  bom  at  Zurich  June  26,  1619 ;  became  professor  there 
of  the  Greek  and  Hebrew  languages ;  and  died  at  HeideU   . 
berg  Nov.  8,  1634,  according  to  Saxius.     He   Was  the 

1  ArgtBTille^  vol.  IV.-- FilkiHgtoii.  •  Morari.— Diet.  Hist. 


ja  «  U  I  C  E  R, 

compiler  of  a  very  useful  work,  called  **  Lexicon,  sive 
Thesaurus  Ecclesiasticus  Patrum  GraecoruiB  :*'  the  beat 
cditipo  of  which  is  that  of  Amsterdam,  1728,  2  vols,  foU 
He  bad  a  son,  Henrv  Suiper,  distinguished  by  some  lite-* 
rary  productions,  who  wjm  a  professor,  first  at  Zurich^  tbcB 
at  Hi^delberg,  and  who  died  in  1705.* 

SU19AS,  author  of  a  celebrated  Greek  Lexicon,  is  a 
personage  of  whom  we  are  unable  to  give  manyij^rticulars. 
Who  be  was,  or  when  be  jived,  are  points  of  great  uncer* 
tarnty ;  no  circumstances  of  bis  life  having  been  recorded, 
either  by  himself  or  any  other  writer.  Politian  and  some 
others  have  been  of  opinion  that  no  such  person  ever  ex«* 
isted ;  but  that  Suidas  was  ^  real  person,  appears,  not  only 
from  his  namejbeing  found  in  all  the  manuscripts  of  his 
Lexicon,  but  from  bis  being  ofteui  mentioned  by  Eusta* 
tbius  in  bis  Commentary  upon  HomeVt%  The  learned  have 
differed  in  the  same  manner  concerning  the  age  of  Suidas ; 
some,  as  Grotius^  supposing  him  to  have  lived  under  Conr 
stantinus,  the  son.  of  Leo,  emperor  of  the  East,  who  begao 
to  reign  in  the  year  912;  while  others  have  brought  him  eveii 
lower  than  Eustatbius,  who  is  known  to  have  lived  in  1  ISO. 
The  learned  Benlley  thinks  that  as  he  has  referred  a  point 
of  chronology  to  the  death  of  the  emperor  Zimisces,  that 
is,  to  the  year  of  Christ  975:  we  may  infer  that  he  wrote 
bis  Lexicon  between  that  time  and  the  death  of  the  suc- 
ceeding emperor,  which  was  in  1025.  This  Lexicon  is  a  . 
compilation  of  matters  from  various  authors,  sometimes 
made  with  judgment  and  diligence,  but  often  from  bad 
copies ;  and  he  therefore  sometimes  gives  his  reader  cor- 
rupt and  spurious  words,  instead  of  those  that  are  pure 
and  genuine.  He  also  mixes  things  of  a  different  kind, 
and  belonging  to  different  authors,  promiscuously ;  and 
some  of  his  examples  to  illustrate  the  signification  of  words 
are  very  little  to  the  purpose.  His  Lexicon,  however,  is  a 
very  useful  book,-  and  a  storehouse  of  all  sorts  of  erudition. 
Scholars  hy  profession  have  all  prized  it  hijghly ;  as  exhi- 
biting many  excellent  passages  of  ancient  authors  whose 
works  are  lost.  It  is  to  be  ranked  uith  the  Bibliotbeca  of 
I^hotius  and  works  of  that  kind.  The  ^^  Etymologicon 
Ma|i;num^'  has  been  ascribed  to  Suidas,  but  without  suffi- 
cient authority,  though  it  may  have  been  composed  in  the 
same  period  with  the  Lexicon. 

1  Moreri. — Diet.  Hiit.— Saiii  Ooomait. 


S  U  I  D  A  S.  n 

Suidas^s  Lexicon  was  first  published  at  Milan,  1 499,  ia 
Greek  only :  it  has  since  been  printed  with  a  Latin  ^tt^ 
sion :  bat  the  best  edition,  indeed  the  only  good  one,  it 
that  of  Kuster,  Gr.  &  Lat.  Cambridge,  1705,  5  vols,  folie* 
To  this  should  be  added  Toup^s  v^oable  *^  Emeodationct 
in  Saidam,"  Oi[on.  1790,  4  vols.  8va  Mr.  Taylqr  had 
begun  an  appendix  to  Snidas,  four  sheets  only  of  which 
were  printed  off  at  the  time  of  bis  death,  April  4,  1 766. 
It  had  the  following  title,  ^'Appendix  notarum  in  Suidae 
Lexicon,  ad  paginasedit  Cantab^  1705,  adcommodatarum ; 
colUgente,  qui  et  suas  etiam  aliquammultas  adjecit,  Joanne 
Taylor."     This,  we  believe,  was  never  fihisl^d.' 

SULLY  (Maximiuan  de  Bethume,  duke  of),  one  of  the 
most  able  and  honest  ministers  that  France  ever  had,  was 
descended  from  an  ancient  and  illustrious  house,  and  bom 
in  1 SS9  at  Rosni,  descended  from  a  younger  branch  of  the 
ancient  counts  oif  Flanders.     His  Either  was  the  baroo  de 
Rosni.     He  was  bred  in  the  opinions  and  doctrine  of  the 
reformed  religion,  and  continued  to  the  end  of  his  life 
constant  in  the  profession  of  it,  which  seems  to  have  fitted 
him  for  the  important  services  to  which  Providence  bad 
designed  him.     The  queen  of  Navarre,  after  the  death  of 
her  husband  Antony  de  Bourbon,  returned  to  Beam,  where 
she  openly  professed  Calvinism.     She  sent  for  her  son 
Henry  from  the  court  of  France  to  Pan  in  1556,  and  put 
him  under  a  preceptor,  who  trained  him  up  in  the  Protea* 
tant  religion.     She  declared  herself  the  protectress  of  the 
Protestants  in  1566  ;  and  went  to  Rochelle,  where  she  de- 
voted her  6on  to  the  defence  of  the  Reformed  religion.     In 
that  quality   Henry,  then  prince  of  Beam,  was  declared 
chief  of  the  party  ;  and  followed  the  army  from  that  time 
to  the  peace,  which  was  signed  at  St.  Germains,  August 
11,  1570.     He  then  returned  to  Beam,  and  made  use  of 
the  quret  that  was  given  him,  to  visit  his  estates  and  his 
government  of  Guyenne,  after  which«  he  went  and  settled 
in  Rochelle,'  with  his  mother. 

The  advantages  granted  to  the  Protestants  by  the  peace 
of  St.  Germains,  raised  a  suspicion  in  the  breasts  of  their 
leaders,  that  the  court  of  France  was  acting  treacherously, 
and  that  in  reality  nothing  else  was  intended  by  the  p^ace, 
than  to  prepare  for  the  most  dismal  tragedy  that  ever  was 

1  Moreri.— Saxii  OaoBiaft.— >Berringion>s  Middle  Afei. — Clarke'i  Bibliofra- 
phicat  Dictionary.  ' 


M  SULLY. 

ftfited ;  tnd  the  truth  was,  that  the  queen  dowager  Catha-* 
rine  de  Medicts,  and  her  son  Charles  IX.  being  now  con- 
vinced that  the  Protestants  were  ,too  powerful  to  be  sub** 
dued  by  force,  were  determined  to  extirpate  them  by  stra« 
tagem.  They,  however,  dissembled  their  intentions ;  and, 
during  the  whole  ye^f  1571,  talked  of  nothing  but  faith-* 
fully  observing  the  treaties  ef  entering  into  a  closer  cor-* 
respondence  with  the  Protestants,  and  carefully  preventing 
all  occasions  of  rekindling  the  war.  To  remove  all  possi* 
ble  suspicion,  the  court  of  France  proposed  a  marriage 
between  Charles  the  IXth's  sister,  and  Henry  prince  of 
Beam;  and  feigned,  at  the  same  time,  as  if  they  would 
prepare  a  war  against  Spain,  than  which  nothing  could  be 
more  agreeable  to  Henry.  These  things,  enforced  with 
the  appearance  of  great  frankness  and  sincerity,  entirely 
gained  the  queen  of  Navarre ;  who,  though  she  continued 
irresolute  for  some  months,  yet  yielded  about  the  end  of 
1571,  and  prepared  for  the  journey  to  Paris,  as  was  pro* 
posed,  in  May  J  572. 

Sully's  father  was  one  of  those  who  doubted  the  sincerity 
6f  the  court,  and  conceived  such  strong  apprehensions,  that 
when  the  report  of  the  court  of  Navarre's  journey  to  Parit 
first  reached  him,  he  could  not  give  credit  to  it.  Firmly 
persuaded  that  the  present  calm  would  be  of  short  conti* 
nuance,  he  made  haste  ta  take  advantage  of  it,  and  pre* 
pared  to  shut  himself  up  with  his  effects  in  Rochelle,  when 
every  one  else  thought  of  leaving  it.  But  the  queen  of 
Navarre  having  informed  him  of  her  design,  and  requested 
him  to  join  her  in  her  way  to  Vendome,  he  went,  and  took 
Sully,  now'in  his  twelfth  year,  along  with  him.  He  found 
a  general  security  at  Vendome,  aud  an  air  of  satisfaction 
on  every  face ;  to  which,  though  he  durst  not  object  in  pub«- 
lie,  yet  he  made  remonstrances  to  some  of  the  chiefs  in  pri- 
vate. These  were  considered  as  the  effects  of  weakness 
and  timidity  ;  and  therefore,  not  caring  to  seem  wiser  than 
persons  of  greater  understandings,  he  seemed  to  incline  to 
the  general  opinion.  He  went  to  Rosni,  to  put  himself  into 
a  condition  to  appear  at  the  magnificent  court  of  France ; 
but,  before  he  went,  presented  bis  son  to  the  prince  of 
BeWn,  in  the  presence  of  the  queen  his  mother,  with  great 
solemnity,  and  assurances  of  the  most  inviolable  attachment* 
Sully  did  not  return  with  his  father  to  Rosni,  but  went  to 
Paris  in  the  queen  of 'Navarre's  train.  He  applied  himself 
closely  to  his  studies,  without  neglecting  to  pay  a  proper 


S  U  L  L  T.  13 

* 

tovat  to  the  prince  his  master ;  and  liwd  witk  a  governor 
and  a  valet  de  chambre  in  a  part  of  Paris  where  almost  ati 
the  colleges  stood,  and  continued  there  till  the  bloody  ca- 
tastrophe which  happened  soon  after. 

Nothing  could  be  more  kind  than  die  reception  which 
the  queen  of  Navarre,  her  children,  and  principal  servants, 
met  with  from  the  king  and  queen;  nor  more  obliging,  thafi 
their  treatment  of  them.    The  queen  of  Navarre  died,  and 
•ome'  historians  make  no  doubt  but  she  was  poisoned; 
yet  the  whole  court  appeared  sensibly  affected,  and  went 
into  deep  mourning.    Still  many  of  the  Protestants,  among 
whom  was  Sully*s  father,  suspected  the  designs  of  the  court; 
and  had  such  convincing  proofs,  that  they  quitted  the  court, 
and  Paris  itself,  or  at  least  lodged  in  the  suburbs.,    They 
warned  prince  Henry  to  be  cautious ;  but  he  listened  to 
nothing ;  and  some  of  his  chiefs  were  as  incredulous,  and 
the  admiral  de  Coligni  in  particular,  though  one  of  the 
wisest  and  most  sagacious  men  in  the  world.    The  fact  to 
be  perpetrated  was  fixed  for  the  24th  of  August,  1572,  and 
is  well  known  by  the  name  of  the  massacre  of  St.  Bartholo* 
mew.    The  feast  of  St.  Bartholomew  fell  this  year  upon  a 
Sunday ;  and  the  massacre  was  perpetrated  in  the  evening. 
All  the  necessary  measures  having  been  taken,  the  ring- 
ing of  the  bells  or  St.  Germain  T  Adzerrois  for  matins  was 
the  signal  for'  beginning  the  slaughter.     The  admiral  de 
Coligni  was  first  murdered  by  a  domestic  of  the  duk6  of 
Guise,  the  duke  himself  staying  below  in  the  court,  and  his 
body  was  thrown  out  of  the  window.    (See  CoLtGNi.)    The 
king,  as  Daniel  relates,  went  to  feast  himself  with  the  sight 
of  it ;  and,  when  those  that  were  with  him  took  notice  that 
it  was  somewhat  offensive,  is  said  to  have  used  the  reply  of 
the  Roman  emperOT  Vitellius,  '*  The  body  of  a  dead  enemy 
always  smells  sweet.*'    All  the  domestics  of  the  admiral  were 
afterwards  slain,  and  the  slaughter  was  at  the  same  time  be* 
gun  by  the  king's  emissaries  in  all  parts  of  the  city.     Ta-*- 
vanes,  a  marshal  of  France,  who  had  been  page  to  Francis  L 
end  was  at  that  time  one  of  the  counsellors  and  confidants 
of  Catharine  de  Medidis,  ran  through  the  streets  of  Paris, 
crying,  *'  Let  blood,  let  blood  !  bleeding  is  as  good  in  th^ 
month  of  August,  as  in  May !"     Among  the  most  distin- 
guished of  the  Protestants  that  perished  was  Francis  de  la 
Rochefoucault ;  who  having  been  at  play  part  of  the  night 
with  the  king,  and  finding  himself  seized  in  bed  by  n^en  in 
masques,  thooght  they  were  the  king  and  hisxourtiers,  whe 


14  SULLY. 

came  to  divert  themselves  with  him.     During  this  carnage^ 
SuHj^*s safety  is  thus  accounted  for  by  himself:  **  I  was  in 
bed/'  says  he,  ^^and  awaked  from  sleep  three  hours  after 
midnight  by  the  sound  of  all  the  bells  and  the  confused  cries 
of  the  populace.    My  governor,  St.  Julian,  with  my  valet  de 
chambre,  went  hastily  out  to  know  the  cause ;  and  I  never 
si(terwards  heard  more  of  these  men,  who,  without  doubt, 
were  among  the  first  that  were  sacrificed  to  the  public  fury. 
I  continued  alone  in  my  chamber  dressing  myself,  when  in 
a  few  moments  T  saw  my  landlord  enter,  pale,  and  in  the 
utmost  consternation.     He  was  of  the  reformed  religion ; 
and,  having  learned  what  the  matter  was,  had  consented  to 
go  to  mass,  to  preserve  his  life,  and  his  house  from  being" 
pillaged.     He  came  tu  persuade  me  to  do  the  same,  and  to 
take  me  with  him :  I  did  not  think  proper  to  follow  him, 
but  resolved  to  try  if  I  could  gain  the  college  of  Burgundy, 
where  I  had  studied ;  though  the  ^reat  disunce  between  the 
bouse  where  I  then  was,  and  the  college,  made  the  attempt 
very  dangerous.     Having  disguised  myself  in  a  scholar^s 
gown,  I  put  a  large  prayer*book  under  my  arm,  and  went 
into  the  street.  .  I  was  seized  with  horror  inexpressible  at 
the  sight  of  the  furious  murderers ;  who,  running  from  all 
parts,  forced  open  the  houses,  and  cried  aloud,  *  Kill !  kill ! 
massacre  the  Huguenots  !^     The  blood  which  I  saw  shed 
before  my  eyes,  redoubled  my  terror,    I  fell  into  the  midst 
of  a  body  of  guards ;  they  stopped  me,  questioned  me,  and 
were  beginning  to  use  me  ill,  when,  happily  for  me,  the  book 
that  I  carried  was  perceived,  apd  served  me  for  a  passport. 
Twice  after  this  I  fell  'into  the  same  danger,  from  which 
I  extricated  myself  by  the  same  good  fortune.     At  last  I 
arrived  at  the  college  of  Burgundy,  where  a  danger  still 
greater  than  any  I  had  yet  met  with  awaited  me.   The  por« 
ter  having  twice  refused  me  entrance,  I  continued  standing 
in  the  midst  of  the  street,  at  the  mercy  of  theifurious  mur- 
derers, whose  numbers  increased  every  moment,  and  who 
were  evidently  seeking  for  llieir  prey  ;  when  it  came  into 
my  mind  to  ask  for  La  Faye,  the  principal  of  this  college, 
a  good  man,  by  whom  I  was  tenderly  beloved.    The  porter, 
prevailed  upon  by  some  small  pieces  of  money  which  I  put 
into  his  hand,  adniitted  me ;  and  my  friend  carried  me  to 
his  apartment,  where  two  inhuman  priests,  whom  I  heard 
mention  Sicilian  vespers,  wanted  to  forpe  me  from  him,  that 
they  might  cut  me  in  pieces;  saying,  the  order  was,  not  to 
spare  even  infants  at  the  breast    All  t&^  good  man  could 


SULLY.  IS 

do  was  to  cohdact  me  prirately  to  a  distant  chamber,  wbero 
be  locked. me  up;  and  here  I  was  confined  three  days,  un- 
certain of  my  destiny^  seeing  no  one  but  a  servant  of  my 
friend,  who  came  from  time  to  time  to  bring  me  provision." 
Henry  king  of  Navarre,  who  had  been  married  to  Charles 
the  IXth's  sister  but  six  days  before,  with  the  greatest  so<* 
lemnity  and  with  all  the  marks  pf  kindness  and  aiTectioll 
from  the  court,  was  awaked  two  hours  before  day  by  a  great 
Dumber  of  soldiers,  who  rushed  boldly  into  a  chamber  in 
the  Louvre,  where  he  and  the  prince  of  Cond^  lay,  arid  in« 
solently  commanded  them  to  dress  themselves,  and  attend 
the  king.  They  would  not  suffer  the  two  princes  to  take 
their  swords  with  them,  who,  as  they  went,  saw  several  of 
their  gentlemen  massacred  before  their  eyes.  This  was 
contrived,  doubtless,  to  intimidate  them ;  and,  with  the  same 
view,  as  Henry  went  to  the  king,  the  queen  gave  orders, 
that  they  should  lead  him  under  the  vaults,  and  make  him 
pass  through  the  guards,  drawn  up  in  files  on  each  side,  and 
'Sin  rmenacing  postures.  He  trembled,  and  recoiled  two  or 
three  steps  back;  but  the  captain  of  the  guards  swearing 
that  they  should  do  him  no  hurt,  he  proceeded  through, 
amidst  carbines  and  halberts.  The  king  waited  for  them,  and 
received  them  with  a  countenance  and  eyes  full  of  fury  :  he 
ordered  them  with  oaths  and  blasphemies,  which  were  fa- 
miliar with  him,  to  quit  a  religion,  which  he  said  had  been 
taken  up  only  for  a  cloke  to  their  rebellion :  be  told  them 
in  a  fierce  and  angry  tone,  **  that  he  would  no  longer  be 
contradicted  in  his  opinions  by  his  subjects;  that  they  by 
their  example  should  teach  others  to  revere  him  as  the 
image  of  God,  and  cease  to  be  enemies  to  the  images  of  his 
mother;*'  and  ended  by  declaring,  that  <Mf  they  did  not 
go  to  mass,  he' would  treat  them' as  criminals  guilty  of  trea* 
son  against  diviniB  and  hupnan  majesty."  The  manner  of 
pronouncing  these  words  not  suffering  the  princes  to  doubt 
the  sincerity  of  them,  they  yielded  to  necessity,  and  per« 
formed  what  was  required  of  them  :  and  Henry  was  even 
obliged  to  send  an  edict  into  his  dominions,  by  which  the 
exercise  of  any  other  religion  but  the  Romish  was  forbidden. 
In  the  niean  time  the  court  sent  orders  to  the  governors 
in  all  the  provinces,  that  the  same  destruction  should  be 
made  of  the  Protestants  there  as  had  been  at  Paris;' but 
many  of  them  nobly  refused  to  execute  these  orders ;  and 
the  viscount  d'Ortbe  had  the  courage  to  writie  from  Bay* 
onoe  to  Charles  IX.  that,  ^  be  found  many  fo«d  soldiem 


16  JrU  L  L  Y. 

in  his  gamsoii)  but  not  one  execationef  t  and  begged  biia 
to  commantl  their  lives  in  any  service  that  was  possible/' 
Yet  the  abettors  and  prime  actors  in  this  tragedy  at  Paris- 
were  wonderfully  satisfied  with  themselves^  and.  found  much 
comfort  in  having  been  able  to  do  so  much  for  the  cause  of 
God  and  bis  church.    Tavanes,  mentioned  above,  who  ran 
about  the  streets  crying  ^*  Let  blood  !  let  blodd  !*^  .being 
upon  his  death-bed,  made  a  general  confessibn  of  the  sins 
of  bis  life ;  aften  which  his  confessor  saying  to  him  with  an 
air  of  astonishment,  *^  Why !  you  speak  not  a  word  of  St« 
Bartholomew;'*  he  replied,  '^I  look  upon  that  as  a  meri-* 
torious  action,  which  ought  to  atone  for  all  the  sins  I  have 
ever  committed."     This  is  related  by  his  son,  who  has  writ* 
ten  memoirs  of  him.     The  king  himself  must  have  supposed 
real  merit  to  have  been  in  it ;  for,  not  content  with  setting 
bis  seal  and  sanction  to  these  detestable  butcheries,  he  is 
credibly  affirmed  to  have  taken  the  carbine  into  his  own 
hands,  and  to  have  'shot  at  the  poor  Huguenots  as  they  at-* 
tempted  to  escape.     The  court  of  Rome  did  all  they  could 
to  confirm  the  Parisians  in  this  horrid  notion :  foi:  though 
Pope  Pius  V.  is  said  to  have  been  so  much  afflicted  at  the 
massacre  as  to  shed  tears,  yet  Gregory  XI IL  who  succeeded 
bim,  ordered  a  public  thanksgiving  to  God  for  it  to  be  of- 
fered at  Rome,  and  sent  a  legate  to  congratulate  Charles 
I^.  and  to  exhort  him  to  continue  it.     Father  Daniel  coo- 
tents  himself  with  saying,  that  the  king's  zeal  in  his  ter- 
rible punishment  of  the  heretics  was  commended  at  Rome ; 
und  Baronius  affirms  the  action  to  have  been  absolutely 
necessary.     The  French  writers,  however,  have  spoken  of 
it  in  the  manner  it  deserves;  have  represented  it  as  the 
most  wicked  and  inhuman  devastation  that  ever  wss  com<« 
emitted:  ^'an  execrable  action,*'  says  one  of  th^m,  Prefixe, 
*^that  never  had,  and  I  trust  God  will  never  have,  its  like.'' 
Seventy  thousand,  according  to  Sully's  Memoirs,  was  the 
numberof  Protestants  massacred,  duringeight  days,  through- 
out the  kingdom. 

At  the  end  of  three  days,  however,  a  prohibition  against 
murdering  and  pillaging  any  more  of  the  Protesjlants  was 
published  at  Paris ;  and  then  Sully  was  suffered  to  quit  bis 
cell  in  the  college  of  Burgundy.  He  immediately  saw  two 
ioldiers  of  the  guard,  agents  to  his  father,  entering  the  col- 
lege, wlio  gave  his  father  a  relation  of  what  had  happened 
to  b!m ;  and^  eight  days  after,  he  received  a  letter  from 
him,  advising  bim  to  continue  in  Paris,  since  the  prince  h# 


-SULLY*  17 

served  was  not  at  liberty  to  leave  it;  and  adding,  thatb# 
should  follow  the  princess  example  in  going  to  mass.  Tbougb 
the  king  of  Navarre  had  saved  bis  life  by  this  submission, 
yet  in  other  things  be  was  treated  very  indifferently,  and 
suffered  a  thousand  capricious  insults.  He  was  obliged, 
against  his  will,  to  stay  some  years  at  the  court  of  France; 
he  knew  very  well  how  to  dissemble  his  chagrin ;  and  he 
often  diverted  it  by  gallantries,  and  the  lady  de  Sauves, 
wife  to  one  of  the  secretaries  of  state,  became  one  of  his 
chief  mistresses.  But  still  he  did  not  neglect  such  politi- 
cal  measures  as  seemed  practicable,  and  he  had  a  hand  iii 
those  that  were  formed  to  take  away  the  government  from 
Catharine  de  Medicis,  and  to  expel  the  Guises  from  court ; 
which  that  queen  discovering,  caused  him  and  the  duke  of 
Alen^on  to  be  arrested,  set  guards  upon  them,  and  ordered 
them  to  be  examined  upon  many  heinous  allegations.  They 
wercisetat  liberty  by  Henry  III.  for  Charles  IX.  died,  1574, 
io  the  most  exquisite  torments  and  horrors,  the  massacre  of 
8t.  Bartholomew's r  day  having  been  always  in  his  mind. 
Sully  employed  his  leisure  in  the  most  advantageous  man* 
ner  he  was  able.  He  found  it  impracticable  in  a  court  to 
'  pursue  the  study  of  the  learned  languages,  or  of  any 
'thing  called  learning ;  but  the  king  of  Navarre  ordered  him 
to  be  taught  mathematics  and  history,  and^ali  those  exer- 
cises which  give  ease  and  gracefulness  to  the  person ;  that 
method  of  educating  youth,  with  a  particular  attention  to 
tiie  formation  of  the  manners,  being  peculiar  to  Henry, 
who  was  himself  educated  in  the  same  way. 

In  1576,.  the  king  of  Navarre  made  his  escape  from  the 
court  of  France,  while  on  a  hunting-party  near  Senlis; 
from  whence,  his  guards .  being  dispersed,  he  instantly 
passed  the  Seine  at  Poissy,  and  went  to  Tours,  where  he 
no  sooner  arrived  than  he  resumed  the  exercise  of  the  Pro- 
testant religion.  A  war  was  now  expected ;  and  Catharine 
de  Medicis  began  to  tremble  in  her  turn :  and,  indeed, 
from  that  time  to  158^,  Henry's  life  presents  us  only  with 
a  mixture  of  battles,  negociations,  and  love-intrigues,  ifhich 
kst  made  no  inconsiderable  part  of  his  business.  Sully  was 
one  of  those  who  attended  him  in  his  flight,  and  who  con- 
tiniled  to  attend  him  to  the  end  of  his  life,  serving  him  in, 
the  different  capacities  of  soldier  and  statesman,  as  the  va- 
xiout  conditions  of  bis.aiiairs  required.  Henry'^  wife,  whom 
•Catharine  had  brought  to  him  in  1578,  was  a  great  impedi- 
saent  ta  bim ;  yet  by  bit  management  she  was  someiimti 

Vol.  XXIX.  C 


IS  SULLY. 

of  use  also.  There  were  frequent  ruptures  betvreeti  hitn 
afid  the  court  of  France;  but  at  last  Henry  IIL  confede- 
rated  with  him  sincerely,  and  in  ^;ood  earnest,  to  resist  the 
League,  which  was  more  furious  than  ever,  after  the  death 
of  the  duke  of  Guise  and  the  cardinal  his  brother.  The 
reeoncihation  and  confederacy  of  these  two  kings  was  con* 
eluded  iii  April  1589 :  their  interview  was  at  Tours  the  30th 
of  that  month,  attended  with  great  demonstratton'of  mutual 
satisfaction.  They  joined  their  troops  some  time  after  to 
lay  siege  to  Paris :  they  besieged  it  in  person,  and  were 
upon  the  point  of  conquering  that  great  city,  when  the  king 
of  France  was  assassinated  by  James  Clement,  a  Dominicati 
friar,  the  Ist  of  August,  at  the  village  of  St,  Cloud.  "  The 
league,''  says  Henault,  ^Ms  perhaps  the  most  extraordinary 
event  in  history;  and  Henry  IIL  may  be  reckoned  the 
weakest  prince  in  not  foreseeing,  that  he  should  render 
himself  dependant  on  that  party  by  becoming  their  chief. 
The  Protestants  had  made  war  against  him,  as  an  enemy 
of  their  sect;  and  the  leaguers  murdered  him  on  account 
of  his  uniting  with  the  king  of  Navarre,  the  chief  of  the 
Huguenots/' 

Henry  III.  upon  his  death-bed  declared  the  king  of  Na<* 
varre  bis  successor,  who  accordingly  succeeded  him,  but 
not  without  very  great  difficulties.  He  was  acknowledged 
king  by  most  of  the  lords,  whether  catholic  or  protestant, 
who  happened  then  to  be  at  court ; '  but  the  leaguers  re« 
fused  absolutely  to  acknowledge  his  title  till  he  had  re^ 
nounced  the  protestant  religion  ;  and  the  city  of  Paris  peir- 
aisted  in  its  revolt  till  the  22d  of  March,  1594.  H^  em- 
braced the  catholic  religion,  as  the  only  method  of  putting 
an  end  to  the  miseries  of  France,  by  the  advice  of  Sully, 
whom  he  had  long  taken  into  the  sincerest  confidehce; 
and  the  celebrated  Du  Perron,  afterwards  cardinal,  was 
made  the  instrument  of  his  conversion*  He  attempted  also 
to  convert  Sully,  but  in  vain  :  **  My  parents  bred  me,'*  said 
the  minister,  *^  in  the  opinions  and  dottrines  of  the  re- 
formed religion,  and  I  have  continued  constant  in  the  pro- 
fession of  it ;  neither  threatenings,  promises^  variety  of 
events,  nor  the  change  even  of  the  king  my  protector, 
joined  to  his  most  tender  solicitations,  iiave  ever  been  able 
to  make  me  renounce  it." 

This  change  of  religion  in  Henry  IV.  thdugh  it  tieeoted 
4o  create  a  present  satisfaction,  did  not  secure  bifti  froiti 
continual  plots  and  troubles ;  and  beirrg  made  ttpon  poUf^ 


I 

\ 


fi  U  L  L  Y*  }0 

<pcal  asiQtives,  it  was  natural  to  suppose  it  not  sincere. 
Thus,  Dec.  26,  1594,  a  scholar,  named  John  Chastel,  at- 
^napted  to  assassinate  tbe  king,  but  only  wounded  bim  iti 
the  9>outb ;  aud  when  he  was  interrogated  concerning  tbe 
Qriiue,  readily  apswered,  ^^  That  he  came  from  the  college 
of  1;he.  Jesuits,*'  and  then  accused  those  fathers  ofhs^ving 
instigated  him  to  it  The  king,  who  was  present  at  his 
i^aminatioq,  said  with  much  gaiety,  that  '^  he  bad  heard, 
froiQ  the  mouths  of  many  persons,  that  the  society  never 
lQv§d  him,  and  he  was  now  convinced  of  it  by  his  own^'* 
l^ome  writers  have  related,  that  this  assassination  was  at- 
tempted when  he  was  with  the  fair  Gabriel le,  his  mistress, 
at  t;be  hotel  d'Estr6es  ;  but  SuUy,  who  was  with  him,  says 
^hat  it  was  at  Paris,  in  his  apartments  in  the  Louvre.  This 
Ga.brie)le  wm  the  favourite  mistress  of  Henry  JLV.  and  it  is 
said,  that  the  king  intended  to  marry  her ;  but  she  died  in 
1^99,  tbe  year  that  his  marriage  with  Margaret  of  Yalois^ 
sister  of  Charles  IX.  was  declared  null  and  void  by  the 
pope^s  commissioners,  with  consent  of  both  parties.  Hf 
married  Mary  of  Medicis,  at  Lyons>  th^  year  after,  and 
appointed  madame  de  Guerchevilie,  to  whom  he  had  made 
Ipve  without  success,  to  be  one  of  her  ladies  of  honour ; 
saying,  that  ^^  since  she  was  a  lady  of  real  honour,  she 
should  be  in  that  .post  with  tbe  queen  his  wife.''  Henry, 
though  he  was  ^  great  monarch,  was  not  alv^ays  successful 
iu  his  addresses  to  the  fair ;  and  a  noble  saying  is  recorded 
by  many  writers  of  Catharine,  sister  to  tbe  viscount  de 
JS^o^an^  who  replied  tq  a  declaration  of  gallantry  from  this 
priuce^  that  ^^  she  was  too  poor  tp  be  his  wife,  and  of  top 
good  a  family  tp.  be  his  mistress." 

Sully  was  n^w  the  first  minister ;  and  he  performed  all 
lb?  p4Eie.e4  of  a  great  and  good  minuter,  whil^  Henry  per- 
formed the  offices  of  a  great  and  good  king.  He  attended 
to  every  part  of  the  government ;  prosecuted  extortioners^ 
aud  those  who  were  guilty  of  embezzling  the  public  money; 
and,  in  short|  restored  the  kingdom,  in  a  few  years,  from 
a  moft  desperate  to  a  most  flourishing  condition  ;  whicb^ 
however,  be  could  not  have  done,  if  tbe  king  had  ndt  re- 
•oiutely  supported  him  agsfinst  favourite  mistresses,  the 
^skbals  of  court,  ^nd  tbe  factions,  of  state,  which  would 
otherwise  have  overwhelmed  him.  The  king  himself  turned 
bi^  wjiole  application  to  every  thing  that  might  be  useful, 
9r  eveiV'  convenient,  tp  bis  kingdom,  without  suffering 
a^j^^  j^bat  hi^ppened  oi^t  of  it  to  pass  unobserved,  ^#  j^ooa 

c  2 


20  SULLY. 

as  he  had  put  an  end  to  the  civil  wars  of  France,  and  had 
conciuded  a  peace  with  Spain  at  Vecvins,  on  the  2d  of 
May,  1 598.  The  state  of  the  finances  of  BVance  was  at  this 
time  in  a  wretched  situation,  as  many  of  the  provinces  were 
entirely  exhausted,  and  none  of  them  in  a  condition  of 
bearing  any  new  imposition.  The  standing  revenues 
brought  into  the  king's  coffers  no  more  than  thirty  millions, 
though  an  hundred  and  fifty  millions  were  raised  on  the 
people :  so  great  were  the  abuses  of  that  government  in 
raising  mdney ;  and  they  were  not  less  in  the  dispensation 
of  it.  The  whole  scheme  of  the  administration  was  a 
scheme  of  fraud,  and  all  who  served  cheated  the  public, 
from  the  highest  offices  down  to  the  lowest ;  from  the  com-^ 
tnissioners  of  the  treasury,  down  to  the  under  farmers  and 
under  treasurers.  Sully  beheld  this  state  of  things,  wheu 
he  came  to  have  the  sole  superintendency  of  affairs,  with 
horror;  he  was  ready  to  despair:  but  zeal  for  his  master 
and  for  his  country  animated  his  endeavours,  and  he  re- 
solved to  make  the  reformation  of  abuses,  the  reduction  of 
expences,  and  a  frugal  management,  the  fund  for  the  pay- 
ment of  national  debts,  and  for  all  the  great  things  he 
intended  to  do,  without  overcharging  the  people.  This 
plan  fully  succeeded.  The  people  were  immediately  eased, 
trade  revived,  the  king's  coffers  were  filled,  a  maritime 
power  was  created,  and  every  thing  necessary  was  pre- 
pared to  put  the  nation  in  a  condition  of  executing  great 
designs,  whenever  great  conjunctures  should  offer  them- 
^Ives.  "Such,"  says  Bolingbroke,  "was  the  effect  of 
twelve  years  of  wise  and  honest  administration  :  and  this 
effect  would  have  shewed  itself  in  great  enterprises  against 
the  house  of  Austria,  more  formidable  in  these  days  than 
the  house  of  Bourbon  has  been  in  ours,  if  Henry  IV.  had 
not  been  stabbed  by  one  of  those  assassins,  into  wbDse  hands 
the  interest  of  this  hou.se,  and  the  frenzy  of  religion,  had 
p'ut  the  dagger  more  than  once." 

Henry  was  murdered  the  ITth"  of  May,  J6I0;  and,  it 
appears>  had  many  presages  of  his  cruel  destiny,  which, 
"Sully  tells  us,  "  were  indeed  dreadful  and  surprising  to  the 
last  degree."  The  queen  was  to  be  crowned  purely  to 
gratify  her,  for  Henry  was  vehemently  argainst  the  corona- 
tion ;  and,  the  neai*er  the  moment  approached,  the  more 
his  terrors  increased.  "In  this  state  of  overwhelming  hor- 
ror, which,"  says  Sully,  "  at  first  I  thought  an  unpar- 
donable weakness,  he  opened  his  whole  heart  to  me :  his 


SULLY;  21 

own  words  will  be  more  affecting  than  all  Tcati  say.  *  Oh ! 
my  friend/  said  he,  '  this  coronation  does  not  please  me : 
I  know  not  what  is  the  meaning  of  it,  but  my  heart  telU  me 
some  fatal  accident  will  happen.'  He  sat  down,  as  he  spoke 
these  words,  upon^  a  chair  in  my  closet;  and,  resigning 
himself  some  time  to  all  the  horror  of  his  melancholy  ap- 
prehensions, he  suddenly  started  up,  and  cried  out,  *  Par 
Dieu,  I  shall  die  in  this  city;  they  will  murder  ipe  here; 
I  see  plainly  they  l>ave  made  my  death  their  only  re- 
source !**  for  he  had  then  great  designs  on  foot  against 
Spain  and  the  house  of  Austria.  He  repeated  these  fore^ 
bodings  several  times,  which  Sully  as  often  treated  as  chi- 
ifneras;  but  they  proved  realities. 

'  After  the  death  of  his  master,  by  which  he  was  greatly 
afflicted,  Sully  retired  from  court;  for,  a  new  reign  intro- 
ducing new  men  and  new  measures,  he  was  no  longer  re- 
garded. The  life  he  led  in  retreat  was  accompanied  with 
decency,  grandeur,  and  even  mlijesty ;  yet  it  was,  in  some 
measure,  embittered  with  domestic  troubles,  arising  from 
the  extravagance  and  ill  conduct  of  his  eldest  son,  the  mar- 
quis of  Rosni.  H^  died  J>ec,  22,  1641,  aged  eighty.three, 
and  his  duchess  caused  a  statue  to  be  erected  over  his 
burying^place,  with  this  inscription  :•  "  Here  lies  the  body 
of  the  most  high,  most  puissant,  and  most  illustrious  lord, 
Maximilian  de  Betbune,  marquis  of  Rosni,  who  shared  in 
all  the  fortunes  of  king  Henry  the  Great ;  among  which 
was  that  memorable  battle,  which  gave  the  crown  to  the 
victor;  where,  by  his  valour,  he  gained  the  white  standard, 
and  took  several  prisoners  of  distinction.  He  was  by  that 
great  monarch,  in  reward  of  his  many  virtues  and  distin- 
guished merit,  honoured  with  the  dignities  of  duke,  peer, 
and  marshal  of  France,  with  the  governments  of  the  Upper 
and  Lower  Poitou,  with  the  office  of  grand  master  of  the 
ordnance;  in  which,  bearing  the  thunder  of  his  Jupiter, 
be  took  the  castle  of  Montmelian,  till  then  believed  im- 
pregnable, and  many  other  fortresses  of  Savoy.  He  was 
likewise  made  superintendant  of  the  finances,  which  office 
he  discharged  singly,  with  a  wise  and  prudent  oeconomy ; 
and  continued  his  faithful  services  till  that  unfortunate  day, 
when  the  Caesar  of  the  French  nation  lost  his  life  by  the 
hand  of  a  parricide.  After  the  lamented  death  of  that  gre^at 
king,  he  retired  from  public  affairs,,  and  passed  the  re- 
mainder of  his  life  in  ease  and  tranquillity.  He  died  at 
the  castle  of  Villebon,  Dec.  22,  1641,  aged  82." 


2i  ^  U  L  L  T., 

Though  he  lived  to  such  an  age,  no  life  could  be  more 
frequently  exposed  to  perils  than  that  of  Sully.  One  of 
these  wa^  of  a  very  extraordinary  kind,  and  deserves  to  be 
particularly  mentioned.  It  was  at  the  taking  of  a  town  ifi 
Cambray,  in  1581,  when,  to  defend  the  women  from  the 
brutality  of  the  soldiers,  the  churches,  with  guards  about 
them,  were  given  them  for  asylums;  nevertheless,  a  very 
beautiful  young  girl  suddenly  threw  herself  into  the  arms 
of  Suily,  as  he  was  walking  in  the  streets,  and,  holding 
him  fast,  conjured  him  to  guard  her  fronfi  so^e  soldiers^ 
who,  she  said,  had  concealed  themselves  as  soon  as  they 
saw  him.  Sully  endeavoured  to  calm  her  fears,  and  offered 
to  conduct  her  to  the  next  church  ;  but  she  tpid  him  she 
had  been  there,  and  had  asked  for  admittance,  which  they 
refused,  because  they  knpw  she  had  the  plague.  Sully 
thrust  her  from  him  with  the  utmost  indignation  as  well  as 
horror,  and  expected  every  moment  to  be  seized  with  the 
plague,  which,  however,  did  nof;  happen. 

The  character  of  Sully,  as  it  was  given  by  his  master 
Henry  IV.  is  thus  preserved  in  his  memoirs.  **  Some  per- 
sons,'* said  Henry,  "  complain,  and  indeed  I  do  myself, 
sometimes,  of  his  temper.  They  say  he  is  harsh,  impa* 
tienty  and  obstinate :  he  is  accused  of  having  too  enter- 
prising a  mind,  of  presuming  too  much  upon  his  own 
opinions^  exaggerating  the  worth  of  his  own  actions,  and 
lessening  that  of  others,  as  likewise  of  eagerly  aspiring 
after  honours  and  riches.  Now,  although  I  ani  well  con- 
vinced that  part  of  these  imputations  are  true,  and  that  I 
ani  obliged  to  keep  a  high  band  over  h'ltfi,  when  he  offends 
me  with  those  sallies  of  ill  humour ;  yet  I  cannot  cease  to 
love  him,  esteem  him,  and  employ  him  in  all  affairs  of  con- 
sequence, because  I  am  very  sure  that  he  loves  my  person, 
that  he  takes  an  interest  in  fs\y  preservation,  and  that  be 
is  ardently  solicitous  for  the  honour,  the  glory,  and  gran- 
deur of  me  and  my  kingdom.  I  know  also  that  he  has  no 
malignity  in  bis  heart;  that  he  is  indefatigable  in  business, 
and  fruitful  in  expedients;  he  is  a  careful  manager  of  my 
revenue,  a  man  Iabo|*ious  and  diligent,  who  endeavours  to 
be  ignorant  of  nothing^  and  to  render  himself  capable  of 
coiuiucting  all  affairs,  whether  of  peace  or  war ;  who  writes 
and  speaks  in  a  style  that  pleases  me,  because  it  is  at  once 
that  of  a  soldier  and  statesman.  In  a  word,  I  confess  to 
you,  that,  notwithstanding  all  his  extravagances  and  little 


S  U  t  L  Y.  13 

transport^:  of  f^assipn,  I  6nd  no  one  so  capable  as  he  it  of 
ponsoHng  me  under  every  uneasiness.^' 

The  ^'  Memoirs  of  Sully*'  have  always  been  ranked  among 
the  best,  jand  certainly  are  among  the  most  interesting  and 
.authentic  books  of  French  history,  replete  with  good 
sense  and  virtuous  remark.  They  contain  a  particular  ac- 
count of  whatever  passed  frooi  the  peace  in  15.70,  to  the 
death  of  Henry  IV*  in  1610  ;  a  period  of  time,  which  has 
supplied  ihe  most  copious  subjects  to  the  historians  of 
France*  They  are  full  of  numerous  and  various  events ; 
war9,  foreign  and  doeiestic ;  interests  of  state  and  religion ; 
inaster*;$trokes  of  policy;  unexpected  discoveries;  striig* 
gles  of  ambition  ;  stratagems  of  policy  ;  embassies  and  ne- 
^ociatiofis.     Tiiese  memoirs  take  their  value,  perhaps' their 

freatest  value,  from  the  imiumerable  recitals  of  a  private 
ind^  which  scarcely  belong  to  the  province. of  history; 
^or,  at  the  same  time  that  they  treat  of  the  reign,  they 
describe  the  wbo)e  life  of  Henry  the  Great.  They  are 
jaot;,  however,  either  in  the  form  or  language  in  which  they 
were  left  by  Sully:  the  form  has  been  digested  aiid  me- 
thodized^ aiKl  the  language  has  been  corrected  and  po- 
lished. The  best  edition  in  French  is  that  of  Paris,  in  8 
vols.  4to,  and  also  in  8  vols.  12mo.  They  have  been  trans*- 
jated  into  Engljish  by  Mrs.  Charlotte  Lennox,  and  pub- 
lished both  in  4to  and  8vo. 

SULPICI  A,  an  .ancient  Roman  poetess,  the  vt^ife  of  Ca*> 
lenus,  flourished  about  the  year  90,  and  was  so  admired 
as  to  be  thought  worthy  of  the  title  of  the  Roman  Sappho. 
'We  have  nothings  left  of  her  but  a  satire,  or  rather  frag- 
ment of  a  satire,  against  Domitian,  who  published  a  decree 
for  the  banishment  of  the  philosophers  from  Rome.  This 
isatire  was  published  at  Strasburgh,  with  other  poems,  by  6. 
Morula,  1 509, 4to,and  may  be  found  in  other  collections,  but 
has  usually  been  printed  at  the  end  of  the  ^'  Satires  of  Ju- 
venal," to  whom,  as  well  as  to  Aiisonius,  it  has  been  attri- 
buted by  some  critics.  Graingerlikewiseaddeditto  his  **Ti- 
buUus,''  with  a  translation  and  notes.  From  the  invooatroii 
}t  should  9eem,  that  she  was  the  author  of  many  other  poems, 
j^nd  the  first  Roman  lady  who  taught  her  sex  to  vie  with  the 
Greeks  in  poetry.  Her  language  is  easy  and  elegant,-  and 
ahe  seems  to  have  bad  a  happy  talent,  for  satire.  She  is  * 
inentioned  by  Martial  and  Sidonius  ApoUinaris,  and  is  said 
to  have  addressed  to  her  husband  Calenus,  who  was  a  Ro-  , 
znah  knight^  **  A  poem  oii  conjugal  love,"  but  this  is  test. 


24  S  U  t  ?  1  CI  A. 

Her. satire  hai  b^eiv  reprinted  by  Wernsdorf  in  the  tbTr3 
volume  of  the  "  Poeta  Minofes  Latini,"  where  may  bte 
seen  some  useful  remarks  respecting  her  works. ' 

SULPICIUS   SEVERUS    (surnamed    the    CifRiSTiAir 
Sallust),  an  ecclesiastical  writer,  who  flourished  about  tfao 
beginning  of  the  fifth  century,  was  a  disciple  of  8t.  Martin 
of  Tours,  whose  life  he  has  written ;  and  friend  of  Pauliw 
ims,  bishop  of  Nola,  with  whom  be  held  a  constant  and 
intimate  correspondence.     He  was  illustrious  fpr  his  birth, 
his  eloquence,  and  still  more  for  bis  piety  and  virtue.    Af- 
ter  he  had  shone  uitb  great  iustr^  at  the  bar,  he  married 
very  advantageously ;  but,  losing  his  wife  soon  after,  he 
quitted  the  world,  and  became  a  priest.     He  was  born  at 
Ageh,  in  the  province  of  Aquitain,  which  at  that  time  pro* 
duced  the  best  poets,  the  best  rhetoricians,  and  the  best 
orators  of  the  Roman  empire,  of  those  at  least  who  wrotv 
in  Latin.     He  lived  sometimes  at  Elisso,  and  sometimes 
at  Toulouse.     Some  have  affirmed,  that  he  was  bishop  of 
the  Biturices  ;  but  they  have  erroneously  confounded  biuri 
with  another  Severus  Sulpicius,  who  was  bishop  of  that 
people,  and  died  at  the  end  of  the  sixth  century.     Sulpi** 
cius  lived  till  about  the  year  420.     He  is  said  to  have  been 
at  one  time  seduced  by  the  Pelagians  ;'and  that,  returni«r 
ing  to  his  old  principles,  be  imposed  a  silence  upon  h\ah* 
self  for  the  rest  of  his  days,  as  the  best  atonement  be 
could  make  for  his  error ;  but  some  think  that  this  silence 
meant  only  his  refraining  from  writing  or  controversy.  Th^ 
principal  of  his  works  was  his  "  Historia  Sacra,*^  in  twd 
books;  in  which  he  gives  a  succinct  account  of  all  the  re-^ 
xnarkable  things  that  passed  in  the  Jewish  or  Christian 
churches,    from   the  creation  of  the  world  to  about   the 
year  400.     He  wrote,  also,  the  *'  Life  of  St.  Martin,'*  as 
we  have  said  already  ;  "  Three  Letters  upon  the  death  and 
virtues  of  this  saint j"  and  "Three  Dialogues;"  the  firsfc^ 
upon  the  miracles  of  the  Eastern  monks,  and  the  two  last^ 
upon  the  extraordinary  qualities  and  graces  of  St*  Martin. 
These,  with  seven  other  epistles  never  before  printed  with 
his  works,  were  all  revised,  corrected,  and  published  with 
notes,  in  a  very  elegant  edition,  by  Le  Clerc,  at  Leipsic^ 
in  1709,  8vo.    There  is  another  by  Jerom  de  Prato,  printed 
.  at  Venice  in  1741^ — 54,  2  vols.  4to,  the  text  of.  which  i^ 
tl^ougbt  the  most  correct.  ^ 

.  .  1  Voasius  de  Poet.  Lat.— iFabric.  Bibl.  Lat.— Saxii  Onomait.     ..     ' 


S  U  L  P  I  C  I  U  S.  25 

Stilpicms  has  a  purity  in  his  style,  far  heyond  the  age  in 
!«vhich  he  lived.  He  has  joined  a  very  concise  manner  of 
expressing  hifnself  to  a  remarkable  perspicuity,  arid  in  this 
bas  equaiied  even^SaHnst  himself,  whom  he  always  imitates^ 
«nd  sometimes  quotes.  He  is  nor,  indeed,  correct  through- 
out in'  his  "  History  of  the  Church ;"  and  is  very  credulous 
vipon  thB  point  of  miracles.  He  admits  also  several  opi- 
nions, which  have  no  foundation  in  Scripture;  and  he  is 
in  some  instances  defective,  taking  no  notice,  for  example, 
of  the  reign  of  Julian,  &c.  His  **  Dialogues**  contain 
many  interesting  particulars,  respecting  the  manners  and 
sinoularities  of  the  Eastern  monks;  the  disturbances  which 
the  books  of  Origin  had  occasioned  in  Egypt  and  Pales- 
Une,  and  other  matters  of  some  curiosity.* 

SULZER  (John  George),  a  very  Eminent  German,  or 
rather  Swiss,  plJilosopher,  was  bom  at  Winterthour,  in  the 
•canton  of  Zurich,  October  16,  1720,  and  is  said  to  have 
been  the  yonngest  of  twenty-five  qbiidren.     Both  his  pa- 
rents died  on  ihe  same  day  in  1734,  and  left,  him  barely 
enough  to  die^ray  the  expence  of  his  education.     His  ta- 
lents ilid  not  develppe  themselves  early  ;  and,  at  sixteen, 
he  had  not  even  acquired  a  taste  for  study.     Wolfe's  Me- 
taphysics was  the  first  book  thiit  awakened  in  him  a  love  of 
philosophy ;  and   the  counsels  and  example  of  the  cele- 
JE^rated    Gesner  soon  after  incited  him  to  a[)ply  himself  ea- 
gerly  to  mathematics   and  general   science,    and   to   re- 
sume the  study   of  Grecian  and  Oriental  literature.     In  ' 
1739,  he  bicame  an  ecclesiastic;  and  a  favourable  situa- 
tion for  examining  the  beauties  of  nature,  made  him  an 
enthusiast  in  that    branch  of  knowledge.    -He  published^    ' 
therefore,  at  twenty-one,  **  Moral   contemplations  of  the 
works  of  Nature;'*  and,  in  the  same  year,   1741,  "A  De- 
scription of  the  most  remarkable  Art  tiqui  ties  in  the  Lord- 
-ship  of  Knonau,"  written  in  German.     The  year  after,  he 
jpublished  an  account  of  a  journey  which  he  took  in  the 
Alps;  in  which  he  displayed,  not  only  his  sensibility  of 
jtfae  beauties  of  nature,  but  his  profound  sense  of  the  ih- 
£nite  power  and  goodness  of  its  author.     Becoming  a  tutor 
fii  Magdeburg,  he  obtained  the  acquaintance  of  Mauper- 
tuis^  Euler,  and  Sack  ;  in  consequence  of  which  his  merits 
Itecame  more  known,  and  he  obtained,  in  1747,  the  ap- 
pointment of  mathematical  professor  in  the  royal  college 

I  CavCf  vol.  L— Dupin,— Laidser's  Works.— Gen.  Dict.-*SaxD  OnomasU 


i 


%^  S  U  L  Z  E  R. 

at  Berlin  ;  and  beei^me  a  menober  of  ihe  Royal  Acadnmj 

there  in  17  0. 

,  Tbe  works  of  Sulzer  are  numerous ;  bal  the  most  irn<9 
portant  is,  liis  **  Universal  Theory  pf  the  &i\e  Arts,'*  (Aij* 
jgetneine  Theorie  der  schbncn  Kunste,  &c.)  which  is  ^ 
dictionary  in  two  volumes,  quarto,  containing  all  the  tern^s 
of, the  various  arts  digested  into  one  alphabet.  In  this  jta 
appears  at  once  a  profound  thinker,  and  a  man  of  singular 
^orth.  The  first  volume  appeared  at  Leipsic  in  1771  ;  th^ 
^econd  in  1774^  He  wrote  also,  ^*  Remarks  on  the  Ptiilo*^ 
lophicdi  Essays  of  Uume;^^  a  work  in  which  he  both  ac- 
knowfedges  the  acutenes^,  and  detects  th^  sophistry  of  oujr 
celebrated  sceptic.  The  king  of  Prussia  distinguished  him 
by  many  marks  of  bounty  and  favour,  but  it  so  happened 
that  he  never  saw  him  till  near  tbe  end  oH  1777,  although 
be  had  been  member  of  the  academy  from  tbe  year  175Q. 
$uizer  lived  only  to  tbe  age  of  sixty ;  and  died  February ^5, 
1779.  His  character  is  of  the  purest  kind  ;  amiable,  vir« 
tuous,  sociable,  and  beneficent.  His  philosophy  was  th«^ 
of  a  true  Christian,  and  the  support  be  derived  from  it 
was  proportionably  ui>iform  and  steady.  His  dying  nfia* 
ipents  were  calm,  humble,  and  sublime ;  and  his  couii'- 
lenance,  when  he  expired,  wore  the  composurje  of  sleftp. 
He  had  no  enemy,  aiid  his  friends  were  numerous  and  af« 
fectionate. ' 

SUMOROKOF  (Alexander),  denominated  tbe  founder 
of  tbe  Russian  theatre,  was  the  son  of  Peter  Sumorokof,  ^ 
Russian  nobleman,  aad  was  born  at  Moscow  November  14, 
1727.  He  received  the  first  rudiments  of  learning  in  h^ 
fatjher's  bouse,  where,  besides  a  grammatical  knowledge  oi 
bis  native  tongue,  he  was  well  grounded  in  the  Latin  lan- 
guage. Being  removed  to  the  semiuary  of  the  cadets  at . 
St.  Petersburgh,  he  prosecuted  bis  studies  with  unwearied 
application,  and  gave  early  proofs  of  bis  genius  for  poetry. 
Even  on  holidays  be  would  retire  from  his  companions,  who 
were  engaged  in  play,  and  devote  bis  whole  time  to  the 
perusal  of  tbe  Latin  and  French  writers :  nor  was  it  long 
before  he  himself  attempted  to  compose.  The  first  efforts 
of  his  ger)ips  were  love-songs,  whose  tenderness  and  beaur- 
iies,  till  then  unexpressed  in  the  Russian  tongue,  were 
greatly  ado^ired,  and  considered  as  certain  prognostics  qf 

'  Eloge  by  Formey  ia  the  Berlin  Memoirs  for  1779.^Meister'i  Portraiti  des 
fiommei  lUustres  de  la  Suisse. 


S  U  M  O  R  O  K  O  r.  8f 

bfi  rathhe  fknicf.  Upon  quitting  the  seminary,  he  was  ap** 
pointed  adjutant,  first  to  count  Golovkin,  and  afterwards  te 
coimt  'Rosomduski :  and  being  soon  noticed  and  patrbnized 
by  count  Ivan  Shuvalof,  he  was  introduced  by  that  Mascenai 
to  the  empress  Elizabeth,  who  took  him  under  her  protecw 
tion.  About  the  twenty-ninth  year  of  his  age,  an  enthast»- 
Astic  fondness  he  had  contracted  for  the  works  of  Ractne^ 
turned  his  genius  to  the  drama  ;  and  he  wrote  the  tragedy 
of  <'  Koref/'  which  laid  the  foundation  of  the  Russian 
theatre.  This  piece  was  first  acted  by  some  of  his  former 
schoolmates,  the  cadets,  who  had  previously  exercised  their 
talents  in  declamations,  and  in  acting  a  French  play.  The 
empress  Elizabeth,  informed  of  this  pnenomenon  in  the 
theatrical  world,  orderied  the  tragedy  to  be  exhibited  in  her 
bresence,  upon  a  small  theatre  of  the  court,  where  Ger- 
man, Italian,  and  French  plays  had  been  performed.  The 
appjause  and  distinction  which  the  author  receKed  on  this 
occasion,  encouraged  him  to  follow  the  bent  of  his  genius, 
nnd  he  produced  other  tragedies,  several  comedies,  and  two 
operas.  With  respect  to  his  tragedies,  Racine  yvas  his 
model;  and  the  Russian  biographer  of  Sumorokof,  who 
seems  a  competent  judge  of  his  merit,  allows,  that  tboagb 
in  some  instances  be  has  attained  all  the  excellence  of  the 
French  poet,-  yet  he  has  failed  in  many  others ;  but  it 
would  be  uncandid  to  insist  upon  such  defects  in  a  writer 
lyho  first  introduced  the  drama  among  his  countrymen. 
The  French  overlook  in  their  Corneille  still  greater  faults. 
*^  His  comedies,''  continues  the  same  author,  '*  contain 
mnch  humour;  but  I  do  not  imagine  that  our  dramatic 
writers  will  adopt  him  for  their  model:  for  he  frequently 
excites  the  laughter  of  the  spectator  at  the  expeiice  of  his 
cooler  judgment.  Nevertheless,  they  preiient  sufficient 
passages  to  prove,  that  he  would  have  attained  a  greater  de* 
gree  of  perfection  in  this  line,  if  he  had  paid  more  atten- 
tion to  paint  our  manners,  and  to  follow  the  taste  of  the  biest 
foreign  writers," 

Besides  dramatic  writings,  Sumorokof  attempted  every 
species  of  poetry,  excepting  the  epic.  He  wrote  love- 
songs,  idyllia,  fables^  satires,  anacreontics,  elegies,  versions 
of  the  Psalms,  and  Pindaric  odes.  Superior  to  Lomonozof 
in  the  compositions  of  the  drama,  he  yet  was  inferior  to 
him  in  Pindaric  writitigs.  Though  his  odes,  adds  his  bio* 
grapher,  are  distinguished  by  their  easy  flow  of  versiiica^ 
tion;  by  their  harmony,  softness,  and  grace,  yet  they 


S8  S  U  M  O  R  O  K  p  F. 

4 

far  from  reaching  that  elevation  and  fire  which  characterize 
those  of  Lomonozof.  These  two  great  poets  had  each 
their  peculiar  talents :  the  one  displayed  in  his  style  all  the 
majesty,  strength,  and  sublimity  of  the  Russian  tongue; 
and  the  other  all  its  harmony,  softness,  and  elegance.  The 
elegies  of  Sumorokof  are  full  of  tenderness.:  his  idyls  give 
a  true  picture  of  the  pastoral  life  in  all  the  (ileasing  simpli- 
city pf  unimproved  nature,  without  descending  to  vulgarity; 
and  may  serve  as  models  in  this  species  of  composition,  in 
all  things  excepting  in  strict  morality.  His  satires  are  the 
best  in  the  Russian  language,  but  are  extremely  unequal,  and 
deserve  to  have  been  wrought  with  more  plan  and  regu- 
larity. In  writing  his  fables,  his  pen  seems  to  have  been 
guided  by  the  Muses  and  Graces  ;  and  his  biographer  seems 
inclined,  if  not  to  prefer  them,  at  .least  to  compare  them 
with  those  of  Fontaine.  Sumorokof  was  also  author  of  a 
few  short  and  detached  historical  pieces.  1.  "  A  Chroni- 
cle of  Moscow,'*  in  which  he  relates  the  origin  of  that  city; 
and  abridges  the  reigns  of  its  monarcbs  from  Ivan  Danilo- 
Titch  to  Feodor  Alexievitch.  2.  **  A  History  of  the  first 
insurrection  of  the  Strelitz  in  1682,  by  which  Ivan  was  ap- 
pointed joint-sovereign  with  Peter  the  Great,  and  the  prin- 
cess iSophia  regent."  3.  "  An  account  of  Stenko  Kazin's 
rebellion."  His  style  in  these  pieces  is  sa,id  to  be  clear 
and  perspicuous,  but  somewhat  too  flowery  and  poetical 
for  prose.  Sumorokof  obtained  by  his  merit  the  fiivour 
and  protection  of  his  sovereign.  Elizabeth  gave  him  the 
rank  of  brigadier;  appointed  him  director  of  the  Russian 
theatre,  and  settled  upon  him  a  pension  of  400/.  per  annum. 
^Catherine  II.  created  him  counsellor  of  state;  conferred 
upon  him  the  order  of  St.  Anne;,  and  honoured  him  with 
many  instances  of  munificence  and  distinction  until  his 
death,  which  carried  him  off  at  Moscow,  October  1,  1777> 
in  the  fifty-first  year  of  hh  age. 

With  respect  to  his  disposition,  says  his  biographer,  it  was 
amiable;  but  his  extreme  sensibility,  an  excellent  quality  in 
a  poet  when  tempered  with  philosophy,  occasioned  that 
singularity  and  vehemence  of  character,  which  gave  so 
much  trouble  and  uneasiness  to  all  his  acquaintance,  but 
particularly  to  himself.  He  was  polite  and  condescending 
towards  those  who  treated  him  with  respect,  but  haughty 
to  those  who  behaved  to  him  with  pride.  He  knew  no  de- 
cei£;  hq  was  a  true  friend,  and  an  open  enemy ;  and  could 
neither  forget  an  obligation  nor  an  injury.     Passionate, 


SUM  OR  O  K  O  F. 


29 


and  frequently  inconsiderate  in  his  parsuitSy  he  could  not 
bear  the  least  opposition ;  and  oftentimes  looked  upon  tb« 
most  trifling  circumstance  as  the*  greatest  evil.  His  ex- 
traordinary fame,  the  many  favours  which  the  empress 
conferred  upon  him,  with  the  indulgence  and  veneration  of 
his  friends,  might  have  made  him  extremely  fortunate,  .if 
be  bad  understood  ihe  art  of  being  so.  He  had  conceived  . 
a  great,  perhaps  too  great,  idea  of  the  character  atid 
merits, of  a  true  poet ;  and  could  not  endure  to  see  with 
patience  this  noble  and  much-esteemed  art,  which  had 
been  consecrated  by  Homer,  Virgil,  and  other  great  men^ 
profafied  by  persons  without  judgment  or  abilities.  Thesie 
pretenders,  he  would  say,  shock  the  public  with  their  jion-  ' 
sense  in  rhyme ;  and  clothe  their  monstrous  conceptions  ia 
the  dress  of  the  Muses.  The  public  recoil  from  them  with 
disgust  and  aversion  ;  and,  deceived  by  their  appearance, 
treat  with  irreverence^  tbos^  children  of  heaven  the  true- 
Muses.  The  examples  of  Lomonozof  and  Sumorokof  have 
teilUed  to  diffuse  a  spirit  of  poetry,  and  a  taste  for  polite 
learning,  among  the  Russians;  and  they  are  succeeded  by 
a  numerous  band  of  poets. ^ 

SURENHUSIUS  (Wiluam),  a  celebrated  Hebrew  and 
Greek  professor  in  the  university  of  Amsterdam,  is  most 
known  for  his  edition  of  the  Mischna  of  the  Jews,  with 
notes,  and  a  Latin  version,  which  he  began^to  publish  io 
1698,  and  completed  in  1703,  in  3  vols,  folio.  It  contains 
also  the  commentaries  of  the  Rabbins,  JMaimonides^  and 
Bartenora.  The  period  at  which  he«flourished  is  ascer- 
tained by  this  pubhcation ;  but,  *in  the  books  which  we  have 
been  able  to  consult,  we  do  not  find  any  account  of  th# 
time  when  he  was  born  or  died.  The  latter  event  must 
have,  however,  been  posterior  to  1713,  when  he  published 
a  learned  work  in  Latin,  '^  in  which  the  passages  Of  the 
Old  Testament,  quoted  in  the  New,  are  vindicated  and  re* 
conciled,  according  to  the  forms  of  quotation,  and  the  se«. 
veral  ways  of  interpreting  the  scripture,  used  by  the  aa^ 
cient  Hebrew  Theologers,"  Amst  4to.* 

SURITA,  orZURlTA  (Jerome),  a  Spanish  historian; 
was  born  at.Saragossa,  Dec.  4,  1512,,  of  an  ancient  family.'' 
He  made  great  progress  in  Greek  and  Latin,  under  a  very 
able  master,  at  Alcala  de  Henares;  but  bis  particular  i^v&m 
4ilection   was   for  the  study  of  history.     Hef   afterwards 


y  Coxe's  Trarelf  in  F«siia. 


•  Diet.  HUt—Saxii  Oaofliait^ 


30.  8  U  R  I  T  A. 

became  secretary  to  the  inquisition,  but  employed  his  timift 
chiefly  in  writing  numerous  works  which  procured  hioi  a 
irery  high  reputation,  not  only  with  his  countrymen,  but  in 
the  Of'inion  of  the  learned  of  other  nations.     He  died  Oct. 

31,  1590,  in  the  sixty-eighth  year  of  his  age.  His  prin-t 
cipal  historical  work  is  his  ^'  Anales  de  la  corona  del  Reyno 
de  Aragon,"  7  vols.  fol.  first  printed  at  Saragossa  in  1562^ 
but  th£  third  edition  of  1610  is  accounted  the  most  com- 
plete.  He  published  also  in  Latin  ^*  Indices  rerum  ab 
Aragonias  regibus  gestarum,  libri  tres,''  Sarag.  1578,  with 
the  addition  of  **  Gaufredi  Monachi  de  acquisitione  regni 
Sieiiise,  Calabrias,  &c.  per  Robertum  Guiscardum  et  fratreti. 
NortmaoDos. principes,*'  and  Celesinus  ^^De.Roberti  Si<^ 
ciiiiB  regis  rebus  gestis,  libri  <)uatuor,"  both  before  un- 
published. He  was  the  editor  also  of  Antoninus's  Itinerary, 
and  bis  notes  were  adopted  by  Dr.  Thomas  Gale  in  hi» 
edition.  He  left  many  other  learned  works  in  MS.  parti-^ 
eularly  commentaries  on  Julius  Caesar,  and  on  Claudian.^ 

SURIUS  (Laurentius),  a  voluminous  compiler,  was 
horn  at  Lubeck  in  1522,  and  entered  the  Carthusian  ordet^ 
in  that  city,  where  he  became  ceiebraited  for  his  virtues 
ind  learning.  He  died  May  25^  1578,  at  Cologn,  aged 
fifty-six.  The  principal  among  his  numerous  works  are/ 
"A  Collection  of  Councils,"  1567,  4  vols,  fol.;  <^  The 
Lives  of  the  Saints,^'  Cologn,  1618,  7  vols,  fol.;  and  ^^Aii 
History  of  his  Own  Times  from  1500  to  1566,'*  1569,  8vo ; 
Vanslated  into  French,  1573,  8vo.  Snrius  did  not  want 
learning,  but  those  of  his  own  communion  are  willing  to 
allow  that  he  gave  credit  blindly  to  fables^  and  was  defi^ 
cient  in  critical  knowledge.' 

:  SUTCLIFFE,  orSOUTCLIFFE  (Matthew),  an  En- 
glish divine  of  considerable  abilities  in  controversy,  wai 
ediicaaed  at  Trinity  •college,  Cambridge,  but  of  bis  early 
history  we  have  no  acconnt.  In  1586,  he  was  installed 
archdeacon  of  Taunton,  and  on  Oct.  22,  1588,  coniirmc^d 
•dean  of  £xeter.  He  had  been  admitted  a  civilian  in  1 582* 
He  died  in  1629,  leaving  a  daughter  his  heiress,  who, 
^fhince  thinks,  was  married  to  the  son  and  heir  of  the  Halse 
family  in  Devonshire ;  and  as  the  estates  Dr.  SotclilFe  left 
to/Chels€a«€X)llege  were  in  that  country,  it  probabljr  was. 
his  ^birthopiace.  He  ^was  esteemed  a  very  learned  wfitei^ 
,•     •         ,  '  .^      .     ,   .         .       .  .  ....*- 

I  Antonio-Bibl.  Hisp.—Clctnent.  Bibl.  Curlense. — Vouius  de  Sclent  Matk* 
•^Thuaul  HisU  -^  Moreri.— Diet.  tlUt.— Saxii  Oaomiist. 


SUTCLIFFE.  SI 

ifki  defence  of  the  protestant  establishment;  butaltbough 
long  in  favour  with  James  I.  upon  that  account,  we  find 
ibrat  tbi&prince,  in  1621,  ordered  him  to  be  taken  into  cus*^ 
Mdy  for  the  freedom  of  his  remarks  upon  public  affairs* 
On  the  other  hand  Strype,  in  his  life  of  Whitgift,  has 
published  a  long  letter  from  that  eminent  prelate  to  Besa, 
defending  SutclifFe  against  some  disrespectful  ezpressioiw 
used  by  the  reformer.  Among  his  works,  may  be  noticed^ 
1.  ^'  A  treatise  of  Ecclesiastical  Discipline,*'  Lond.  1591, 
4to.  2.  ^'  De  Presbycerio,  .ejusque  nova  in  Ecclesia  Chris-* 
tianiL  Foliteia,"  the  same  year,  4to.  3.  ^*  De  Turco»Pa« 
piamo,''  or,  on  the  resemblance  between  Mahometanism 
and  Popery,  London,  1599,  4to.  4.  *^  De  Purgatorio,  ad« 
versus  Beliarminum,"  the  same  year,  4to.  5.  ^'  De  vera 
Christie  Ecclesia,"  1600,  4to.  6.  *^  De  Missa,  adversus  Bel« 
larininum,"  1603,  4to.  7.  <<  The  Laws  of  Armes,''  1593, 
4to.  8.  ^f  Examination  of  Cartwright's  Apology,"  1596, 
4to ;  and  many  other  works,  enumerated  in  the  Bbdleiaa 
eHialogue,  of  the  controversial  kind,  against  Bellarminj 
Parsons,  Garnet,  and  other  popish  propagandists. 

But.  what  has  rendered  Dr.  butclitfo  most  celebrated  was 
bis  project  for  establishing.a  college  o^  polemical  divines^ 
to  be  employed  in  opposing  the  doctrines  of  papists  and 
*^  Peiagianizing  Armtuians^  and  others,  that  draw  towards 
popery  and  Babylonian  slavery,  &c.''  And  as  this  college 
has  been  incidentally  mentioned  in  various  parts  of  these 
volumes,  we  shall  now  give  part  of  the  succinct  and  per-* 
spicuous  account  furnished  by  Mr.  Lysons. 

At  first  the  undertaking  seemed  attended  with  good 
omens :  prince  Henry  was  a  zealous  friend  to  it:  the  king 
consented  to  be  deemed  the  founder,  called  the- college 
after  his  own  name,  *^  King  James's  college  at  Chelsea^^ 
endowed  u  with  the  reversion  of  certain  lands  at  Chelsea^ 
which  were  fixed  upon  for  its  site,  laid  the  first  stone  <tf 
the  buddmg,  gave  timber  out  of  Windsor  forest,  ismed  his 
royal  letters  to  encourage  his  subjects  throughont  the.kingb 
dom  to  contribute  towards  the  completion  of  the  stsociurn 
and  as  a. permanent  endowment,  procured  an  act  of  parliiif 
meUt  to  enable  the  college  to  raise  an  annual  rent,  by  stip3t 
}»lyii»^<tbe  City  of  Loodon  with  water  from  the  river  Leal 
\i  ftppeafs  by  the  charter  of  ntcorporatioo,  dated.  May t^ 
1610,  that  the  college  consisted  of  a  provost  and  twenty 
ftHcfwi^,  eighteen  of  whom  were  required  to'^be  in  holy 
'  Qrders;  the  other  two,  who  might  be  either  laj^ men  or 


S8  SUTCLIFFE. 


/ 


divines,  were  to  be  employed  in  writing  tte  annals  of  tbei^ 
limes.  Sutclifie  himself  was  t-be  first  provost;  Camden 
^  and  Haywood  the  first  historians ;  and  among  the  felio^s 
we  find  the  well-kn^n  names  of  Overall,  Morton,  Field, 
Abbot,  Hovvsoii,  Spencer,  Boys,  &c.  When  a  vacancy 
bappened  in  any  department,  the  successor  was  to  be  no- 
noinatedand  recommended  by  the  vice-chancellor  and  heads 
of  colleges  in  the  two  universities,  and  approved  by  the 
archbishop  of  Canterbury,  the  chancellor  of  each  univer-* 
"sity,  and  the  bishop  of  London.  The  charter  granted  the 
college  the  power  of  using  a  common  seal ;  4rarious  privi* 
leges  and  immunities,  and  licence  to  possess  lands  in  mort- 
main to  the  vali!ie  of  3(>00/.  per  ann. 

With  these  good  omens  Dr.  SutcliflFe  began  to  erect  tfa^e 
college  at  his  own  expence,  and  built  one  side  of  the  first 
quadrangle:  *^  which  long  range  alone  (says  Fuller)  made 
not  of  free-stone,  though  of  free -timber,  cost,  Othe  dear- 
Dess  of  college  and  church  work  I  full  three  thousand 
pounds.**  Such  was  the  progress  of  the  work  at  Sutcliffe'^ 
death,  who,  by  his  will,  dated  Nov.  t,  1628,  bequeathed 
to  the  college  the  greater  part  of  his  estates,  consijsting  of, 
lands  in  Devonshire,  the  benefit  of  an  extent  on  sir  Lewis 
Stukeley's  estates  valued  at  more  than  SOOO/.,  a  share  in  the 
great  Neptune  (a  ship  at  Whitby  in  Yorkshire),  at  enemeni 
at  Stoke  Rivers,  and  other  premises^  all  his  books  and 
goods  in  the  college,  and  a  part  of  his  Hbrary  at  Exeter; 
but  all  these  bequests  were  subject  to  this  proviso,  ^^  if  the 
Wttrk  of  the  college  should  not  be  hindered." 

The  total  failure  of  pecuniary  resources  soon  proved  a 
very  eifectual  hindraBce  to  any  farther  progress  iir  this  un- 
dertaking. The  national  attention  had  been  so  much  en- 
gaged \>y  the  extensive  repairs  of  St.  Paulas  cathedral,  that 
the  college  saw  little  hopes  of  success  from  the  circulation 
of  the  king's  letters  for  the  purpose  of  promoting  a  public 
contribution;  and  at  the  time  of  his  death  no  collectiona 
bad  been  made  under  their  sanction.  The  success  of  sir 
HughMiddietoa'sproject  for  supplying  London  with  water, 
which  took  place  the  very  year  after  the  act  of  parliament 
in  favour  of  the  college,  and  the  total  inability  of  ita  mem- 
bers to  avail  themselves  of  the  privileges  they  enjoyed,  for 
want  of  money  to  carry  on  such  an  undertaking,  destroyed 
all  hopes  of  advantage  from  that  source.  Of  ail  Dr.  Sut- 
diffe's  .benefitfctions,  the  college  never  possessed  more 
than  a  house  and  premises,  worth  about  3.4>/.  per  anauait 
the  greater  part  of  which  yvas  expended  in  repairs. 


SUTCLIFFE. 


33 


After  SotclifiFe^s  detth,  Dr.  Featly  (sec  Featly),  who 
was  recommended  by  the  dean,  as  his  successor,^  becaipie 
provost;  but  so  little  was  the  original  intention  of  the  in* 
stitution  regarded,  even  at  this  early  period,  that  one. 
Richard  Dean,  a  young  ^merchant,  was  made  one  of  the 
fellows.  Such  was  the  state  of  the  foundation,  when  the 
court  of  chancery,  in  163],  decreed  that  Dr.  Sutcliffe'a 
estates  should  revert  to  the  right  heirs,  upon  th(?ir  paying: 
to  the  college  the  sum  of  34Q/.  Under  these  difficulties^, 
which  were  afterwards  increased  by  a  dispute  with  lord 
Monson  about  the  lease  of  the  land  on  which  the  college, 
stood,  no  farther  progress,N  it  may  be  supposed,  was  evef 
made  in  the  building.  That  part  which  was  already  com* 
pleted>'  consisted  of  a  library,  and  a  few  rooms,  :Occupied 
by  the  provost  and  two  fellows.  For  the  subsequeot  re** 
verses  which  this  project  met  with,  as  they  are  not  con- 
nected with  the  suhj;ect  of  our  memoir,  .we  jrefer  to  our 
authorities.  On  the  site  is  now  the  Royal  Hospital  foe' 
soldiers*^ 

SUTTON  (Richard),  the  co-founder  of  Brasen-nose 
college,  Oxford,  descended  from  the  ancient  family  of  the 
Sut^cnis  of  Sutton  near  Macclesfield  in  tbe<county  palatiea 
of  Chester,  was  the  younger  son  of  sir  William  Sutton^ 
koight.  Of  the  tiqae  or.  place  of  his  birth,  we  have  no  oer^* 
^uii  account,  nor  whether  he  was  educated  in  the*univer« 
sity  to  which  he  became  so  bountiful  a  beoefactor.  He 
practised  as  a  barrister  of  the  Inner  Temple,  and  probably 
with  success.  In  1490  he  purchased  some  estates  in  Lei<< 
cestershire,  and  afterwards  fncreased  his  bnded  property  iu 
different  couaties.  In  1498,  if  not  earlier,  he  wasa  mem« 
her  of  Henry  Vllth's  privy  council,  and  attended  the  courl 
for  many  years  after.  In  1 505,  he  was  one  of  the  govern 
Qors  of  the  Inner  Temple,  and  was  in  other  years  choseu'to 
this  annual  offijoe. 

It  is  uncertain  at  what  time  be  became  steward  of  the 
monastery  of  Sion  near  Brentford  in  Middlesex,  but  ke 
occurs  in.  this* office  in*  1513,  and  had  johambecs  in  the  mo^ 
oastery,  where  be  frequently  resided.  Besides  bestowing 
estates  and  money  on  this  religious  bouse,  he  borotbe  ex* 
pense  of  publishiug  a  splendid,  and  aow  very,  rare  book»ia 
honour  of  the  house,  called  <^  The  Orcbarde  of  Syon.'^.    - 

..''  1         I.        '"•*  "* 

*'  Coolers  Catalogue  of  Civilians.— Fuller's  Cb.  HistW.— ^ysons'5  Environs.. 
-^Faulkner's  History  of  Chelsea.  ^    '  **'*  * 


History 

Vol.  XXIX. 


D 


34  SUTTON. 

'  tn  1512,  be  was  employed  in  purchasing  the  manor  of 
Pinchepolles  in  Farriiigdon,  Berkshire,  with  lands  in  Watt** 
brook  and  Farnbam  in  that  county,  which  were  given  by 
Mrs.  Morley,  and  constituted  the  first  permanent  benefac- 
tion bestowed  on  Brasen^nose  college.  He  appears  to  have 
received  the  honour  of  knighthood  in  1 522,  about  two  years 
before  his  death,  but  the  exact  time  of  the  latter  event  ia 
not  known.  As  an  annual  commemoration  of  him  is  oh* 
served  by  the  society  on  the  Sunday  after  Michaelmas,  it 
may  be  inferred  that  he  died  about  that  time.^  His  will, 
drawn  up  March  16,  1523-4^  was  proved  November  7, 
1524 ;  and  he  is  supposed  to  have  been  buried,  either  at 
Macclesfield,  tjr  in  the  monastery  of  Sion.  His  bequests 
are  almost  all  of  the  religious  or  charitable  kind.  To  these 
scanty  niemoirs  we  may  add,  in  the  grateful  language  of 
his  biographer,  that,  ^^  Unmarried  himself,  and  not  anxious 
to  aggrandize  his  family,  which  had  long  ranked  among 
the  best  in  a  county  justly  proud  of  its  ancient  gentry,  sir 
Richard  Sutton  bestowed  handsome  benefactions  and  kind 
remembrances' among  his  kinsmen;  but  he  wedded  the 
public,  and  made  posterity  his  heir.  An  active  coadjutor 
from  the  first  to  the  bishop  of  Lincoln  in  laying  the  foun- 
dation of  Brasen-nose  college,  he  completed  the  building,, 
revised  the  laws,  and  doubled  the  revenues  of  the  growing 
^minary,  leaving  it  a  perpetual  monument  of  the  4:onso- 
hdated  wisdom  and  joint  munificence  of  Smyth  and  of 
Sutton." 

'  The  estates  given  by  sir  Richard  Sutton  were,  the  manor 
of  Burgh  or  Borawe  or  Erdeborowe,  ia  the  parish  of  So-» 
merby  in  the  county  of  Leicester,  and  other  estates  in  the 
same  parish  and  neighbourhood ;  an  estate  in  the  parish  of 
St.  Mary,  Strand,  London,  which  in  1673  was  sold  to  the- 
commissioners  for  enlarging  the  streets  after  the  great  fire, 
for  the  sum  of  1700/.  and  with  this  an  estate  was  purchased 
at  Burwardescot  or  Burscot  4n  Oxfordshire,  which  has  re* 
,  cently  been  exchanged  for  other  lands  at  Stanford  in  the 
vale  of  Wfiite  Horse.  He  gave  also  the  manor  of  Cropredy 
in  the  county  of  Qxford,  and  certain  lands  there,  and  an 
estate  in  North  Ockington  or  Wokyndon,  in  the  county  of 
Essex.  All  these  sir, Richard  granted  to  the  college  by 
lease,  July  18,  1519,  and  on  Not.  29th  following,  by  a 
conveyance  under  his  own  hand  and  seal,  he  released  them 
to  the  society  for  ever.' 

A  Churton's  LiTei  of  the  Fottiidecs.--Chalmerft's  Hipt.  of  Oiford* 


SUTTON.  ,        S5 

SUTTON  .  (Thomas),  foandfflr  of  the  Charter-boase 
school  and '  hospital,  was  descended  of  the  ancient  family 
of  the  Suttons  of  Lincolnshire^  atid  was  born  at  Knaith,  in  . 
that  county,  in  153^.  He  received  the  first  part  of  his 
education  at  Eton  school,  whence  it  is  supposed  he  was 
sent  to  Cainbridgp,  and  matriculated  of  St.  John's  college, 
Nov.  27,  1551,  but  this  seems  very  doubtful,  at  least  there 
is  no  direct  proof,  and  his  being  afterwards  a. benefactor  to 
Magdalen  and  Jesus  colleges  ^ould  incline  us  tp  give  them 
the  preference,  but  his  name  does  not  occur  in  the  registers 
of  either.  He  is  said  to  have  removed  afterwards  to  Lin- 
coln^s-inn,  for  the  study  of  the  law  ;  but  this  not  suiting 
his  disposition, 'or  what  we  think  extremely  probable,  his 
father,  and  perhaps  himself,  inclining  to  the  reformation, 
he  evaded  the  miseries  of  queen  Mary's  reign,  by  employ* 
log  almost  the  whole  of  that  disastrous  period  in  travelling 
on  the  continent. 

His  father  Richard  Sutton,  steward  of  the  courts  in  Lin« 
qdn,  died  in  that  city  in  1558,  and  his  son,  on  bis  return 
home  in  1562,  found  himself  in  possession  of  considerable 
property.  He  was  now  about  thirty  years  of  age,  and  rec* 
koned  an  accomplished  gentleman.  He  was  first  retained 
by  the  duke  of  Norfolk,  whose  favours  he  acknowledges  in 
his  will  by  a  legacy  of  400/. ;  and  afterwards  became  se- 
cretary to  the  earl  of  Warwick,  and  Occasionally  also  to  his 
brother  the  earl  of  Leicester.  In  1569,  the  earl  of  War- 
wick being  master-general  of  the  ordnance,  appointed  Mr. 
Sutton  master  of  the  ordnance  at  Berwick,  a  post  of  great 
trust  at  that  time,  Berwick  being  a  frontier  garrison  "to  Scot- 
laud.  In  this  situation  he  distinguished  himself  much  on 
the  breaking  out  of  the  rebellion  in  the  north  by  the  earls 
of  Northumberland  and  Westmoreland ;  and  by  the  re- 
cotmneudatkin  of  his  two  patrons,  he  obtained  a  patent  the 
same  year  for  the  office  of  master-general  of  the  ordnance 
in  the  north,  for  life;  and  in  1573,  he  commanded  one  of 
the  five  batteries,  which  obliged  the  strong  castle  of  Edin- 
bulrgh  to  sui'render  to  the  English.  It  is  probable,  that, 
as  master-geoeral  of  the  ordnance,  he  attended  the  earl  of 
Sussex,  president  of  .the  North,  into  Scotland,  with  an 
army  in  1570^  though  he  is  not  expressly  named  iu  Cam- 
den's annals  for  that  yean  But  in  1573,  he  is  named  as 
one  of  the  cbi<$f  of.  those  1500  men  who  marched  into 
Scotland  to  the  assistance  of  the  regent,  the  earl  of  Mor- 
.  ■  D  2 


36  SUTTON. 

ton^  by  order  of  queeti  Elizabeth,  and  laid  siege  to  Edlfi* 
burgh  castle. 

While  thus  employed  in  oiiiitary  affairs,  k  appears  that 
be  made  a  very  considerable  accession  of  fortune,  by  pur* 
chasing  of  the  bishop  of  Durham  the  manors  of  Gateshead 
and  Wickbani,  with  their  valuable  coaUmines,  and  in  157<> 
obtained  a  lease  from  the  crown  for  the  term  of  seventy* 
nine  years  :  and  this  speculation  was  so  successful^  that  in 
ten  years  afterwards  he  was  reputed  to  be  worth  50,000/. 
a  very  great  sum  in  those  days.  He  was  not  less  successful 
in  1582,  when  some  time  after  his  return  to  London,  he 
married  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  John  Gardiner,  esq.  of 
Grove-place  in  the  parish  of  Chalfont  St.  Giles  in  Bucking- 
hamshire, and  widow  of  John  Dudley  of  Stoke  Newington 
in  Middlesex,  esq.  a  near  relation  of  the  earl  of  Warwick. 
By  this  lady  he  had  a  considerable  estate,  and  a  moiety  of 
the  manor  of  Stoke  Newington,  where  he  resided  as  his 
country  house.  In  the  city  about  the  same  time  he  pur- 
chased a  large  house  near  Broken  Wharf,  Thames-street, 
where  he  began  the  business  of  merchant,  and  with  such 
skill  and  success,  that'  he  was  soon  considered  as  at  the 
head  of  his  profesMon,  and  had  vast  concerns  abroad. 
These  last  he  contrived  to  be  of  importance  even  to  his 
country,  for  when  the  design  of  the  Spanish  armada  was 
first  discovered  by  sir  Francis  Walsingham,  Mr.  Sutton  had 
a  chief  hand  in  so  draining  the  bank  of  Genoa,  as  to  im- 
pede the  Spanish  monarches  supplies,  until  England  had 
time  to  prepare  her  defence.  Mr.  Sutton  was  likiiwise  one 
of  the  chief  victuallers  of  the  navy,  and  is  thought  to  have 
been  master  of  the  bark  called  Sutton  of  70  tons  and  SO 
Qien,  one  of  the  volunteers  which  attended  the  English 
fleet  against  the  Armada  in  1588.  He  is  likewise  said  to 
have  been  a  commissioner  for  prizes  under  lord  Charles 
Howard,  high  admiral  of  England,  and  going  to  sea  with 
letters  of  marque,  he  took  a  Spanish  ship  worth  00,000^^ 

In  1590,  having  married  his  wife's  daughter  by  Mr.  Dud-t 
ley,  to  Francis  Popham,  esq.  son  and  heir  to  the  lord  chief 
justice  of  that  name,  and  being  now  without  any  children^ 
or  prospect  of  any  by  Mrs.  Sutton,  he  gradually  quitted  bu- 
siness and  London,  and  resided  at  one  or  other  of  his  coun- 
try seats,  for  he  had  now  purchased  seTeral  estates.  He 
also  in  15^4  surrendered  his  patent  of  master  of  the  ordi 
nance  in  the  north,  and.  about  the  same  time  conveyed  in 
trust  all  his  estates  in  Essex  to  found  an  hospital  at  HoU 


SUTTON,  37 

Irng^Ury  Bouchers  iti  tbatcounty,  but  with  a  power  of  re« 
vocation  during  life,  which  actually  took  place,  when  he 
mediiated  his  greater  foundation  of  the  Charter-house.  In 
1602  his  wife  died  at  Balsham  in  Cambridgeshire,  where  he 
l^aci  for  some  time  resided  with  great  splendour.  She  ap* 
pears  to  have  been  a  woman  of  great  good  sense,  arfd  to 
have  contributed  so  much  to  his  comfort, .  that  after  her 
death,  he  b^an  to  wean  himself  from  the  world,  reduced 
his  household  establishment,  and  lived  in  a  comparatively 
private  manner. 

The  disposition  of  his  great  property  towards  some  cba-^ 
ritable  purpose  seems  now  to  have  engrossed  all  his  thoughts. 
Fuller,  gives  it  as  a  well-authenticated  fact,  that  ^'  Mr.  Sut- 
ton used  often  to  repair  into  a  private  garden,  where  be 
poured  forth  his  prayers  to  God,  and  was  frequently  over- 
heard to  use  this  expression,  '  Lord,  thou  hast  given  me  a 
large  and  liberal  estate,  give  me  also  a  heart  to  make  use 
thereof.'  "     A  man  of  his  property,  hesitating  only  how  he 
was  to  dispose  of  it  in  his  life-time,  could  not  be  long  without 
advisers.     It  appears  indeed  to  have  been  a  general  topic 
of  curiosity,  in  what  planner  Mr.  Sutton  would  beatow  bis 
wealthi,  and  in  1608  a  very  singular  instance  of  impertinent 
interference  occurred.     At  that  time  a  report  was  spread 
that  be  meant  to  leave  his  vast  property  to  the  duke  of 
York,  afterwards  Charles  I.;  and. in  order  tq  confirm  bim  in 
this  resolution,  a  peerage  was  to  be  offered  to  him.     This 
repon,  and  the  mean  trick  of  the  peerage,  so  revolting  to 
an  independent  mind,  he  traced  to  sir  John  Harrington, 
who  defended  himself  but  weakly.     The  matter,  however^i 
rested  there.     Among  advisers  of  a  better  kind,  was  the 
pious  and  worthy  Hall,  afterwards  bishop  of  Norwich,  who 
wrote  to  biin  a  long  letter,  exciting  him  to  come  to  some 
determination  respecting  his  intended  charity.     This  pro- 
bably was  successful,  as  it  certainly  was  acceptable,  for 
soon  after  the  receipt  of  it,  he  abandoned  bis  design  of 
building  an  hospital  in  Essex,  and  purchased  of  the  earl  of 
Sufiblk,  Howard- house,  the  late  dissolved  Charter-house 
near  Smithfield,  for  the  sum  of  1 3,000/.  and  upou  that  in 
1611  founded  the  present  hospital,  and  endowed  it  with 
the  bulk  of  bis  property.     He  intended  to  have  been  him- 
self the  first  master,  but  soon  after  the  foundation,  being 
seized  with  a  slow  fever,  and  perceiving  his  end  to  ap- 
.  proach,  be  executed  a  deed,  nominating  the  Rev.  John 
Hutton,  vicar  of  Littlebury  in  Essex,  to  that  office.     He 


38  SUTTON. 

died  at  Hackney  Dec.  12,  1611,  and  was  interred  wiik 
great  magnificence  in  the  chapel  of  the  Charter- boose, 
where  a  monument  was  erected  to  his  memory.  At  his 
death  he  was  the  richest  untitled  subject  in  the  kingdom, 
having  in  land  5000A  a  year,  and  in  money  upwards  of 
60,000/.  His  will  contains  many  individual  legacies  of  the 
charitable  kind.  Soon  after  his  death,  his  nephew,  Simon 
Baxter,  to  whom  he  left  an  estate  worth  10,000/.  and  300/* 
in  money,  all  which  he  squandered  away,  made  an  ineffee* 
tual  attempt  to  set  aside  the  will ;  the  matter  was  brought 
to  a  fair  hearing,  and  in  1613  it  was  determined  that  the 
foundation,  incorporation,  and  endowment  of  the  hospital 
was  sufficient,  good,  and  effectual  in  law«  This  attempt  of 
Baxter^s  was  much  censured  at  the  time,  and  it  is  to  be 
regretted  that  much  of  the  odium  fell  on  sir  Francis  (after- 
ward lord)  Bacon,  then  solicitor- general^  who  was  his  chief 
adviser. 

Of  Mr.  Sutton's  personal  character,  we  are  told,  that  ''he 
was  strong-built  and  compact,  of  a  middle  stature,  with  a 
good  complexion  and  agreeable  mien ;  neither  nice  nor 
negligent  in  his  apparel,  but  modest  and  clean,  enjoying  a 
good  state  of  health  till  the  decays  of  old  age  broke  in  upon 
it.  He  was  a  very  affectionate  tender  husband,  an  exact 
but  kind  master,  a  good  natured  honest  man,  sober  and  re- 
ligious both  at  home  and  abroad,  very  compassionate  and 
very  grateful."  As  a  public  benefactor,  Sutton  deserves  to 
•  be  held  in  honourable  remembrance,  and  it  is  pleasing  to 
reflect  that  his  design  has  never  been  interrupted  or  im-* 
peded  by  improper  administration,  and  that  few  schools 
have  produced  men  of  more  eminence  as  teachers  or 
scholafs. ' 

SUWORROW,  or,  as  pronounced,  SUVOROFF,  RIM- 
NIKSKI  (Count  Alexander),  an  eminent  Russian  gene- 
ral, of  an  ancient  Swedish  family,  was  born  in  1730,  or  as 
some  think  in  1732,  and  was  originally  intended  for  the 
profession  of  the  law.  His  inclinations,  however,  leading 
him  to  the  army,  he  entered  as  a  private  in  1742,  and  in 
1754  had  attained  the  rank  of  lieutenant.  He  made  his 
first  campaign  in  the  seven  years  war  against  the  Prussians 
in  1759,  and  entered  upon  actual  service  under'  prince 
Wolgonski.  He  marched  against  the  Prussians  with  the 
rank  oflfirst  major ;  and  was  at  the  battle  of  Kimnersdorf, 

1  Life  by  Bearcroft.— Hearne'fl  **  Domus  Carthasiana."— Biog.  Brit.— Mal- 
colm's Ltndiniam  RediviTam,  vol.  I.—- ^uHer^s  Worthies. 


8  U  W  O  II  R  O  W.  39 

and  at  the  taking  of  Berlin.  He  this  campaign  signalized 
himself  by  many  acts  of  valour,  until  the  year  1762,  when 
a  truce  was  made  between  Prussia  and  Russia,  which  was 
followed  by  a  peace.  Although  he  was  attached  to  the  in- 
fantry service,  count  Romanzow  presented  him  at  the  gene- 
ral promotion  as  colonel  of  cavalry,  from  his  superior  know- 
ledge in  that  department  of  the  army  ;  but  there  were  cer- 
tain obstacles  which  caused  that  line  of  promotion  to  be 
abandoned.  Soon  after,  the  count  Panin,  who  commanded 
in  Pomerania,  sent  him  to  Petersburgh  with  an  account  of 
the  return  of  the  troops.  On  this  occasion  be  gave  him  a 
special  letter  of  recommendation  to  the  empress,  who  pre- 
aented  him  a  coloners  commission,  written  with  her  own 
hand. 

In  August  1762  he  was  appointed  colonel  of  the  regi- 
ment of  infantry  of  Astracan,  which  was  in  garrison  at. 
Petersburgh  ;  and  when  the  ceremonial  of  her  coronation 
called  the  empress  to  Moscow,  she  ordered  him  to  remain 
at  Petersburgh,  where  she  charged  him  with  the  execution^ 
of  some  very  important  commissions.  After  her  return,  his 
regiment  was  sent  to  distant  service,  and  was  replaced  by 
the  infantry  of  Susdal,  consisting  of  more  than  a  thousand 
men,  of  which  he  received  the  command  in  1763.  In  au- 
tumn of  the  following  year  he  went  into  garrison  at  Ladoga. 
In  1768  he  was  advanced  to  the  rank  of  brigadier;  and  as 
the  war  was  just  commenced  against  the  cori federates  of 
Poland,  he  was  ordered  to  repair  with  all  speed  to  the  fron- 
tiers of  that  kingdom  in  the  course  of  November,  and  in 
the  most  unfavourable  season  of  the  year.  During  the 
winter  he  was  continually  engaged  in  improving  his  regi- 
ment in  their  manoeuvres,  and  habituating  them  to  every 
action  that  would  be  required,  and  every  circumstance  that 
might  happen  in  a  state  of  actual  service.  In  the  follew- 
ing  summer  of  1769  these  troops  were  stationed  on  the 
frontiers  of  Poland,  from  whence  they  were  sent  to  War- 
saw, a  march  of  eighty  German  miles,  which  he  completed 
in  twelve  days.  He  overcame  Kotelpowski,  near  Warsaw,' 
and  defeated  and  dispersed  the  troops  commanded  by  the 
two  Pulawskis.  He  afterwards  took  up  his  quarters  at  Lub- 
lin ;  and  the  Russian  army  in  Poland  requiring  the  estab- 
lishment of  four  major-generals,  he  was  advanced  to  that 
rank  on  the  1st  of  January,  1770. 

In  the  middle  of  the  summer,  when  colonel  Moschinski 
had  gained  a  jreinfercement,  our  general  gained  a  second 


40  SUWOHROW. 

victory  over  him  ;  and  in  the  autumn  of  the  same  year  he 
attempted  an  operation  on  the  Vistula,  but  from  the  rapi- 
dity of  the  current  he  missed  the  pontoon  in  leaping  from 
.the  bank,  and  falling  into  the  river,  was  in  gr^at  danger  of 
.being  drowned.  After  many  fruitless  attempts^to  save  him, 
a  grenadier  at  length  seized  a  lock  of  his  hair,  and  drew 
))im  to  the  bank  ;  but  in  getting  out  of  the  water  he  structc 
.his  breast  against  a  pontoon,  which  caused  a  violent  coti« 
tusion,  that  threatened  his  life,  and  from  which  he  did  not 
recover  for  several  months.  Towards  the  end  of  the  year 
,the  empress  sent  him  the  order  of  St.  Anne. 

We  shall  not  detail  all  the  various  exploits  of  the  gener 
ral;  it  will  be  sufficient  to  take  notice  of  the  principal  of 
them.  He  afterwards  fought  and  beat  the  army  of  the  cour 
federates  under  Pulawski  and  Nowisi,  and  the  empress  con- 
ferred on  him  the  order  of  St.  George  of  the  third  class,  as 
a  testimony  of  the  satisfaction  she  had  received  from  bis 
services.  A  second  confederation  being  formed  in  Lithuar 
Ilia,  the  general  again  defeated  the  army  under  Oginski ; 
and  this  victory  was  considered  so  important  that  the  em-r 
press  sent  him,  as  conqueror  of  the  grand  marshal,  the  or- 
der of  Alexander.  This  victory  was  obtained  on  the  1  Ith 
of  September,  1771.  * 

The  confederates  soon  after  surprized  Cracow,  which 
obliged  Suworrow  to  hasten  and  blockade  the  place.  After 
some  time  it  capitulated.  On  this  occasion  he  shewed  his 
magnanimity  to  Mons.  Choisi,  on«  of  the  French  officers, 
to  whom  he  said,  on  being  offered  his  sword,  "I  cannot 
receive  the  sword  of  a  gallant  man  in  the  service  of  a  king, 
who  is  the  ally  of  my  own  sovereign."  Tranquillity  was 
soon  ^fter  restored  to  Poland,  where  Suworrow  served  du- 
ring four  years  withoi|t  interruption.  Independent  of  the 
nuxnerous  inferior  actions  and  multiplied  skirmishes,  in 
which  his  courage  was  always  displayed,  and  his  military 
capacity  never  failed  to  appear;  he  was  covered  with  glory 
by  the  victory  of  Stalowiz  and  the  capture  of  Cracow: 
which  gave  the  promise  of  that  brilliaat  career  that  he 
.afterwards  run. 

In  September  1772  he  was  attached  to  the  corps  ofge- 
^neral.  Elippt,  ordered  to  Finland  by  the  way  of  Petersburg, 
where  he  arriyed  in  the  winter.  In  Feb.  1773,  he  was  em- 
ployed in  inspecting  the  frontiers  of  Finland,  where  he 
heard  every  complaint^  and  made  every  necessary  commu- 
nication to  redress  them.    Towards  the  spring  the  congress 


S  U  W  O  E  H  O  W,  41 

of  the  Turks  at  Soczan  separated ;  the  truce  was  at  an  end^ 
and  it  appeared  as  if  war  would  be  rekindled.  Our  gene-> 
ral  now  received  orders  to  join  the  army  in  Moldavia,  where 
be  served  under  tield  marshal  Roymanzow.  The  years  1773 
and  1774  included  the  first  Turkish  war.  In  ]Vlay  1773  be 
arrived  at  Jassy,  and  received  a  command.  He. then  passed 
the  Danube,  and  defeated  the  Turks  atTurtukey.  On  this 
victory  he  dispatched  an  account  to  marshal  Romanzow,  iii 
the  following  terms  : 

**  Honour  and  glory  to  God  !    Glory  to  you  Romanzow  J 
We  are  in  possession  of  Turtukey,  and  I  am  in  it. 

"^UWORROW.'* 

As  a  recompence  for  this  victory  the  empress  transmitted 
to  him  the  cross  of  the  order  of  St.  George.  During  the 
reoiainder  of  the  war,  which  was  of  short  continuance,  Su- 
worrow  was  constantly  engaged  and  constantly  successful ; 
and  after  the  peace  was  ordered  to  Moscow,  to  assist  in  ap- 
peasing the  troubles  occasioned  by  the  famous  rebel  Pu- 
gatcbefF,  whom  he  took  prisoner,  For  several  years  after 
this  Suworrow  was  employed  in  the  Crimea,  on  the  Cu« 
ban,  and  against  the  Nogay  Tartars,  in  a  kind  of  ser« 
vice  which,  however  important  to  the  empress,  furnished 
no  opportunities  for  that  wonderful  display  of  promptitude 
and  resource  which  bad  characterised  his  more  active  cam- 
paigns. 

In  the  end  of  the  year  1786,  Suworrow  was  promoted  to 
the  rank  of  general-in-chief ;  and  at  the  breaking  out  of  the 
war  with  the  Turks  in  1787,  he  shewed  how  well  he  Was 
entitled  to  that  rank,  by  his  masterly  defence  of  Kinburn; 
a  place  of  no  strength,  but  of  great  importance,  as  it  is  si- 
tuated at  the  mouth  of  the  Dneiper,  opposite  to  Oczakow. 
At  the  siege  of  Oczakow  he  commanded  the  left  wing  of 
the  army  under  prince  Potemkin,  and  was  dangerously 
wounded.  In  1789,  be  was  appointed  to  the  command  of 
the  army  which  was  to  co-operate  with  the  prince  of  Saxe 
Cobourgin  Walachia,  and  on  the  22d  of  September,  gained, 
in  conjunction  with  that  prince,  the  memorable  victory  of 
Rymnik,  over  the  Turks,  dne  of  the  greatest  that  has  ever 
been  achieved.  According  to  the  least  exaggerated  ac-' 
counts,  the  Turkish  army  amounted  to  90,000  or  100,000 
men,  while  that  of  the  allies  did  not  exceed  25,000.  The 
carnage  was  dreadful,  no  quarter  having  been  given  to  the 
Turks,  and  on  this  account  the  Russian  general  has  been 
charged  with  savage  barbarity.     It  is  said,  however,  that 


4«  BUWORROW: 

the  commanders  of  the  allied  army,  aware  of  the  immensii 
foperiority  of  their  enemies,  had  resolved,  before  the  en- 
gagement, not  to  encumber  themselves  with  prisoners,  whom 
they  could  not  secure  without  more  than  hazarding  the  fate 
of  the  day.  The  taking  of  Bender  and  Belgrade  were  the 
immediate  consequences  of  the  victory  of  Rymnik,  for  bis 
share  in  which  Suworrow  was  created  a  count  of  the  Roman 
empire  by  the  emperor  Joseph,  and  by  his  own  sovereign, 
a  cou^t  of  the  empire  of  Russia  with  the  title  of  Rymnik« 
ski,  and  the  order  of  St.  Andrew  of  the  first  class. 

His  next  memorable  exploit  was  the  taking  of  Ismailow 
in  1790,  which  he  accomplished  after  a  most  furious  assault 
in  about  eleven  hours.  In  this  dreadful  space  of  time,  the 
Ottomans  lost  33,000  men  killed  or  dangerously  wounded : 
10,000  who  were  taken  prisoners:  besides  6000  women  and 
children,  and  2000  Christians  of  Moldavia,  who  fell  in  the 
general  massacre.  The  plunder  was  immense ;  but  Suwor-* 
row,  ^ho  was  inaccessible  to  any  views  of  private  interest, 
did  not  appropriate  to  himself  a  single  article,  not  so  much 
as  a  horse,  of  which  about  10,000,  many  extremely  beau* 
tiful,  were  fbund  in  the  place.  Having,  accofding  to  his  - 
custom,  rendered  solemn  thanks  to  God  for  his  victory,  he 
wrote  to  prinbe  Potemkin  the  following  Spartan  letter ; 
**  The  Russian  colours  wave  on  the  ramparts  of  Ismailow.^' 

Peace  being  concluded  with  the  Turks  in  December 
1791,  no  political  events  occurred  from  that  period  to  call 
forth  the  tnilitary  talents  of  Suworrow  till  1794,  when  he 
was  sent  to  disarm  the  Poles  in  Red  Russia,  as  a  step  to- 
wards the  partition  of  Poland  then  concerted  between  the 
empress,  the  emperor,  and  the  king  of  Prussia.  He  after- 
Wards  stormed  and  took  Praja,  with  immense  slaughter, 
and  Warsaw  having  consequently  capitulated,  the  king- 
dom of  Poland  was  overturned.  Suworrow's  character  has 
suffered  by  the  conduct  of  the  taking  of  Praja  as  well  as 
that  of  Ismailow;  but  it  is  not  our  purpose  to  enter  into  a 
discussion  on  the  subject,  still  less  on  the  policy  of  the 
partition  of  Poland.  Suworrow  never  appears  to  have  en- 
tered into  the  niceties  of  political  deliberation.  He  was  a 
mere  soldier  who  obeyed  the  commands  of  his  superiors, 
and  we  have  every  reason  to  think,  tempered  them  with  as 
much  lenity  as  the  difficult  circumstances  in  which  he  was 
frequently  placed,  would  admit.  For  his  services  in  Po^ 
land,  the  empress  advanced  him  to  the  rank  of  field-marsh&l- 
general,  loaded  him  with  jewels^  and  presented  him  with 


S  U  W  O  R  R  O  W,  4S 

an  estate  of  7000  peasants,  in  the  district  of  Kubin,  which 
had  been  the  scene  of  his  first  batite  iii  the  course  of  this 
campaign. 

From  the  subjugation  of  Poland  we  hear  little  more  of 
Suworrow,  until  he  entered  upon  his  career  in  Italy,  when 
the  emperor  Paul,  who  had  succeeded  his  mother  on  the 
throne  of  Russia,  joined  in  the  confederacy  against  France 
in  1799,  He  assumed  the  command  of  the  combined  army 
of  Russians  and  Austrians,  and  such  was  his  success  that 
the  French  lost,  one  after  another,  all  the  principal  towns 
in  the  north  of  Italy,  and  were  defeated  in  the  bloody  bat**^ 
tie  of  Novi.  After  that  action,  Suworrow  crossed  the  Alps, 
and  marched  into  Swisserland,  driving  the  French  from 
mount  St.  Gothard.  But  here  bis  gallant  career  was  inters 
rupted  by  the  defeat  of  another  division  of  the  Russians, 
who  were  attacked  by  the  French  general  Massena  near 
Zurich,  and  obliged  to  cross  the  Rhine  intp  Germany. 
This  disaster,  with  the  failure  of  the  expected  aid  from  the 
Austrians,  obliged  Suworrow,  who  was  opposed  by  Moreau, 
to  commence  a  fighting  retreat  towards  the  lake  of  Con-* 
stance;  and  after  prodigious  exertions  of  valour,  he  arrived 
there  with  a  much  diminished  army,  and  effected  a  junction 
with  the  remainder  of  the  troops  that  had  been  defeated  by 
Massena.  He  was  now  recalled  home,  and  under  the  pres- 
sure of  fatigue,  vexation,  and  fever,  reached  Petersburgh, 
where  he  soon  fell  into  a  childish  state,  and  died  May  IS, 
1800<i  His  capricious  master  is  said  to  have  displayed  his 
resentment  by  refusing  the  usual  military  honours  to  his  re- 
mains, and  even  deprived  his  son  of  his  rank  of  major-ge- 
neral. The  present  emperor  Alexander,  however,  repaired 
t]iis  injustice  to  the  memory  of  an  officer  so  brave  and  faith- 
ful, by  erecting  his  statue  in  xhe  imperial  gardens.  Ano- 
ther account  says  that  Paul,  although  he  endeavoured  to 
disgrace  Suworrow  at  the  end  of  his  life,  ordered  him. a. 
magnificent  funeral. 

In  his  person  Suworrow  was  tall,  considerably  exceeding 
six  feet,  and  full  chested.  -  His  countenanqe  was"  stern ; 
but  among  his  friends  his  manners  were  pleasant,  and  his 
dispositions  were  kind.  His  temper  was  naturally  violent;, 
but  that  violence  he  constantly  laboured  to  moderate,  though 
he  was  never  able  completely  to  extinguish  it.  According 
to  Mr.  Antbing,  an  effervescent  spirit  of  impatience  pre« 
dominated  in  his  character;  and  it  perhaps  never  happened 
(says  that  author)  that  the  execution  of  his  orders  equalled 


44.  ^  U  W  O  R  R  O  W. 

the  rapidity  of  his  wishes.  Though  he  di^lik^d  all  pubUc: 
^tUeriainnientSy  yet  when  circumstaiuses  led  him  to  any  of 
them,  he  appeared  to  partake,  and  endeavoured  to  promote, 
the  general  pleasure.  Sometimes  he  condescended  even 
to  dance  and  play  at  card's,  though  very  rarely,  and  merely 
that  he  might  not  interrupt  the  etiquette  of  public  man* 
ners,  to  which,  when,  not  in  the  field,  he  was  very  attentive. 
In  the  field  he  may  be  said  to  have  spent  the  whole  of  hia 
life  from  the  period  at  which  he  first  joined  the  army  in  the 
seven  years^  war ;  for  during  the  time  he  was  not  engaged 
in  actual  warfare,  and  that  tio^e,  taken  altogether,  did  not 
exceed  twelve  years,  he  was  always  placed  at  the  head  of 
armies  stationed  on  the  frontier  of  some  en^my^s  country* 
He  was  therefore  a  mere  warrior,  and  as  such  had  no  fixed 
habitation.  With  respect  to  his  (able  and  lodging,,  bei 
contented  himself  with  whatever  he  found,  requiring  no- 
thing but  what  absolute  necessity  demands,  and  what  might 
be  transpprted  with  ease  from  one  place  to  another.  His 
couch  poDsisted  of  a  heap  of  fresh  hay  sufficiently  elevated^ 
anc^  scattered  into  considerable  breadth,  with  a  white  sheet 
spread  over  it,  a.  cushion  for  his  pillow,  and  a  cloak  for  his 
coverlid.  For  the  last  twenty  years  of  his  life,  he  never 
made  use  of  a  looking-glass,  or  incumbered  his  person  with 
either  watch  or  money. 

He  was  sincerely  attached  to  the  religion  of  his  country, 
and  a  strict  observer  of  its  rites,  which  he.. equally  strictly 
enjoined  on  all  under  his  command.  His  biographer  as* 
sures  us  that  from  his  earliest  years  he  was  enamoured  of 
the  sciences,  and  improved  himself  in  them ;  but  as  the 
military  science  was  the  sole  object  of  his  regard,  those 
authors  of  every  nation  who  investigate,  illustrate,  or  im-r 
prove  it,  engrossed  his  literary  leisure.  Hence  Cornelius 
Nepos  was  ivith  him  a  favourite  classic  ;  and  he  read,  with 
great  avidity  and  attention,  the  histories  of  Mohtecuculi 
and  Turenne.  Cssar,  however,  and  Charles  XII.  were 
the  heroes  whom  he  most  admired,  and  whose  activity  and 
courage  became  the  favourite  objects  of  his  imitation.  The 
love  of  his  country,  and  the  ambition  to  contend  in  arms 
for  its  glory,  were  the  predominant  passions  of  his  active 
life ;  and  to  them  he  sacrificed  every  inferior  sentiment, 
and  consecrated  all  the  powers  of  his  body  and.mind.^ 

SUZE,  Countess.     SeeCOUGNI. 

1  H»tory^  of  his  Campaigns  by  Anthiog.— -Encycl.  Britao. 


SWAMMEItDAM.  ♦« 

i 

'  SWAMMERDAM  (John),  an  eminent  naturaliiBt  and 
anatomisty  was  born  at  Amsterdam  in  1637,  where  bit  fa« 
ther  was  an  apothecary,  and  had  a  museum  of  natural  hifr* 
lory.  He  intended  his  son  for  the  church,  and  with  this 
view  gare  him  a  classical  education,  but  the  boy  prevailed 
upon  him  to  let  him  apply  to  physic.  He  was  therefore 
kept  at  home,  till  he  should  be  properly  qualified  to  en- 
gage in  that  study,  and  frequently  employed  in  cleaaiog, 
and  arranging  the  articles  of  his  father's  collection.  From 
this  occupation  be  acquired  a  taste  for  natural  history,  ^nd 
soon  began  to  form  a  museum  of  his  own.  Entomology 
having  particularly  struck  his  fancy,  he  became  indefi^tt- 
gable  in  discovering,  catching,  and  examining,  the  flying 
insects,  not  only  in  the  province  of  Holland,  but  in  those 
of  Goeldreland  and  Utrecht.  In  1661  he  went  to  Leydeti, 
to  pursue  his  studies,  which  he  did  with  so  much  success, 
that,  in  1663,  he  was  admitted  a  candidate  of  physic,  after 
undergoing  the  examinations  prescribed  on  that  occasion. 
On  his  arrival  at  Leyden,  he  contracted  a  friendship  with 
the  great  anatomist^  Nicolas  Steno,  and  ever  after  lived 
with  him  in  intimacy. 

The  arcana  of  anatomy  now  exciting  his  curiosity,,  one 
of  his  first  objects  was  to  consider  how  the  parts  of  the 
body,  prepared  by  dissection,  could  be  preserved  in  a  state 
for  anatomical  demonstration ;  and  in  this  he  succeeded^ 
as  he  had  done  before  in  his  nicer  contrivances  to  dissect 
and  prepare  the  minutest  insects.  After  this,  he  made  a 
journey  into  France,  where  he  spent  some  time  at  Saumur 
with  Tanaquil  Faber,  and  made  a  variety  of  observations 
upon  insects.  From  Saumur  be  went  to  Paris,  in  1664, 
where  he  lived  in  the  same  house  with  his  friend  Steno. 
He  likewise  contracted  an  intimacy  with  Thevenot,  who 
strenuously  recommended  him  to  Conrad  Van  Beuningen, 
a  senator  and  burgomaster  of  Amsterdam,  and  at  that  |ime 
that  republic's  minister  at  the  court  of  France  :  Beuningen 
obtained  leave  for  Swammerdam,  at  his  return  home,  to 
dissect  the  bodies  of  such  patients  as  should  happen  to  die 
in  the  hospital  of  that  city. 

He  returned  to  Leyden  to  take  his  degrees ;  and  took  the 
occasion  of  his  stay  there  to  cultivate  a  friendship  with  Van 
Home,  who  had  been  formerly  his  preceptor  in  anatomy. 
It  was  at  this  time,  Jan.  1667,  that  in  Van  Home's  house, 
Swammerdam  first  injected  the  uterine  vessels  of  a  human 
subject  with  ceraceous  matter,,  which  most  useful  art  he 


46  S  W  A  M  M  E  R  D  A  M* 

afterwardf  brottght  to  great  perfection.  la  February  the 
same  year,  he  was  admitted  to  bis  degree  as  doctor  of  pby« 
sic,  after  having  publicly  maintained  his  thesis  on  respira-* 
tion;  which  was  then  conceived  only  in  short  and  con- 
tracted arguments,  but  appeared  soon  after  with  consider- 
able  additions,  with  a  dedication  to  Thevenot.  It  was  thus 
that  &wammerdam  cultivated  anatomy  with  the  greatest  art 
and  labour,  in  conjunction  with  Van  Home ;  but  a  quartan 
ague,  which  attacked  him  this  year,  brought  him  so  very 
low,  that  he  found  himself  under  a  necessity  of  discon* 
tinuiog  these  studies ;  which,  on  his  recovery,  he  entirely 
neglected,  in  order  to  give  himself  up  to  his  favourite  pur* 
suit  of  entomology.  * 

In  1668,  the  grand  duke  of  Tuscany  being  then  in  Hoi-' 
land  with  Mr.  Thevenot,  in  order  to  see  the  curiosities  of 
the.  country,  came  to  view  those  of  Swammerdam  and  his 
father ;  and  on  this  occasion,  our  author  dissected  some 
insects  in  the  presence  of  that  prince,  who  was  struck  with 
admiration  at  his  uncommon  dexterity  in  handling  those 
minute  objects,  and  especially  at  his  proving,  that  the  fu-r 
ture  butterfly  lies  with  ail  its  parts  neatly  folded  up  in  a 
caterpillar;    by  actually  removing  the    integuments  that 
cover  the  former,  and  extricating  and  exhibiting  all  its 
parts,  however  minute,  with  incredible  ingenuity,  and  by 
ineans  of  instruments  of  an  inconceivable  fineness.     On 
this  occasion  his  highness  o£Fered  him  12,000  florins  for  his 
share  of  the  collection,  provided  he  would  remove  them 
into-Tuscany,  and  live  at  the  court  of  Florence ;  but  Swam- 
merdam,  from  religious  motives,  as  well  as  a  dislike  of  a 
court  life,  declined  the  proposal.     He  now  coiitinued-his 
researches  into  the  nature  and  properties  of  insects,  and  in 
1669,  he  published  a  general  history  of  them,  a  work  which 
afterwards  proved  the  lasting  monument  of  his    talents. 
But,  in  the  mean  time  his  father  resenting  his  neglect  of 
his  profession,  endeavoured  to  recall  him  to  it  by  refusing 
him  any  pecuniary  aid.     This  induced  him  at  last  to  pro- 
^    mise  to  resume  his  profession ;  but,  as  he  had  injured  his 
health  by  the  closeness  of  his  studies,  a  retirement  to  the 
country  for  some  time  was*  requisite  that  he  might  recover 
"  his  strength,"  and  return  to  his  business  with  new  force  and 
«  spirits.     He  was,  however,  scarcely  settled  in  his  country 
retirement,  when,   in  1670,  he  relapsed  into  his  former 
occupation.     Thevenot,  in  the  mean  time,  informed  of  the 
disagreement  betweeji  Swammerdam  and  bis  father^  did 


3WAMMERDAM.  47 

a)l  thftt  lay  in  his  pawer  to  engage  tbe  former  to  retire  into 
France,  and  probably  some  amicable  arrangement  mi^bt 
have  been  made,  had  not  Swammerdam,  in  1673,  formed 
ft  connection  with  the  then  famous  Antonia  Bourignen,  and 
became  totally  absorbed  in  all  ber  mystieitm  and  devout 
reveries.  After  this  he  grew  altogether  careless  of  the 
pursuits  in  which  he  bad  so  much  delighted,  and  withdrew 
himself  in  a  great  measure  from  the  world,  and  followed 
and  adopted  all  the  enthusiasms  of  Antonia.  In  this  per* 
s.uasion  he  neglected  his  person,  wasted  away  to  the  figure 
of  a  skeleton  by  his  various  acts  of  mortification,  and  died 
at  Amsterdam  in  1680.  , 

Tbe  works  of  thi&  celebrated  anatomist  and  naturalist, 

are,  1.  *^  Tractatus  Physico-Anatomico-Medicus  de  Respi- 

ratione,"  Leyden,  1667,  1677»  and  1679,  in  8vo,  and  17aS, 

4tou     2.  ^<  General  History  of  Insects,*'  Utrecht,  1669, 4to, 

in  Dutch,  but  published  there  in  1685,  4to,  in  French,  and 

at  Leyden,  in  Latin,  1685,  with  fine  engravings.     3*  ^<  Mi- 

taculum  Naturae,  seu,  uteri  muliebris  fabrica,"  Leyden^ 

1672,  1679,   1717,  1729,  4 to,,  with   plates.     He  was  im-> 

polled  to  this  publication  by  Van  Horne,  who  bad  claimed 

9ome  of  bis  discoveries.     4.  '^  Historta  Insectorum  gene* 

ralis;  adjicltur  diluctdatio,  qu&  specialid  cnjusFis  ordittis 

exempla  figuris  accuratissimd,  tarn  uaturali  magnitudine, 

quam  ope  microscopii  aucta,    illustrantur,'*   Leyd.  1733, 

4to.     This  translation  of  his  history  of  insects  is  by  Hen- 

pinius,  but  the  best  edition  of  this  valuable  work  is  that 

which  appeared  at  Leydeu^in  1737,  2  vols,  folio,  under  the 

title  '*  Biblia  Naturae,  sive,  Historia  Insectorum  in  daises 

certas  reducta,  &c.*'  -  The  learned  owe  this  to  Boerhaave, 

for  the  manuscript  having  been  left  by  tbe  author  to  his 

executors,  had  been  banded  about  till  it  was  difficult  to  be 

traced.     Of  this  an  English  translation  was  published  in 

1757,  folio,  by  sir  John  Hill  and  others,  and  with  Boer* 

baave*s  plates.' 

SWANEVELT  '(Herman),  an  eminent  Flemish  land- 
scape painter,  was  born  in  1620,  and  is  generally  said  to 
have  been  the  disciple  of  Gerard  .Douw ;  but  he  went  very 
young  to  Italy,  and  placed  himself  with  Claude  Lorraine, 
and  soon  proved  worthy  of  so  distinguished  a  master.  He 
studied  nature  incessantly ;  and  very  frequently,  along  with 
Claude,  observed  the  tingings  of  the  morniog^light  on  tbe 

I  Life  Vj[r  Bo«riiMTe.-^BIojr*  Diet..  Hist,  dt  M«d«ciB«. 


4S  S  W  A  N  E  V  E  L  T. 

surfaces  of  different  objects,  on  the  monntains,  rocks,  trees, 
skiesy  and  waters;  and  the  various  effects  of  light  at  noon 
and  evening;  by  which  he  was  enabled  to  give  his  own', 
works  so  much  truth  and  nature,  as  wiH  for  ever  render 
them  extremely  estimable,  and  in  his  life-time  they  were  . 
sold  for  very  high  prices.     He  also  enriched  his  ideas  j»f, 
frequenting  the  elegant  remains  of  antiquity  about  Rome,, 
and  in  that  study  spent  all  his  leisure  hours,  and  from  his 
rattted  manner  of  life,  although  he  was  by  birth  a  Fleming, 
he  was  distinguished  by  the  name  of  the  Hermit  of  Italy. 
The  reputation  whiefa  his  pictures  procured  him,  and  the  \ 
demand  he  had  for  them,  excited  in  some  degree  the  jea^ 
lousy  of  Claude,  which  is  a  proof  bow  near  he  approached 
him.     He  etched  also  in  a  bold,  free,  and  mai^teriy  style, 
and  ptdbtished,  from  his  own  designs,  various  sets  of  land- 
scapes, amounting  in  all  to  one  hundred  and  fourteen.    He 
died  tn  1 6ao.' 

8WEDENBORG  (Emanuel),    a  Swedish  entbVisiast, . 
and  the  founder  of  a  wel(«known;  although,  we  t^iist^  de- 
ctiniiig  sect,  was  born  ^t  Stockholm  Jan'.  2d,   1-6^9.    '  His 
fatb«r  was;bishop  of  WHt  Gotbia,  and  it  may  be  supposed 
that  his  eoucHion  was  g'ood,  since  be  published  a  volunre  *' 
of  Latin  poetry  when  he  was  only  twenty  years  old;    TUe 
titte  was,  **Ludtts  Heliconios,  siveOarmina  IMfiscellanea,' 
^use  variis  in  lociscecinit.^'     The  same  year  he  began 'hi%; 
travels ;  and  having  visited 'England,  Hx)Hand|  France,  and,\ 
Germany,  returned  in  1714  to  Stockholm^  wher6  t^o  yeafft 
after,'  he  was  appointed  by  Cltarles'^II;  assessor  of 'ibe^t 
metallsa  cotlcge.-     His  studies  during  thi^'prart  of  'hi^  life,' 
were  chiefly  devoted  to  tnathemahcs  and  lit^tnral  phtloso- ' 
phy ;  wad'he  was  essentially  useful  to  hrs  king  jby  enabliti^  / 
him  to  convey  his  heavy  artillery  by  wat^r,  Vh0re 'they ' 
could  not.  go  by  land*     He  publish^  abotit  thh  pWio'c^ 
xuany  acientifical  and  philosophical  works  ;  artd  succeedin 
to  the  favour  of  queen  Ulrica  Eleandra,'  after'the  death  6 
Charles  XIL  was  by  her  ennobled  in  171'^;    In  ^ursuimcd^  * 
of  bis  duty,  as  belonging  to  the  metallic  ct)Hegej  he  tra* 
veiled  to  vie%v  the  mines,  and  then  in^peeted  also'itbe  ma-'* 
|)u6ictuKes  of  bis  country.*  In  consequence  of  thts,  he 
pubU3bedi.several  tracts  on  subjects  ;felatrt{^  to  tK'^  pfailb-'  , 
sophy  of  die  arts.     He  returned  to.Sh>ckhohn'tri  itl^^  and 

divided:  bis  time  between '  the  duties'^f  iih*afRce  ind  lAk 

1  .      ..•  .'  ... 


t 

I  I 


I  ArftnTiUe,  vol.  |U.-Ml»ilklttgtoa  iiid  StralUl   i     : 


8  W  £  O  £  N  B  O  R  <^.  49 

fKittim  sladies.  In  173S,  he  had  coaifdcted  his  great 
MFork^  entitled  **  Opera  Phiiosopbica  et  Mineralta,"  which 
WES  piinted  mider  bia  direction  in  1734,  partly  At  Dresden^ 
«nd  partly  at  Leipsic.  It  forms  3  vols,  foliar  is  iUustrateA 
by:  plates^  and  is  written  with  great  strength  ofi  judgment* 
In  1 7^,  be  bad  heen  admitted  ii^o  the  society  of  sciences 
at  Upsal;  and  between  that  and  1724^  had  received  a 
aimttar  honour  from  the  royal  academy  at  Steckhokni  and 
that  of  Petefsburgb.  He  corresponded  also  with  many 
learned  foreigners*  But  the  time  was  now  approaching 
when  all  the  desire  of  baron  Swedenborg,  for  literary  or 
other  worldly  distinction^  was  'to  be  absoi^d  in  feelii^  of 
•  soblimer  natore*  Whether  too  intense  an,  application  to 
study  had  disordered^  or  a  natural  tendency  to  enthusiasm 
bad  inflamed  his  mind,  he  conceived  himself  miraculously 
called  to  the  office  of  revealing  the  most  hidden  arcanv* 
^'Itt  the  year  174V'  ^^  '^P^  ^^  o^^  of  his  works,  <<tbe 
Lord  was  graciously  plei^ed  to  manifest  himself  to  me,  tn 
4t  pcnoHidl  uppemranct ;  to  open  in  me  a  sight  of  the  spiri- 
tual wdrld,  and  to  enable  me  to  converse  with  spirits  and 
angels ;  and  this  privilege  has  continued  with  me  to  this 
dlty.^^  From  this  time,  he  .devoted  his  ymry  able  pen  to 
aiicfa  subjects  as  this  most  extraordinary  state  of  mind  sug* 
geated^  He  published,  ''  De  cultu  et  Amore  Bei,"  Lend. 
1T4S,  4to;  *<  De  telluribus  in  mundo  nostro  solari,"  1758; 
^  Oe  Equo  albo  in  Apocalypai,*'  |758 ;  <<  D^  nova  Hiero- 
aoljrmaj^*  <^  De  Ccelo  et  Inferno ;"  ^^SapientiaangeUcfa  d^ 
Dmna  Promlentia,"  Amsterdam,  1764  \  ^^  Vera  Christianfa 
religio,^*  Amat  1771;  and  piany  other  books.  He  parti^ 
colariy  visited  Amsterdam  and  London,  where  these  ex^ 
travagant  works  were  published,  and  where  they  have  since 
been  tmuslated  by  his  admirers.  One  of  bis  fancies  about 
the  spiritual  world  is,  that  it  admits  not  of  space :  yet'  he 
teUs  us,  that  a  man  is  so  little  changed  after  deaths  that  he 
does  not  even  know  that  be  is  not  living  in  the  present 
world  ;  that  he  eats  and  drinks^  and  even  enjoys  conjugal 
ifelightB^  as  in  the  present  world;  thai  the  resemblance 
between  the  two  worlds  is  ao  great,  that  in  the  spiritual 
there  are  cities,  -  palaces,  houses,  books,  merchandise  '&c. 
&o«f-^UolverMl  Theology,  voL  L  p.  734. . '  This  extraordi^ 
nary  man  died  in  London,  March  29,  1771^;  his  remains 
lay  in  state,  and  were  afterwarda  deposited  in  a  vault  in  the 
Swedish  church  near  RadcIifF-highway. 

Swedenborg  was,  in  himself,  a  harmless^  ttiough  a  very 
Vox.  XXIX.  E 


M  S  W  ED  E  N  B  O  R  01 

omidsrmueii  progress  daring. bis  Hfey  but  is  i¥>w.«»tabU9heKi 
ia^Englaod,  (tnnder  ^betitie  of  Tha  Nmv  JtrjMUmn  Qm^h. 
JiiMia  Mod  .<of>ChrisU»nttyy  ^modified  aecovdiog^ta  tb* 
.whifw  oi  die  nutlior;  jacknowledging  a  Triiiiiy^  ,b«|l..i^t 
«ili«ul]r  in ,  thai  4ense  0f  any  other  chiu^^  and  >an  jiqi^  in 
A  peculiars  s^Btfe  9lso>;  pretending  tbat  the  spiritual  «Qn$^  pf 
iJur  Soriptuccfi  was  oenrei  ktioim  till  it  waarev^^JM.io^Sw^'*' 
(dflubprg.  Tbft  cMtiiuiad  intarcoorsens^f  apivils  with  meo  it 
iMft0ipaifit>Df>bt$ixk>ctriBe!;  mth.many  otber  r^evierieftr  ^'vtoii 
inroald  hardly  appear  to  deceive  npdoe,  w^ereibsy  i|o$  a^li 
considered  by  many,  as  tbe  nesnh  0I  intpimiiGdl./  Thai 
4tii»se4traag«>driii9ionft  ibenld  «ib$i<t  in  ^tiine:wib9li>trae 
.#aitb  bus  wavered  witlnou^  reasQn^/is.eiif^^actfndiiMtf)}^*  ,1^  a 
reasonable  person^,  the  inspection  oi  any  oive  p^h\%,  9Ay^-r 
.cal  bMks seen^ a* suffieient presc^rvati^e ixwR^'uH^t^^^f^ 
Some  of  bi$  foUoiwerB  i)a¥i  h^m  bold  ^ enough  <taM|^^^nt 
h^m  as  a  mm)  wilhoiiife  entbuiUMo)/  \  .  [  t  a  \o 

SWERT^  4r  SWERTIUS  (*IaAl«ais)y.«  FlemW&tAirto^ 
mn  and  aoiiquaiyy  waa<  bQrA.atiilnQpafp(inuli6^7v  .^^ 
jlMLl^a^&Or>pafticl»Uf9:of  bis. literary .,pr9gffQ^  vbi(i04og^$M 
<diaracteii'lb>t:be  iiras  at mwti^i  scie»i:e:aiid^l^imtngj>idfian 
ihwaabid  diflfM»ilionf>iandjCio6ii«ianally'^  <KiV>i^  11 

j»mi;qf  ;btisinffla«j  -Bp  dieyotedAiinifd^  of  ibW.  Am^ 
jtpd.publiabcsi  a^^reat  msiiy  vt^rksrwbi^biJM^Pglliii^bifEiiciin^, 
jidamble.  repuitaticui^  >  Satiuis  jm]^>ha  idoasi  not  kM«i  wJ^e^ 
lfa€»r  be  JBa«ii€i$bieHii!  Uved;  s]90^l  jmr,  b^  lSi^^i|tr,af 

jaacbrimpoctanoe^;  T?bi4i^  J  bnoi^,  (^at  be:idom>i9pt(rfyp$»1^ 
iWrjr  r^peielluJUfy^of  otb^  hdi^a  atid.  tjic^t  CQftip^l^y4jorH« 
siqrs -of  Jaousb<D6iisav4ibfiit^b0r^  :tbi/b.(iij)r^  ^i^ralttrn^d 

.^eaaoA  &i^ert  badj'foriJMipg/iJiisisxpfesaioat  ;8aiM}|tibra|^ht 
hsm»,kni»wu  ftoea  ^^V^i^femua  AodfrejSA*  oj^fr^miFc^p^nifl^t 
Jie>»iarrjed  Suaanna^iVaii  lErpr  and  hlHi^0rJawil^<'^i^^3^ 
y^bildcant    R^.AmAiAh9itm^i'ml^2%y:»%^9^  . 

jx'iiMv principal  ?woi:fc« : are^  l«  'f  NarjraiA^aesi j^^$9fki^ 4a 
^jBormin*  £)earum<|pM  jcapi ta^.  abi  Oiielio  ?w}gatftf P  >}<9 V»l^t^ 
3lk$(^fl»  4tOk ;  i^.  f/  B^lgiiitotittii  aiw  X:Vili^pr^>ii4llPi»TOni 
GeirnMiiM)  iafenoriA.>breTia,  iacicrip^iQr''  CiW^*  .'i^t  V4^« 
ci4mflB  in  fudere  iUx.  On^Ui^  cuoivOrMUi  v,iia,';i4i»ftbi?af«>^ 
4.  "  Meditationes  J.  Cardinalis  de  Turrecr^t^Mln^iin^vHEiiixi 
^brisfci^  coin  yita  Card.  .&^v!  Cologn^  Ig^^^^i^SflifV    5> 

V  Hit  works  paisiiii.---£iicy«l.  BcjtaiwiK^  Aic« 


S  W  EiK  t:     '  51 

tii|»b^,  iiYseriptidris  &c. '  ibid.  1  m^,  acii}  1  ^2^,  «vb;^ -^^ 
^AlMunWitta  Seffllchralia  Birftb«r»tdie^^^  'Anu  16  td; '8iro. 
"1t<  ^  NmeB  in  HieroHy«li  Magit  €^ie  Timiftnabulift  titellcitn 
fsioslbdmuifvy/*  1608»  and  1664^  ^o. '  ^^  *^  ftfusie  eifv&rires 
iii^ri  Li^iH**  A<tnv^:  1609,  4to.  9.^  ♦«^'FI<M!*s  Liplialifj** , 
Cerfogn,  ¥(?l4i  «ffd  16110.  lo,  *^  AtheD»  Selgio^,***  At)tw. 
l6Sf8^fot^,  a  MTork  on  Ibe  platif  aod-itiitcti  of  it  bon-owcid 
fromi  ^^tedm  AMredR.  To  these  Sftxitmadds ^^ iCenkn 
^'B€%icariitn  Ani^ies^  Obi'onjei  et  b)A(»Hcifatiti(|t]i>«t'rd(^<^'- 
tiorei»,^*  Fttinefon,  1690^  3  tote  foto>*^  >  •  '  i^  '  '  ' 
•■i^SWim^EWv     SfecVAN  SWIETBH.:'?         I>       -   - 

eelebrar^^'^iiltf^'f^'htspoVmcai  Itnowtedge,' was  de.^cdnded 

frowti  a  Vel^r '«fkriiet|(k  ftuiifityy  and  borb  NoviiSQ,  1667.    His 

'gnivifS^Altb^jiMn  ^otDi»  Swift,  •  was  mftv  of  Ooodridb  in 

'U^ii(miMit$i^^MiM;rrwd  Mrsi.  EHsateeirh*  Dryden,  atrht 

of  Dryden  the  poet;  by-Mr4iom  ht^had^'iiY  ^ons,*  Oodwiin, 

T4ldmlK»»"Drydi^iV  WttKum,  Joiiatlitfn,  ^d  Adaii;     Tfatima^ 

^-^i^s  br€?d  at  OnfoMl,  but'died  5^o«mg:;  'Go^miy'  way  a  bar- 

'  i<^6^^f:  Q^'04m \'  flmd  WilHamj  Dryvkfi, '  'Joqatbati;  and 

^(lAthia^iiwev^  aiTtdfritie^.     Gbd^^id*  hairiivg  nialtied  a  relation 

';  4^4ihe ^&\Ai  nmrdbibiiteira  of  Oritiond^  the  old  dul^-e  of  Orrnond 

vriM^  hifitt^aN^toiriie^genanil  ih  >  the  p^lattnaia  9f< mppemry 

4^  ^Imlitn^  4f  ^()d-  Mrtfs  f  a«  « Ws/  tt«f»e  l^mcxsr  WilHoilt  iaWy  er$|^ 

^^  ^d^i^'hftviag  Goovertod'fxien  of  «H  condittbnn  into 

^<^QMie]'s.  ^Oddwin,  thter^lbrcv  detoi^mindd  to  aittarhpt  thei 

^' WtfUi^liim^  of  a  fotftune*  in  thai  kin gdom^^and'Hbe  u^me 

tt)oti^«4t{dU)ced4ii^fcmr  broib^ts  to  g6  witfb  bfnti  J<inatbanj, 

'W^ib«  a;g^  4^f(-aboi»t-twenty^thi>efe,  awd-befombd  wetn  to 

''I#6tond,  ma^Hed  Mrs^  A<bigail  Ei4dcy  a  gentlewonittti^pf 

'^Irtttcestmibira ;  amk  abottftwo  years  after  left  ii^i*  a  widow" 

'4Ub^^|i«bild,^a'  daughter^  and  pregnant  with  ano«b^r, 

ba44ngi  w»^nieana  of  iftubsistenee  but  an  annniiy  0f  "Sb^. 

y/fMehilMt  biM^mnd'had  purciiased  for  her  in  l£ngfanid,  im- 

'  inediM^y  kf^f  Us  marriage.     In  t bt^  dmresft  sbe  wmi  taken 

lifir«d«lie  f4xifi^<i{  &tiAMiu  her  btisbat^d's^etde^t  bnodter; 

'^iftlMftvttei'^^^qallot^t/' seven  month*  after  his  death,  deliveped 

'^i  son,  whom  «he  calted  JonatUanv- itf  t^membrancne^of 

his  fitMr,  ahd  who.  waa  afterwai^dW' the  celebrated  dean  of 

•8fc.^Patrf^k'tfL>"  ^  ••  -  ■'"''''  ''■''  -'^''''^    ' 

fl'hiippened,  byirbaUver  accident  that  J^aaatban  waa 


&»  SWIFT. 

t>ot  suckled  hy  bis  mother,  but  by  a  nune^  wbo  ma»  a  pm^ 
tive  of  Whitehaven ;  and  when  be  was  about  a  year  oldi 
her  affection  for  bim  waa  become  so  strong,  jtbal,  finding 
it  necessary  to  visit  a  sick  relation  there,  me,  <:arried  him 
with  her,  vi^itbout  the  knowledge  of  bis  mother  or  uncle* 
At  this  place  he  cootinued  abmit  three  years^  for^  wbea 
the  matter  was  discovered,  his  mother  sent  ordf  rs  nol  to 
hazard  a  second  voyage,  till  he  shoiald  be  better  able  to 
bear  it.  Mrs.  Swift,  about  two  years  after  her  huibapd't 
-death,  quitted  the  family  of  Mr.  Godwin  Swift  in  bMsxkd^ 
and  retired  to  Leicester,  the  place  of  her  nativily  ;  but  her 
son  was  again  carried  to  Ireland  by  bis  nui*8€^  and  veplaced 
under  the  protection  of  his  uncle  Godwip*  It  has  been 
generally  believed,  that  Swift  was  born  in  England  ;•  and# 
when  the  people  of  Ireland  displea^ed^imy  be  has  been 
heard  to  say,  ^*I  am  not  of  this  vile  country  j,  I  am  an 
Englishman  :"  4E>at  this  account  of  bis  birth  is  taken,  from 
one  which  he  left  behind  bim,  in  bis  own  hand*writing# 
Spme  have  also  thought,  that  be  wasi  a  natural  .son  of  sir 
William  Temi^e,  because  sir  WilUa^  exp^iessed  a  pard^r 
eular  regard  for  bim ;  but  that  was  impossible ;  for  sir  Wil-( 
iiam  was  resident,  abroad  in  a  pjublio.  charaoter.  from  1665 
%Q  1670 ;  and  bis  mother,  who  was  nevei?  out  of  the  British 

.dominions,  brought  bim  w^o  tbQ  w^d  in  Ifiei. i 

At  about  six  yeaics  of  age^  be  i|fa^  sent  to  t^^. school  of 
Kilkenny,  and  having /^ootitm^.  there  e%bt  years^  h^^welst 
admitted  a  student  of  Trinity  college  in  Dublin  ^.  Here 
applying  himself  to  bo^ks  pf  history  and  poetry,  to  th^ 
neglect  of  academic  leaKoing,  be  wasy  at  the  end  lof  four 
years,  refused  his  degree  of  bachelor  of  arts  foir  insuffi<<« 
^|§ncy ;  and  was  at  last  admitted  spmdli  gratH^.  whioh  is 
there  considered  as  the  highest  d^ree  of  reproach  and 
dishonour*  Stuug  with  the  disgraqe,  he  stiudied  eight  hourf 
a  day,  for  seven  years  following.  He  commeneed  these 
studies  at  the  university  of  Dublin,  where  he' continued^ 
themj three  years;  and  during  this  time  he  drew  up  tb^ 
%tsketteb.pf  his  "  Taleof  a  Tub;''  for  Wase^ndon  Warren^ 
es()»  a  gentleman  of  fortune  near  Belfast  in  Ireland^  who^ 
was  chamber- fellow  with  Swift,  declared  that  be  then  saw^ 
a  JQdtpy  of  i^  ioc  Swift>  f^i^  hand*writing. 

*  For  some  particulars  explanatory .   separately  in   1808,    and  &1so  adi^ed 
d^BWrffl  conduct  kt  college,  see  ««  An     to  Mr.  Nicbols'»  new  edition  of  tliat 
StM^rott  tte  EadroR  paitaf  hi«  Life^     ytar., 
Il  ,th^,  {tfTvPr^aaJuelt,''  pn^bliytied  * 


V     S  W  I  F  T.  S3 

^  Yn  VBM,  lib  ilncle  Godwin  was  seised  witb  a  lethargy, 
and  soon  aftet  was  deprived  both  of  bis  sfteech  and  oie^ 
nlory :  by  which  accident  Swift  being  left  without  soppoit^ 
tdok  a  journey  to  Leicester,  that  he  nfight  consuk  with  his 
nibther  what  course  of  life  to  pursue.  At  this  time  air 
William  Temple  was  in  high  reputation,  and  honbured 
with  the  confidence  and  familisurity  of  king  William.  His 
fiitber  sir  John*  Temple,  had  been 'master  of  the  Rolls  in 
Ireland,  and  contracted  an  intimnte  friendship  with  Gt^ 
wlu  Bwlft,  wfaicK  continued  till  his  death ;  and  sir  Williani^ 
wiib  ihheiited  his  title  and  estate,  had  msirried  aladytii 
Whom^  MK  swift  was  relaled:  she  therefore « advised  her 
BOti  to  cbmmunicate  his  situations  tb'si^  Williaad,  and  solicit 
bis  direction  what  to  do.  Sir  WiHiaih  received  him  with 
great  kf fidness,  and  Swift^s  fir&t  visit  continued  two  years. 
Sir  WflHam  bad  beeff  ambassador  and  uiediator  of  a  gene* 
«al  p(^ace  at  Nimegueii  before  tfa«  Revolution ;  in  which 
character  hb  beciattie  kndwn  to  the  prince  ef  Orange^  who 
fi*equefitiy  visited  him  It  ISheeu,  after  his  arrival  in  Eng« 
Ikn&y  and  took  his  advice  in  afilairs^  of  the  utmost  impor* 
tance.'^  Sir  WHliatti  being  then  llMAe  with  the  gout,  Swift 
u^ed  to  attend  hiii  majesty*  in  the  walks  abouc  ^e  garden^ 
who  ildmitted  hinfi  to  such  a  familiarity,  that  he  shewed 
him  how  to  cut  asp^ra^gua  after  die  Daicb  maaner;  <and 
once  ofiei^  to  ra^ke  hfiu  a  captain  of  horse ;  bat  8«^ft  bad 
.fisred  his  mind  upon  sin  ^cdesiasticaMife.  .  . 
"'About  thiij  time  a  biir  w»  brought  into  the  hcdse  for 
triennial  parliani^nts,  to' which  the  king  was  very  averse; 
but  sent,  hotrevet,  to  consult  sir  William  Temple,  who 
adon  aft^rrWai^s  sent  Swift  to  Kensington  with  the  whole 
tfccmint  in  writing,  to  convince  the  king  how  ill  he  was  ad* 
vised:  TMis  was  Swift^s  first  embassy  to  court,  who,  though 
be  understood  Englii^h  history,  and  the  matter  in  hand  very' 
%eli|  ^et  did  not  prevail*  8bon  after  Ibis  transactiotf,  be 
Ws  sbized  with  the  return  of  a  disorder,  which  he  had  eoh« 
ifscied  in  Il*eland  by  eating  a  great  quantity  of  fruit,  and 
wfaidi* Afterwards  gradually  increased,  though  with  irregu« 
Mf^interniissions,  till  it  terminated  in  a  total  debility  of 
bbdy  aid  mind.  /        . 

'  About  a  year  after  his  return  freim  Ird^nd,  he  thought  it 
expedient  to  take  his  master  of , arts  degree  at  Oxford  ^  and 
accordingly  .w;as  admitted  ad  eundem  in  1692,  with  many 
civilities.  These,  some  say,  proceeded  frcmi  a  misundef*' 
standing. cf  tihe words speciali graiid,  in hlstestimoniai  friSlL 


u 


s  w  r  F  T. 


Dnbliri,  Whieh  wtte  there  supf)o6ed  to  be  a  ^otaifplihMffif 
pi&id  to  uncommon  merit;  b«it  are  more  probiiUy  liiicribddr 
by  otbei^  to  bis  known  connection  with  »ir  WHliiam  ^P#m^ 
pie.  h  is  easy  to  coneeitey  bovipever,  that  Sutrift,  aft^r  iii& 
reputation. was  estaUisbed,  might,  while  he  wai  -spivttftti^ 
wkh^hts  incident  in  the  gaiety  of  bis  bearti  pnstebd^ii'ttiiiM^ 
take  which  never  happened.  From  Oxford  be  relurtol^dl^li^ 
m  William  Temple,  and  assisted^  bim  in  revisifyg  bit  ^^kaf> 
b6  also  corrected  and  improved  bis  bis  oWn  <*  T«te^  oP^itf 
Tnb,^  ^tid  added  the  digressions.  From  tb^  <)ont^«rii|titt# 
of  sif  Wi}Ham,  Swift  greatly  increased  h1S'\fMiilMa^fc^vi^ 
ledge;  hut,  sospecting  sir  WHliam  «tf  negtectiii'gjio^iH^vilta^ 
ftk  himj  merely  that  be  might  keep  bim  in  bis  ibmitji^nb^ 
9t  length  i-esented  ft  so  warmly^  ttmt  in  1694'«  quanreiieoM 
sued,  and  they  parted;  ^  ^-^ 

Swifr^  during  his  residence  with  sir  Witdafii/bad  mnv^it 
iUHed  to  visit  his  mother  at 'Leicester- once  a  y^al-,  und^^M 
msihner  of  travelling  was  very  ejttraordinftry(  Ue4i#iiy«k 
went  on  foot,  except  the  weather  was^  ^i^btfd^  ^stid  Vbte 
he  wonld  sothetimeL  take  shelter  in  Ibl  waggdn/  lle'^(»s# 
td*dltte 'kr  obsfCune  ^le^hcf^seH^vatawg  pedbtrti  and^  Ostliirdy: 
an^  td  He  where  hh  saw  tfrfeten  over  thi  dttor,<  ">Li&Jgiii(gs^ 
f^a  pe^nVf  ^  btkl Rinsed  ^o'^iibe  tbeMaidf%i4b  }^itpevum 
for^  &  sFh^e4ed  and  clelan'iibeets.  'J*         ^  : 

-'  Hi^fi^Tlvliiottwk^'Adw  to'take't>fddr^j  %nd'be  aMti  tft«t 
<$btai^d'^  f  bcbttflD^ffaion  to  4otA  €^^t,  tbeifi  tovd^  d«eM3 
'^nty  of 'Ii^ktid^  "Mho^'g^te  bim  tbd  ^r^bend  4of  Kilitoi^,  ^i^ 
tb^  dioeeieMof' Connor^  worth  about  i 00/.  per<bn4iUto*')  BMt 
sif'WHliditi,  #ho  'find  befen  iHsed  to*  tb*  e^n^i^touimi  c^t 
SWift^  sodh  found  that  be  ebukt  not  be  eontent  to  live  wkb-^ 
otic'bitn;  and  tberefai^  ui*ged  bim  to  resign  bid  preb«nd*itf. 
flivour'Of  a  friend,  promisirig  to  obtatti  preferment  for^binJi 
iW'£ngfand|  if  be  w6atd  return*  Swift  confiiefited;  4nd  «ir. 
\VHIiatti^was '  sof  iaxtxth  pieased  with  this  act  ^  kiitfd nesa^ 
tb^liltairitig^tMe'^efm^indeir  bf  bis  life,,  wbic^  Wbs  abdiK  faf«r 
^^ri;  ')tf8fbtH)avionrMw:as  shcb  as  prodeiebd  tbb  ii«tfrpstibbr<i' 
K^f^y- Between  theW/  Swift,  as  a  te^itii^E^nV'Of  'hH  tiist^A^ 
Ibi^/lbd'^tiiteebi,  wiV)te  tbe  <«  Battle"  ^ihe  >&mUs,"  df 
^iyfi^irKVHrtina  'is' tbe  bero^;  and  sir'Wiirittm,^  WbeiyA^ 
<fi^^l^  mtPh^j^^iSixoiify  legaey»  ^anii  Us  'pos^tnoub 

'''^Up!6i>>fHe  Q^aA'  of  sir'Williftni  Temple,- JBMfi'^Mtedi: 
hf  petition  to  king  WiUfanf^,'fdr  ilbe  A^i«  >vlicam  p««b^Kd. 
of  Canterbury  or  Westminster,  for  which  th^^lOyiiP. 


S  W  I  F,  T^  J*. 

1 

Hi^rllftiM^^eiit^olMRiiQed  by  ^  la^^tr^i^  irbose  pQ9fibii^ 
iti9^9^^0r}i$^^k^ii^d\QHmd  u>  bis  laaje^^y,  tp  facilitate  tto^ 
ainiocissr/ol  ^hfitt  applkatioa,  B^tr  it  doa^  notappeac,  that/ 
^ler^i^  djOiLiJi^c  sir  WilUanoi  tlie-ki<ig  tpok  the  least  no^ 
tipet0|(j}wi^  ,4(ft^  this  be  acq^^ted  ^  iQvitation  from; 
^riiwufif'S^rliL^tffj  appQiot04rPO&^Qf  tbe Lords  justices  of 
llebfi4M't^'«^^^IM  bim  as^xfoaplgij^  a,Q4  priyate  secretary;" 
biitiM  w^  |(M9  reinovi9d.fi^M»»,tbisipQst^  ^xpoo  a  pnetofice 
%bi^  Jt^lv^  not  St  .ior  a.clergym^«  Tbis  di$appointonent[ 
^IMipfff»^n|ly  foUqtv^  by  AiKitber  ^  for  wb^n  ,the  dean^ry^* 
Q^/I^ry  bA€(Mpe  vaaa#t,  aod  it<%vas  tbe  earl  of  BerkieleyV 
Hirfv<l«[di9p^e»«i  it^  Swift^ ^ ii^tead  of. receiving  it  as  aii^ 
^ilnea)€Hit'for«ibisiaie»usage)  ms  put  off  witb  tbe  livings; 
of  <X»afai?or^  #i|4  Ratibb^ggiA,  in  tbe  diocese  of  Meath^^. 
wliicb  togetber  did  not  amount  to  half  ii*.  value.  He  went 
tO)  r«ai<t«;.4t  Lat^qk^  4M)d  parforined  tbe  duties,  of  a  parish 
yldeMhwitt^t^^jUfmpst  punctuality  and  devotioo.  He  was,* 
iiMfaw{lt:4tways  y»iy.  A»vouty.>oot  only  in  bU  public  and* 
$oUAiEifei'liyddi^sea,u><jrfMl,  hiU  io  bU  domestic  and  private 
W^Hoisflf:  at)4;^!Q^r  v^ith>,aUtb is.  piety  it)  bis  beart,  b^ 
cmUi'OOi^  f9rl»^r.Wl^^ng  tbe.peouliari^.af  bis  hu^ouiV' 
v|#k^lM  .^portmiit^ioSefedy  .v^bate^er  oiigbt  be  ,tbe  im* 
pni|iq«|y  of  tbc)  umt^  and  piaqe.'  Upon  b^  coming  to  La^ 
racor,  be  gave  public  notioet .tbai .be  ^ould.ire^d  prayers 
aBil^ediieidfsjrA.itndiFridajf^  ^vbicb  bad  not  been  tbe  cas-> 
Ms  ;l  iwl  4«Dordipply  tb«  bell  was  rxwfgf  ^^pd  J^  asicenfied 
ihe^dmb'  :TftMtb'1^9(vif)g  is^KDained.«9Q(ie,  ^ime^  iviritb  no  other 
audtton^bWcbia  cl^k  R9igeafy  be  b^gafii  ^^  Dearly  belov^ 
RpgfdT^ ;  <b(^  S^^rifMjure  mov^sth  ypu  .and  me  in  sundry^ 
plli<N»s^Vi>aiidi^  pf^^atc^odedipt  of  tbe  service*    Of 

thelfjM*A(^iii4 rff^  bis  r^^e  witb  IXr.. Raymond,  vicar. of 
'ii«iiNolsiw>fiiififtei"<.b«  was  a  of  St«  PatriQieV 

6vJili]^a^ill§dft(^^eSi^dayiwit,b.Raympnd^  »nd  when  |bct 
^fttold<tane:y?iogif>g  %  e^;>ij;ig  prayers,  **  V^yipj&w^j^ 
wgrt  fiwtf^  e^vJ  iiwtt  l^y  ypu^i^^  qrowfv  ^^  I  ^^gi.n  pfajffiis 
brf*rfto3W«»  M§  ^ftfeMftWia.?  j  DT-R^ywnp^  accepted. tj^ 
«ts|^ird  suNl  ^MP^iiiy}  h9f^  san  as  f^  .as  Uk^^/qq^IiI  t^ 
lbe",(^y^l«*•eciR%^n§fMill^fhe  *ijnl#r,  .of  .^bp  |;f o^  sfriy^ 

6*tfi^lb^(dflflfiWnd<,w|lw»^  b^f  fltWll^^t>^S  J?bMWb, !  -w«yfs^ 

bis  pace,  but  running  up'  the  aile,  left  Raymond  bebif^d 
Wi4k|l)8dfl»W|)RyiKfi^tp  ^lM^,.>vitiiqiit.ppmng  9f^  jbe 


H  SWIFT. 

.  During  Swift^s  resideace  at  Laracar^  he  ifiviuid'  to  Itfi« 
knd  a  laay  whom  he  ha&  celebrated  by,  the  name  of  SteUa* 
'yVith  this  lady  he  became  acquainted  while  he  lived  wiik 
air  William  Temple :  she  was  the  daughter  of  his  atQwardt 
whode  name  was  Johnson ;  and  sir  WiUiamy  whea  be  diiM^ 
left  her  1000/.  in  consideration  of  her  father's  faithful  s^r-^. 
ifices.  At  the  death  of  sir  William^  which  happened  im 
1699,  she  was  in  the  sixteenth  year  of  her  agc^}  and  it  we* 
about  two  years  afterwards,  that  at  Swift's  invitation  »bfii 
left  England,  accompanied  by  Mrs.  Dingley,  a^  lady  wW 
was  fifteeri  years  older,  and  whose  :wb9le  £gjrtiiii6,>tbeugb;i 
she  was  related  to  sir  William,  was  no  more  tbap  an  ai^. 
nuity  of  27/.  Whether  Swift  ^t  this  time  desired  the  epmi^i 
pany  of  Stella  as  a  wife,  or  a  friend,  it  is  not  cextaio  ;  but' 
the  reason  which  ^he  and  her  companion  then  gave,  for 
their  leaving  England  ws^s,  that  in  Irelaiid.  th^  interest  of. 
iponey  was  higher,  and  provisions  werecheap«.  Buiv>what« 
(Over  was  Swift's  attachment  to  Miss  Jo][uwoo»  every  IposaiK 
ble  precaution  was  taken ,  to  prevent  scandal  a  thfy.  nevieft 
lived  in  the  same  hoqse;(when  3wiftf  .waa  abaenfc  Mkf» 
'Johnson  and  herVriend  resided  <it  the  passons^e;  Avbep  be> 
returned,  they  Removed  eitbei;.tQhis  fr^nd^Qr*  C^ipood'sy 
or  to  a  lodging;  neither  were  th^ji  ever  kapwi^r/lo  mM^- 
hut  in  the  presence  of  a  thi^d  perstvi.  Swift.  n»^e;fren 
quent  excursions  to  Dublin,  and  sQaie  to  Lpp4fl9 :  Jbut^ , 
JMiiss  Johnson  was  buried  in  aoUt^ud^.  and,  Qbf|Curi^.)csheri 
was  known  only  to  a  few  of  3«vift!s  mo^t  i^tiooMe  4i^ 
quaintancd,  and  bad  no  female.  cooip^niQfiie^Qept  Mrsk?. 
©ingley.  .  ^,  .  » 

Iti  170  Ij^  Swift  tooK  his  doctor's  de^rfe,  ^nd  ia  1?Q2# 
aoon  after 'the  death  of  king.  William,  he  w0at  into  Eng^* 
land  for  the  first  time  after  bis  sfdtMing^t  Lavaccur;  a  jour* 
Bey  which  he  frequently  repeated  diariag  the  refgn- of 
queen  Anne.     Miss  Johnson  was  once  in  EpglaAd  in  X7QS^  , 
but  returned  in  a  few  months,  and,  neveir. crossed, the  chaii'*' 
nel  afterwards.     He  soon  became  emine^it  at^a  wrjj^r,  an«l 
»n  th^t  character  was  knpwn  to  both  whigs  and  toriesi     H«  . 
had  beeii  educated  a^iong  the  fo^fper,  j^ut  ^t  leiag^^b  at««  . 
lached  faithself  to  the  {atter ;  beca^se  the  whig;«>  ^  bo  said^^ 
had  renqiinc^d  their.  ^oldpxip^^ipL^,  apd  n^cfiiyddotbersn 
Vhiph  thejr  fbrefathers^bhorred*     H^pubHi$hed,  j^p.^lQii. 
<^  A  discourse  of  the  oontests  a^d  disseotiqnsj^etavfi^i  th^  , 
ttobles  and  commons  ^n  Atjbens.and  Rome,,  with  ibe^coc^iCK 
Quences  tfeeV  haid  upop.))gtjii  tbpSQ  states  :V.  >t{ua.  Vftsitt  b^ 


ft  W  I  F  T-  *» 

Mf  of  *ki«^'  WiHUm  and  fats  mibisterj,  against  the  violent 
fNcbct^diogs  of  the  House  of  Commons ;  but  from  tbat.yetr 
io  1708,  hedid  not  write  any  political  pamphlet. 
.  In  17J0|  being  then  in  England,  he  was  empowered  bjr 
lli^  priola^of  Ireland,  to  solicit  the  queen  to  release  tba 
etevgy  horn  payittg  the  twentieth  pairt  and  first-fruits )  and 
i|io6  ttilfr^ocoasiotit  his  aeqtiaintance  with  Mr.  parley  com^ 
ttfebded.  •   Asaaon  as  he  had  received  the  primate^s  instruct 
•kins,  he  resolved  to  apply  to  Mr.  Harley;  and,  before  he 
#lAted  bii  him^  got  himself  represented  as  a  persbn  whof 
h4d  been  ilt  nsed  by  the  last  ministry,  because  he  would 
B#l'go  such  lengths  as  they  n^ould  have  bad  him*     Mr» 
Hariey received  him^ith  the  utmost  kindness  and  respect;^ 
kept  him  with  him  two  hours  alone ;  enjgaged  in,  and  sooa 
after  aecomplisbed  his  business ;  bid  him  come  often  to  see. 
bim  privately;  and  tdd  .him,  that  he  most  bring  him  to. 
the  knewkdgd'  of  -Mr.  8t.  John.     Swift  presently  became, 
iKMjuainted  with  the  rest  6f  the  ministers,  who  appear  te, 
liaveF*^ourted  and  caressed  bim  with  uncommon  assiduity* 
He'Siined  every  Sattirday  at  Mr.  HarleyV,  with  the  lordi 
kl^epi^^  Mr.  secretary  St.  John,  and  lord  Rivers:  on  tbait. 
d»y  tio  ottrer  person  was  for  some  time  admitted ;  but  thia, 
i|d»oi  dooojpany  was  at  length  enlarged  to  sixteen,  all  mea> 
oftho'&rst  elasi^  Swift  included,     Frpm  this  time  he  sup<». 
pOi4ed  the  interest  of  his  new  friends  with  all  his  power,  ioC 
paibphletsj  poemsj  and   peiiodical  papers :   his  intimacy . 
with  tWdoi  was  so  remarkable,  that  he  thought  not  only  to 
d#fe6d,  J>ut  hi  some  degree  to  direct  their  measures ;  and 
such  was  his  importance  in  the  opinion  of  the  opposite 
party,  that  many  speeches  were  made  against  him  in  both 
.  bt0|ies  of  pariiairient :  a  reward  was  also  offered,  for  dis* 
cov^tt-ing  the  author  of  ^  The  Public  Spirit  of  the  Whigs.'^ . 
Amidst  ail  the  business  and  honours  that  crowded  upon  , 
hiod)  he  wrote  every  day  an  account  of  what  occurred,  to  . 
Bt#Hil;  and  BSBt  her  a  journal  regularly,  dated  every  tortf 
night,  *d^riYig  the  whole  time  of  his  connection  with  queen 
Anne's  ministry.'    From  these  unrestrained  effusions  of  n|s  . 
helit't  maifty  particulars  arb  knowjR,  ^hich  would  QtberWise  j 
)iaVe4ein  Bid;  and  by  these  it  appears,  t(iat  he  was  n6t|, 
eaiy  employed,  but  trusted,  even^  by  Harley  himself,  who^ 
to  aU  others  was  reserved  atid  mysterious.    In  the  mean 
l»iii}e,  Swift  had  no  escpectations  of  advantage  from  his  cooi-  , 
pejstion  with'ihese  persons^  he  knew  the/y  could  ^Jojtlpjioj 
preserve  «th6ir  powef'.'Md  he  did  ^  nbt  hoixpur  k  whlfe  it 


S;W1FT. 

oiKBOcbdat;  of  the  ^violent  tneasuvM  wfaiicb  «vere  fMir^ 
med  by  both  sicbs.  ^<  I  lUe  the  mirtistry^'*  uiyK  he^  <*^'IUm^ 
dogVy  baceioMs  I  cucpect  they  wiit  use  me  sq.  1  nerer  kilewif 
attsfaiiilry  do-aiiy.thing.for  those  whom  tfaey  made  eeAiA/ 
pciii(SM  m  their  fsleasianes;  but  I  cam  not.^'  In  tfaeMtn*< 
flier  of  1711  y  he  ibresasr  the  ruia  of  the  mifiutry.  by  itikoil«i 
misiindenUndiogB  aiooog  thenDselresy  *wbushailr  bstiefiected; 
k;  endit'wav'not  only  his  optnion,  but  theit  own,*  tbal'i^ 
tbey  touid  not  carry,  a  peeLce,  they  iBlist<  sooar  be  Bafit'4iQ^ 
the  Tower^  Oven  «bocigb  ^they  ibould:  tSgrisOit  In  osder. 
Cheirerfore  to  #ftcilttatethia. great' event,  StKift  waoteotba^ 
VCondqot  ^f  the  Allies;;*'  a  piece,  whifcbi  bet  iconfimil^:  ^ 
cost  him  much  pains,  and  which  succeeded  even  beyoo'd. 
,  his  exfieetations.  It  was  published  Novudflf  IVi  li^aiuiHa 
two  months  tioote  above  1 1,000*  »rere  sold  ofiy  sevatt*  ediMiir 
bavkig  beefi  piinted  iu  England,  andbifaaree  m  4rillandL 
The  toif^  members  in  both  bouses,  wko  spoken  dreiv^/tbsiiP' 
arguoients  from  it ;  add  the  nesokitiot»s,'Wbicb  ^were  ptinteib 
in  xUe  totd$«  axid  would,  tiever.^  have  pkaa^d  ^bnt  fof  *tbia^  , 
yamphlet^''w«reJittlttMru«fthan  qisotations  fromut.d  .Froii^ 
ibis  time' to  ItV^  be  eisarfceff  bimielf^ilrttbtumKearied'diUw 
genceUh  the  ^rvitfe  o^tbcj^miaJBi^'?  and  whiletbeiwa^ttfcr 
Wibd9iD4^  jixst  at  ihe  eoiic|u9i0n}ioC:Lthe/  f)toae  ^^Ihfoch^ 
h^  Apix^  m^ffis^sknitkt'  otrMjAu'bisitotf  ^f  tbe  fisur  Anb 
j»ani  4pf  ^eed  )AMie."' '  TAiis>:be  afterwalrds  ^aishtted^  aadk 
eamp  4dt<^ fiiigkod>ia  pofaUsfaiiij  but ^laiiifdissMaded.-  (rmtt^ 
bykiM^B^o^iopkev  who  tbid^bim,'Jt|leiiwhda)waa8diiniMii 
iCi'4h€^'«{ilrit  9|f'i|^ty«wrQ;in{^  >th^^<dityugh!  it  tat^ht:  Hjehw  . 
wade^  sea^i^iOipadAphkat  mihe^.tiiDm\ot  dseir/adanoi*^ 
ktnf^Xf,  (itiwoaid?-  bevkj^diGduraonrxta^jisit  history,  r  «Swiii; 
seeii^s'fo'havie  b^en  leodrism^ly  !-foad>  of  i^^thia  work,  by.ide>' 
ckrili^tb«^  JliirW^tbe  fceBtrtbiag  he^adiever  wriuop  ;  bntj^ 
skyce  bir^ftidnd'^idifioU  appmveijt^  betwonld  oasfc  jbsinta 
ibe^tpi  It^d  i»Bt^^  &okeV4»,'  iind£Srgoi:llHa.  fitter  bttt^waa 
p^dbiiibed'liyilDrl  Lu6«9|(U>  tbe  disappointmealt  of  all  thastd 
who  ^ptM}tbd'«9y  ^bi^ofp  great ^ front  4t.  ?  i  <  ^  ^ 

^^lOmrinif'^^w  ttdaae, J|a'  recdfirexl/.noigratliitjtarfreiitarii 
tijl^7^l3'f  ii^d'tiieniUe.aeneptadathe  :dean«ry  of  ).iSc;  Bau 
iri^k^j^^t^Bilblili;  -A  iawihcipfrc  faad^.^mfceniaopne  ttoK  be&ea 
iii€tfltodifoi[«^bim'^by  itbet)queefi;'biit  archlMshop  Sharpie 
bii^Qg'^t^p^i^Mfcwteiihjfm'to'bcr^aiajesty  as  «jnalitiviMrboaB 
chi'itBtiauii^  »vua«^vei^qabstionabley  tiid :  beings isapported  'ia 
tUs  4^  If^eertain  bea^fri9e8t<l)ildypiit»wa9«givdn?dtO(7anaftben. 
U^ 4ftiii^()i«U»^'<yoi»ied:rtb9(d^  to ttake  pdsaesaioar^al 


SW  iFTi  4* 

tiifrnew  ^gnity ;  hnt  did  uot  stay  id  trdand  indre  than  « 
foi^€ntghtv''^^i»g  urged  by  an  hundred  letters  to  basteit 
back/'  and  reconcile  the  lords  Oxford  and  Bolb^roke^ 
Wiien  be  returned^  he  found  their  anioiosjtj  incrassedi 
andj  ^"fin^  predicted  their  mip  from  this  very  saiise,'  b« 
labdw-ed  to  bring  about  a  reconciliation,  a3  that  u}3K^n'Mrhich 
tbanpirholedntereat  of  their  party  depended.'  Havibg' at4' 
dttnptidd'tbis  by  various  methods  in  Taioi  he  went  lo  • 
feitetid^s  hoiiae  in  fierkfbirey  where  he  eontinudd -till  tho 
qoketk*s  deaths  aod^  while  be  was  at  this  place,  'Wfote  • 
cbtfeourae^called'  ''  Free  thoughts  on  the  present  etane  oi 
afiatns,"  winch,  however,  was  not  publisbod  tiU  some  tioae 
after*   ■•.-/',..,.  v.     -    •     • 

Before  :W%  attend  fimft  to  Ireland^  it  19  necesaijry  toi 
gire  a  Iktla  Ustdry  iof  his  Vaiiessa,  because  his  coiineotiona 
w^b>  hor  were^  made  in.  England.  >  Among  other  per$ooa 
witfe  wtaoiA  he^was  initim^itely  acquaioted  dofiflig  the  gay 
^^sn/ofi  bis  \jfe^  was.Mrs.iVanhomriglu  She  was  a  kidy  of 
g4XKl  famiiy  in  Jbaeknd)  al^d  becameL  the  iri^  off  Mr.  Van?*; 
bomrigb,  iirst  a  merdMnt- of  Amsterdodi,  tb^H'of.  Dublin^ 
where' be 'Was  raised  by  kiagi  Wtiliamy'iupoci  hie  :eJepf)ditioi» 
imo^^keidndii^to^very  .grcati.plades.  i>yiQ|^  biul/TO^,  hei 
l^fitjcwixsdfeis  and' ft  wo  daughters  i:)bfit  4heiAQtisirsQi3ia  tafteif 
dy«lig,''bist»«i4ioile  foc4mney.(iArhichowa9jedasid^4^Uie,/l9ll  la 
ibe(  daxatf^tsits.  In  17i!)8,  the  <wldb\ir  SiImI' thof^l/^oiiy^ung 
hidaies  i^sunbiFtafin^and^  wbem  ilhey  wel^  vislt^4>byiwr^ 
aim.iof  rtbe^ifirsit  i«)i»lUy ;  and'  BwiSt^  iwtigjat^  a^r.r  ibem^ 
iwedi  t^>|iie<  muoh  thtoe^jcomtngiaod  gpiaiii^  witb»uii*any 
oeremboy^r  at(  if  hAthadbeen  imeio£<  tbelfamily>:)^  Dulii^ 
tiir^aii^hifity^  faebeduneinaenlNbly  a  kind,  of  pneioeptor 
taUie  yqoliig  ladies,.  pamiculaHy  theyeldesi^'<  wbot'v^^s  ttbeii 
^boost  twenty  lyearsr  old,;  was^  medl  atidipl^d  i^nrejfduxg^ 
aild*a  gnaat  iuiaiirer of  poetry^  .  HMcia  iadmirtngHKis  ytksi 
ttti^taiy  sQOii  a«hacqi3tBr.as  that^of  Swifi^  bkfe  ji>onfj)asse4 
frmd'slduiiraliionri.to  lore-;  and,  urgiadi.al  hf9le;|MTJMl{)$.rbj( 
vanity,  which  would  ha^e 'been:,  li^gbiy\gfAi&6d<(;t^ 
Mamgemitbthei^rtt  w&ref  the  agb,  .<sbe  meteHioiP^dojsnakc^ 
tisMdodtdpa^^ao^ial  oG  mmiriagei .  iHe  affected  ^tgfiTst  to 
bftlftaKb  jiefiioajeatp'iteri)^  isdy^.ibiatr  A)n  sto^l^lEQ^ical  a 
ekphris^  qodi^ai  last  tatput  bmr  jfiff tiv^itliaiitijsb^ol^terff^fusal ; 
and^ivwhilyn be  anasr uo; itbis  ^ jituatietn^' W)JwaQ^c[lhe :;poeai 
talfas^-idt^f^Q^rmdnidiy^nejaai^^jc:  Ji|}W|i^  wfit^efi  iins  1 7 1 3^ 
ai^tdasati^timertbfJ^rer.bejtleGtllilaitM^  i^r|$al  /^  bi% 

Ici^iaaMspdSq^ibdj:.  aoi(l(ri9^^      tbsdioipli(#eT^tal&«3(U^ 


«0  SWIFT 

a9  be  used  frequently  xo  call  it.  In  1714,  Mrs.  Vanbbih- 
ffgh  died ;  and,  having  lived  very  expensively,  left  some 
clebts,  which  it  not  -being  convenient  for  her  daughters, 
who  b^  also  debts  of  their  own,  to  pay  at  present,  to 
avoid  an  arrest  they  followed  the  dean  into  Ireland. 

Upon  his  arrival  to  take  possession  of  his  deanery,  he  had 
been  received  with  great  kindness  acid  honour ;  but  now, 
«ipon  his  return  after  the  queen^s  death,  he  experienced 
every  possible  mark  of  contempt  and  indignation.  The 
tables  were  turned ;  the  power  of  the  tories  and  the  dean^s 
credit  were  at  an  end;  and  as  a  design  to  bring  in  the 
pretender  had  been  imputed  to  the  queen's  ministry,  so 
Swift  lay  now;  under  much  odium,  as  being  supposed  to 
h^ve  been  a  welUwisher  in  thitt  cause.  As  soon  as  he' was 
settled  at  Dublin,  Miss,  or  Mrii.  Johnson,  removed  froitt 
the  country  to  be  near  him,  but  they  still  lived  in  separat<» 
bouses ;  his  residence  being  at  the  d^a^nery,  and  hers  in 
lodgings  on  the  other  side  of  the  river  Liffy,  The  dean 
kept  two  public  dsiys  evety  week,  oh  which  the  dignity  of 
his  station  wba  sustained  with  the  utmost  elegance  and  de-^ 
corum,  under  the  direction  of  Mrs.  Johnson.  As  to  his 
employment  at  hoiiie,  h^  seems  to  have  had  no  heart  to 
ap|)ly  himself  to  study  of  any  kind,  but.tb  hare  resigned 
hfmsetf  wholly  to  such  jailiusements  and  such  com|)ai!iy  as 
offered,  that  he  might  not  think  of  h|is  situation,  the  mis^i* 
fbrtune$  of  his  friends,  and  •  his  disappointments.  *^  I  was 
three  yefers,**  says  he  to  Gay,  **  ireconciUng  myself  lo  the 
scene  and  business  to  which  ifbrtune  Uad  condemned  hie ; 
^nd  stupidity  was  what  Ihad  ¥ecdurse  to.'*'  ^ 

Theiirst  remarkdble  event  of  bis  life,  after  his  settle- 
ment at  the  deanery,  was  his  marriage  to  Mrs.  Johnson, 
after  a  inost  intiiliate  friendship  6f  mdre  than  sixteen  years. 
This  was  in  i?  16 ;  and  the  ceremony  was  performed. by  Dn 
Ashe,  then  bishop  of  Cldgher,  to  whom  the  dean  had  been 
^  pupil  in  Trinity  college,  Dublin.  But,  whatever  were 
the  oiotive^  to  this  mai'riage,  the  dean  and  the  lady  cour* 
tinned  to  live  afterwards  just  in*  the  same  maViner  as  they 
bad  lived  before.  Mrs.  Dingley  was  still  the  inseparable 
eompanion  of  Stelhi 'wherever  she  went ;  and  sh^  i>ever  re* 
tided  at  the  deanety,  except  Wheh  the  dean  had  his  fits  of 
giddiness  and  deafness.  Titi  tbiit  time  he  bad  continued 
hisVishift  to  Vanessa,  who*  pi*ederved  her  reputlttibn  kijd 
friends,  and  was  visited  by  many  persons  of  rank,  chairaeter^ 
and  foiftune,  p{  both  sexes  i  but  now  Jbis  visits  were  les* 


a  WITT-  §1 

ire<|Qeiit»  In  17 17  her  sitter  died ;  and  the  wfaole  remain* 
of  the  family  fortane  centering  in  Vanessa,  she  retired  t6 
Selbridge^  a  small  bouse  and  estate  about  twelve  miles  froai 
Dublin^  which  bad  been  purchased  by  her  father.  Front 
this  place  she  wrote  frequently  to  the  dean ;  and  he  an* 
iwered  her  letters:  she  pressed  him  to  marry  her,  but  her 
iaUied,  aiid'  still  avoided  a  positive  denial.  She  pressed 
htm  still  morei  either  to  acceptor  refuse  her  as  a  wife] 
npon  which  he  wrote  an  answer,  and  delivered  it  with  bis 
own  band.  The  receipt  of  this,  which  probably  commu-^ 
Bjcated  the  fatal  secret  of  his  marriage  with  Stella,  the  un- 
happy lady  did  ndt  survive  many  weeks;  she  waa,  how« 
ever,  sufEcientty  composed  to  cancel  a  will  she  had  made 
in  the  dean^s  favour,  and  to  make  anot(ier,  in  which  she  lefi 
her  fortune  to  her  two  executors.  Dr.  Berkeley,  bishop  of 
Ooyne,  arid  MK.  Marsball,  one  of  the  king^s  sergeants  a» 
law.  '  •/'.'■* 

Frooi^  Iti6'to  1720,  is  a  chasoi  in  the  dean^s  life  which 
it  has  beevi  found  difBcuIt  to  fill  up  ;  lord  Orrery  thit)ks|; 
with  griSat  reason,  that  he  emplbyeo  this  time  upon  '^  Gulf 
Kver^sr  Travels.^*  'ftiift  work  is  a  moral  and  political  ro- 
mance, in  wnich  Swift  had  exerted  the  strongest  efforb  of 
f  fine'irreguTar  genius:^ but  wbit^  bis'  imagination  ^nd  wic 
delight,  it  is  hardly  p6ssit)1e  not  to  be  sometime^  p^ended 
i^ith  his  satire^  which  ^ets  not  only  all  human  actiops^  but: 
human  nature  itself,  in  the  worst  light.  The  truth  is,  j^wift^t 
disappointments  bad  rendered  bim  splenetic  and  angry 
W'Uh  the  whole  world  ;  and  he  frequently  indulged  himself 
in  a  mbantbropy  thiat  is  ihtolerabfet :  he  has  done  so  pa,rti-' 
cu^arly  in  some  parts  of  this  work*  About  this  time  the 
dean,  who  had  already  acquired  the  chafacteir  of  a  hu^ 
mourist  and  wit,  was  first  regarded,  with  general  kindnes^^ 
as  th^  |)atriot  of  Ireland.  He  wrote  ^^  A  proposal  for  tbo 
ii^e  of  Irish  manufactures,^  which  made  him  very  popular.; 
the  more  so,  as  it  immediately  raised  a  vi'olent  name,,  so 
that  a  prosecution  was  commenced  against  tb^  printer,  lit 
itjri  he  wrote  the  "  I>rapier*s  Letters^^*'  those  Bra,zep  *ijf)p-/ 
^jliments  of  his  fame,  as  lord  Orrerv  calls  them,  A.pateiijt 
Eavipg^  be'ei^  iniquitously  procured  by  one.\Vo6d  tip  qpfa 
TftO,'Cfo6t.  tin  copper,  for  the  use  of  Irelahcl,  Wwliigfa  he' 
would  nave  acquired  e^orbita^t  gain,  and  proportJotvaEjy* 
impoverished  the  nation  :  the  dean,  in  the,  character  of  i 

?iS^?f Filr  Y'^^ta  ^t?!^*^%^f  letters  to  |lie  R^pple^  F^^fij?.- 
Inem   not  to  rec<>ive  this  cjopper  mone^^    Thjese  Mtfers' 


0%  a  WITT* 


mihed'th^  HMe  natixm  i6  bis  pnuae^ filled merjr ^iMsiisricft 
liU  eflig^, '  and  ei^erj  voice  whb  iMsdamations  ;  sod  Wood^ 
^oogb  snppoi^ted  for  some  timey  vasat  lengtb  cotiipelledi'to 
Mrilbdraw  bis  pateiity  atidbis  money  was:totadl7>su|qir4eneri)t« 

tJFrom  tbi^'time  ihedean^s  itifloeoce  in  .Ireland  vraa  almeft 
without  bounds :  be  was  consulted  in  whatever  velateikto 
domestic  policy,  aod  -partiodlarly  to.^trad^*  Tfae  weavers 
filways  considered  bior  as  itbeir  patron  and  legislator,  after 
bis  proposal  for  the  tise  of  dhe  Irisb  tnannfifctures ;  and 
when  elections  were  depcfnding  for  tb^  city  of  Dublioy 
many  corporations ;  t*efu;$ed  to  declare  .th'efmseltes  till  tbey 
•knew  bis  sentiments  and  inclinations,  Orer  the  populace 
he  wias' the  mdstabsoltite monarch  that evet' governed* -and 
be  wa^  regarded  by  persbgs  of  eve^y  r^nk  with  teneratichs 
and  esteem.  .,.  ' 

.  Re  wassefveral  times  in  Englatid  on  ti  visit  to  Pifpp,  ^er 
his  settlement  at  the  dedn^iy^  particularly  ift  17i26  and 
n27.  oil  Jan.  28,  17127,  died  hlsbfefov^d  SteHa,  invlrtr 
forty-fourth  year,  regretted  by  tlie  d^n  irttb^^ticb  Ifewessi 
of  affection  as  the  liveliest  si^nslbflityali/h^cotildTefef,'  and 
the  n)ost  Excellent  ebarsictW  excite :  siie  fa^d  beei<^d<ee(iti-i 
Sng  from  1724.  Stellk  was  a  most  aA^i^M^  wbman%6tfr-in 
person  >nd  mind.     Her  stature  waal  tal)/1ji^rhkit  atlcPeyes 

^black,"her  complexion  fair  aiid  deHca?i:i,  b«fr feature 'fi^ 

"gular.  Wt,  and  animated,  bef  Aapife  eksy"ai]?d''el«|tfrit, 
and'h^rrtianner  fieminme,  pojite,  and  gfdeeiM:  -tbd^^Waa 
natural'  music  in  her  voice,  aiid  compldber^cy  ihlidtf  tr^i^t; 

^be  abounded  with  wit,  which  was  always  accbm|)iib(4dr 
with  good-nature ;  her  virtue  was  fbunded  upon  htiA^Mijr, 
a^nd  ber  religion  up<in  rdason ;  biir  mforali  W6i*e  tftriin»Mi^ 
but  not  rigid,  and  hdr  devotion  was  babitiikii);  bdthot  osl^^ 

'  latious.  "  Why  th^  dean  did  not  soont^'marryftw  tt^ 
excellent  person ;  \vby  he  married  heir'at  aU ;  why  Ws  tor-- 
riage  was  so  cautiously  concifeiftetfy  ^nd  vrhy  He  wW^  neifejr 
known  to  nieet  her  bat  in  the  presebce  5f -a:  thWdfifev^iii  ; 
are  enquiries  which  no  man  cart  answer^"*  iays^  tU€  vfrWifer 
bfhisirfe,  *^ without  absurdity/*         :♦  ^■'^'  ^'"^^^^  -'^^^^  ; 

' ;  Supjjosing  Swift  to  have  bfeeA  *  gfeidgff lk  ibfe  VkJ»^%y 
iriere  capricft  and  hum6ari  b6  c^nhot  btit^b4^ie4iH"Ih%r^6Afet 

'  ungracious  light,  and  considered  as  a  Wa(f 'bVtei>1|^'a<d^d 

of  bumanUy  ;  for  it  is  generally  agreteU,  lEbii^  ^Sf^^Hi^^lBi* 

*  But  tee  this  aflbir  cleared  from  comprehensire  and  well  authenticBteit 
^mifV^  groflt  misrepreteiitatioiis,  Mid  iriifr»iiT«  of  Mr.  Coxe,  ia  big  life  of 
placed  inajery  difi^rentUfhty  byUif     (|ir  Robert  Waliiole. 


matort  .4«fttli  was  oocauoned  by  the  peouliltrtag'  «li¥a  «M- 
duct  towards  b«r.  It  appears,  by  ^evero]  [iqapi^oWyi  (|mK 
■he  regretted  ftnd  duRpproTcd  llus  conduot,  Md^tb^t,^}^ 
•ometjaie*' reproached  him  with  unkiudfLtetA;  foFilo  Mfth 
regret  wd  reproach  he  oertaiol;  aUttdes^  W)' (he.ioUAW^ 
Tonesoa  bert^b-dty,  ia  173<:  .■!.•:,     -t 

*'0,  then,  whatcter hearlk btemh,     '  ' 
tUw  pi^  on  your  pitfuig  friBD^B  i  .      .  ..^  ->  :  .    -  i 
Nor  let  your  ills  nfibct  your  m^^         .j,    '.  ;.j    .   i 
To,fiu»cy-they  caa  be  w^lund  f    ,. 

'  Me,  Burely  me,  yoti  ought  to  spare. 

Who  gladly  would  your  auEterings  share."  *"  ' 
It  is  said  ibe  dean  d\d  at  length  earnestly  desire^  that  site 
might  he  publicly  qwned  as  his,  wife  ^  but,  as  ber  beallh 
was  then  dei^liniag,  she  said,  "  it  is  too  late,"  and  insisted, 
that  they  should  continue  to  live  as  the;  bad  lived  before. 
To  this  tbe,deap  i.n,his  (urn  consented,  and  sufTeiM  her  to 

-clispose  entirely  of  her  CHvn  fortune,  by  £ef  o^i^  i'snie,!  to 
^  public. charity  w)ien  she  died.,'  . ,  ,  ,         - 

.  Tli^  most  in^xpusable  part  of  Sw^ffs  conduct  certainty 
^pp^ars  in  this  unhappy,  affair,  for  tybiclt  no  pro^r  apology 

.canl^eip^e;  ^lulwbicl)  llie  va^n  at,t<;mpta  of  hi?' f^ien^ 
)lfiV4  only,teu(4{fLl  tojigg^ravate*.  Q^  attritput^s  his  siiicu- 
l^r  GOi)(UiiQt  ,to  a  peculiarity,  ii^  his  copgtittiiion^^tfiit',  if  ha 
fcnevy  that  be  vfa$  un&t  to  enter  into  tiie  riiarrieif^tati^'  now 

..came.Up  to.upite,  one,  lady  to  hi[n,3i;lfliy;^Be'  '  ^pnyfef 
jnarriage, and  explicitly  to  declare  Jhjsp^'ssion  t       p  otherj 

'  What  caa  lye^think  alijoof  the  seDsill»i])Iy  of  f  ui,  who, 
ctrongly  :a^ached  as  he  seem^  to.  bay^'be^n'ib  b,  could 
silently  throw  dowu  a  papei;,befpi['e,t{i^  onCi-  w  r  jiroved 
kpe  "j  deatjti-warri^t/'.and'/^piildjthr^w  tIieoL..w.  [his  be- 
Iwed  ^lelliij  into  unspeakable  agonie,?.  in'H«r,'Jast, illness, 
and  quit  her  for  ever,  7,  only  Tor  acyurThg'bi.m;^  by  t(ieir 
friendship,  to  let  her  hare  ,thp  satisfaction  of  dylng^at  least, 
though  she. had  npt  lived^,.  his, atfliiibwl^dietl  wife?*  Alio- 
ther  apol9gist  Insinuates,  upor\  soinetbui^TiK'e  evidence, 
that  Stella  bore  a  son  to  Swifl^'  aryj  yet  JaboHrs''iS?'e's«iiati 
bim  for  Jjpt  declarioR  h?r  bis  ;»i\t^ 
>t  the  marriage  tliai^t  should  rei 

:dis(^very.^ould  be  demanded  I 
.what  could  be  meant  by  urgent^jjj 
to  the  birth  of  children,  be  coh 

'■""'■■  ;■«.-■-.      ..■—,-,        ...I     --..^In  MsJtu  .-.u  s-^:-   ':a    ■ 


say*  1* (itf  tnith  19^  pro1>aUyi  what  bai  been  said  by  thi 
Johnson,  that  the  man  wbom  Stella  bad  the  migfortune  ta 
l(yre,  vras  fond  of  singularity,  and  desirons  to  make  a  mode 
of  happiness  for  himself^  different  from  the  general  course 
ef  things,  and-  the  order  of  Providence*  He  wished  for  all 
the  pleasures  of  perfect  friendship,  without  the  uneasiness 
of  conjugal  restraint.  But  with  this  state  poor  Stella  wa» 
not  satisfied  ;  she  was  tiever  treated  as  a  wife,  and  to  the 
world  she  had  the  appearance  of  a  mistress.  She  lived  sul- 
lenly on,  hoping  that  in  time  he  would  own  and  receive 
her.  This,  ^as  we  have  seen,  he  did  at  last  offer  to  do ;. 
but  pot  till  the  change  of  his  manners,  and  the  depravation 
of  his  mind,  made  her  tell  him  that  it  was  too  late. 

From  the  death  of  Stella  his  life  became  much  retired^ 
and  the  austerity  of  his  temper  increased ;  he  could  not 
enjoy  bis  public  days;  these  entertainments  were  therefore 
discontinued,  and  he  sdmetimes  avoided  the  company  of 
his  most  intimate  friends ;  but  in  time  he  grew  more  de« 
sirous  of  company.  In  1732  he  complains,  in  a  letter  to 
Mr.  Gay,  *'  that  be  had  a  large  boose,  and  should  hardly 
find  one  visitor,  if  he  was  not  able  to  hire  him  with  a  bottle 
of  wine;'*  and,  in  another  to  Mr.  Pope,  that  *'  be  was  in 
danget*  of  dying  poor  sind  friendless,  even  bis  female  friends 
having  forsaken  him ;  which,"  as  he  says,  ^*  vexed  him 
most.*'  'These  complaints  were  afterwards  repeated  in  k 
strain  of  yec  greater  sensibility  and  self-pity:  ^*A11  mj 
friends  iiave  forsaken  me  -^ 

'' Vertiginosus  ^>  inops^  surdusj  male  gratus  amidSp 
Deaf,  giddy,  helpless^  left  alone. 
To  all  my  fiiehds  a  hurden  grown.** 

As  be  lived  much  in  solitude,  be  frequently  amus^di 
himself  with  writing;  and  it  is  very  remarkable,  that  al- 
though his  mind  was  greatly  depressed,  and  his  principal 
enjoyment  was  at  an  ^nd  when  Mrs.  Johnson  died,  yettbero 
is  an  air  of  levity  and  trifling  in  some  of  the  pieces  bo 
wrote  afterwards,  that  is  not  to  be  found  in  any  other ; 
such  in  particular  are  his  '*  Directions  to  Servants,*^  and 
several  of  his  letters  to  his  friend  Dr.  Sheridan*  In  173^^ 
when  the  attempt  was  made  to  repeal  the  test  act  in  Ire« 
land^  the  Dissenters  often  affected  to  call  themselves  bro- 
ther-protestants^  and  fellow-christians,  with  the  members 

^  Scholars  bare  long  remarked  a  groit  error  in  qoaatity,  in  thia-firrit  word> 
~  fjdUibltUf  itbelD^  long. 


8  W  I  F  Tv  6S 

yf  the  established  church.  UfM>n  this^oeeasion  the  deati 
wrote  a  short  copy  of  verses,  which  so  provoked  ooe,B*et« 
tesworth,  a  lawyer,  and  meaiber  of  the  Irish  pariiamenti 
that  he  swore,  in  the  bearing  of  many  persons,  to  revenge 
himself  either  by  murdering  or  maiming  the  author;  und, 
for  this  purpose,  he  engaged  his  footman,  with  two  rutfians, 
to  secure  the  dean  wherever  he  could  be  found.  This 
being  known,  thirty  of  the  nobility  and  gentry  within  the 
liberty  of  St.  Patrick's  waited  upon  the  dean  in  form^  and 
presented  a  paper  subscribed  with  their  names,  in  which 
they  solemnly  engaged,  in  behalf  of  themselves  and  the  rest 
of  the  liberty,  to  defend  his  person  and  fortune,  as  the 
friend  und  benefactor  of  his  country.  When  this  paper 
was  delivered.  Swift  was  in  bed,  deaf  and'giddy,  yet  made 
a  shift  to  dictate  a  proper  answer.  These  Bts  of<leafness 
and  giddiness,  which  were  the  effects  of  bis  surfeit  before 
he  was  twenty  years  old,  became  more  frequent  and  violent 
in  proportion  as  he  grew  into  years :  and  in  1736,  while  he 
was  writing  a  satire  on  the  Irish  parliament,  which  he  called 
•*  The  Legion  Club,"  he  was  seized  with  one  of  these  fits, 
the  eflect  of  which  was  so  dreadful,  that  he  left,  the  poem 
unfinished,  and  never  afterwards  attiempted  a  composition, 
either^  in  verse  or  prose,  that  required  a  course  of  thinking, 
or  perhaps  more  than  one  sitting  to  finish. 

Fvom  this  time  his  memory  was  perceived  gradually  to 
decline,  and  his  ^ssions  to  pervert  his  understanding; 
and  in  1741,  he«was  so  very  bad  as  to  be  utterly  incapable 
of  conversation.  Strangers  were  not  permitted  to  approach 
him,  and  hia  friends  found  it  necessary  .to  have  guardians 
appointed  of  bis  person  and  estate.  Early  in  1742,  his^ 
reason  was  subverted,. and  his  rage  became  absolute  mad« 
ne*^  In  October  his  left  eye  swelled  to  the  size  of  an 
egg,  and  several  large  boils  broke  out  on  his  arms  and  body; 
the  extreme  pain  of  which  kept  him  awake  near  a  month,  and 
doftng  one  week  it  was  ^ith  difficulty  that  five  persons  re- 
strained him,  by  fn^re  force,  from  pulling  out  his  leyes. 
Upon  the  subsiding  of  these  tumours,  he  knew  those  about 
him ;  and  appears  so  far  to  have  recovered  his  understand- 
ing and  temper,  that  there  were  hopes  he^might  once  more 
enjoy  society.  These  hopes,  however,  were  but  of  stiort 
duration ;  for,  a  few  days  afterwards,  he  sunk  into  a  state 
of  total  insensibility,  an^^  could  not,  wiAout  grentdiffi'^ 
culty,  be  prevailed  on  to  walk  across  the  room.  This  w^ 
the  effect  of  another  bodily  disease,  his  b|ain  h^U^S  lQa4f4i 

Vol.  XXIX.  F 


I 


«6 


s  w  I  F  t: 


with  water.  Mr.  Stevens,  ao  iagenious  clergyman  oC  Dubr 
lin,  pronounced  this  to  be  the  case  during  his  illness f 
and,  upon  opening  bis  body,  it  appeared  that  be  was  not 
mistaken.  After  the  dean  bad  continued  silent  a.  whole 
year  in  this  state  of  helpless  idiotism,  his  housekeeper  went 
into  his  room  on  the  30th  of  November  in  the  morning, 
and  told  him,  ^^  it  was  his  birth-day,  and  that  bonfires  and 
illuminations  were  preparing  to  celebrate  it  as  usual :"  to 
which  he  immediately  replied,  ^^  It  is  all  folly ;  they  had 
better  let  it  alone/*  Some  other  instances  of  short  inter- 
vals of  sensibility  and  reason,  after  bis  madness  ended  112 
stupor,  seem  to  prove,  that  bis  disorder,  wb;atever  ic  was, 
had  not  destroyed,  but  only  suspended,  the  powers  of  hit 
mind.  In  1744,  he  now  and  then  called  his  servant  by 
name;  and  once  attempting  to  speak  to  him,  but  not  being 
able  to  express  his  meaning,  he  shevved  signs  of  much  un* 
easiness,  and  at  last  said,  *'  I  am  a  fool.''  Once  afterwards, 
as  his  servant  was  taking  away  his  watch,  he  said,  ^^  Bring 
It  here  :"  and  when  the  same  servant  was  breaking  a  large 
bard  coal,  he  said,  *^  That  is  a  stone,  you  blockhead.'^ 
From  this  time  he  was  perfectly  silent  till  the  latter  end  of 
October  1745,  and  then  died,  without  the  least  pang  or  conr 
vulsion,  in  the  seventy-eighth  year  of  his  age. 

His  works  have  been  printed  often,  and  in  various  forms, 
and  from  them  it  is  easy  to  collect  his  character.  Of  these 
the  most  elegant  is  in  fourteen  vols.  4to ;  a  kind  of  vario** 
rum  edition,  of  which  eight  were  published  by  Dr.  Hawkes* 
worth,  three  by  Deane  Swift,  esq.  and  three  by  Mr.  Ni<» 
chols.  These  have  been  reprinted  in  twenty-five  volume*^ 
large  8vo^  in  twenty-seven  volumes  of  a  smaller  Svo; 
and  also  iu  twenty-seven  volumes  ISmo.  In  1784  a  new 
edition  was  printed,  in  seventeen  volumes  8voy  with  ati 
elaborate,  but  most  /injudicious  Life,  or  rather  panegyric 
on.  him,  by  the  editor,  T.  Sheridan,  which  occupies  the 
first  volume;  since  which  two  editions,  very  much  im- 
proved, have  been  published,  in  nineteen  volumes  8vo, 
under  the  superintendence  of  Mr.  Nichols,  whose  original 
care  and  judgment  in  collecting  information  respecting 
Swift,  and  ^  procqring  inedited  portions  of  bis  works,  has 
never  relaxed,  and  never  been  exceeded. 

:  There  are  some  particulars  relating  to  Swift's  conversa- 
tion and  nianners  which  may  not  improperly  conclude  this 
article.  He  had  a  rule  never  to  speak  more  than  a  minute 
at  a  time,  and  to  wait  for  others  to  take  up  the  conv^rsa- 


SWIFT.  6f 

tibn.  He  gppeatly  excelled  in  punning;  and  be  used  to 
say,  ^^that  none  despised  that  talent,  but  those  who  were 
without  it.*'  He  excelled  no  less  in  telling  a  story,  but 
in  the  latter  part  of  his  life  he  used  to  tell  the  same' 
too  often:  he  never  dealt  in  the  double  entendre,  or  pro- 
faneness  upon  sacred  subjects.  He  loved  to  have  ladies  in 
the  company,  because  it  preserved,  he  said,  the  delicacy 
of  conversation  :  yet  it  is  certain  there  are  in  his  writings' 
the  greatest  indelicacies^  He  kept  his  friends  in  some  de-' 
gree  of  awe,  yet  was  more  open  to  admonition  than  flat- 
tery. Though  he  appeared  churlish  and  austere  to  his  ser- 
vants, yet  he  was  in  reality  a  most  kind  and  generous  mas- 
ter ;  and  he  was  also  very  charitable  to  the  poor.  In  the 
mean  time,  it  must  be  owned,  that  there  was  not  any  great 
softness  or  sympathy  in  his  nature ;  although,  perhaps, 
not  quite  so  much  misanthropy  as  appears  in  his  writings  : 
and  all  allow,  that  he  grew  covetous,  as  he  grew  old.  As 
an  ecclesiastic,  he  was  scrupulously  exact  in  the  exercise 
of  his  function,  as  well  with  regard  to  spiritual  as  temporal 
things.  His  manner  was  without  ceremony,  but  not  rustic  ; 
for  he  had  a  perfect  knowledge  of  all  the  mode^  and  varia- 
tions of  politeness,  though  he  practised  them  in  a  manner 
peculiar  to  himself.  He  was  naturally  temperate,  chaste, 
and  frugal ;  and  being  also  high-spirited,  and  considering 
wealth  as  the  pledge  of  independence,  it  is  not  strange  that 
his  frugality  should  verge  towards  avarice. 

As  to  his  political  principles,  if  his  own  account  may  be 
taken,  he  abhorred  Whiggism  only  in  those  who  made  it 
consist  in  damning  the  church,  reviling  the  clergy, 
abetting  the  dissenters,  and  speaking  cdntemptuously  of 
revealed  religion.  He  always  declared  himself  against  a' 
popish  successor  to  the  crown,  whatever  title  he  might  have 
by  proximity  of  blood ;  nor  did  he  regard  the  right  line  upon 
any  other  account,  thkn  as  it  was  established  by  law,  and  had 
much  weight  in  the  opinions  of  the  people.  That  he  was 
not  at  any  time  a  bigot  to  party,  or  indiscriminately  trans- 
ferred his  resentment  from  principles  to  persons,  was  so 
evident  by  his  conduct,  that  be  was  often  rallied  by  the  mi- 
nisters, for  never  coming  to  them  without  a  Whig  in  his 
sleeVe;  and  though  he  does  not  appear  to  have  asked  any 
thing  for  himself,  yet  he  often  pressed  lord  Oxford  in  fa- 
vour of  Addison,  Congreve,  Rowe,  and  Steele.  He  fre- 
quently conversed  with  all  these,  choosing  his  friends  by 
their  personal  merit,  without  any  regard  to  their  political 

F  2 


6B  SWIFT. 

principles ;  and,  in  particular,  bis  friendship  with  Mr.  Ad« 
dison  continued  inviolable,  and  with  as  much  kindness,  as 
when  they  used  to  meet  at  lord  Haiifax*s  or  lord  Somers's, 
who  were  leaders  of  the  opposite  party. 

By  his  will,  dated  in  May  1740,  just  before  he  ceased  to 
be  a  reasonable  being,  he  left  about  1200/.  in  legacies;  and 
the  rest  of  his  fortune,  which  amounted  to  about  1 1,.000/, 
to  erect  and  endow  an  hospital  for  idiots  and  lunatics.  He 
was  buried  in  the  great  aile  of  St.  Patrick's  cathedral,  under 
a  stone  of  black  marble,  inscribed  with  the  following  Latin 
epitaph.  It  was  written  by  himself,  and  gives  a  dreadful 
picture  of  the  state  of  mind  which  could  dictate  such  worda 
an  such  an  occasion  : 

"  Hie  depositum  est  corpus 

JoVAJHJkV  SwiPT,  8.  T.  P. 

Hujus  eccksiae  cathedralis  decani> 

Ubi  sseva  ij^dignatip  ulterius  cor  lacerare  nequit*' 

Abi^  viator,  et  imitare. 

Si  poteris, 

Strenuum  pro  virili  libertatis  vindicatorem. 

Obiit,  &c.* 

SWIFT  (Deane),  a  near  relation  to  the  celebrated  dean 
of  St.  Patrick's,  being  grandson  to  Godwin  Swift,  the  dean^s 
uncle,  wa$  in  1739  recommended  by  Swift  to  the  notice  of 
Pope,  as  "  the  most  valuable  of  any  in  his  family.** — *'  He 
was  first,**  says  the  dean,  ^'  a  student  in  this  university 
[Dublin],  and  finished  his  studies  in  Oxford,  where  Dr. 
King,  principal ,  of  St.  Mary  Hall,  assured  me,  that  Mr. 
Swift  behaved  with  reputation  and  credit:  he  hath  a  very 
good  taste  for  wit,  writes  agreeable  and  entertaining  verses, 
and  is  a  perfect  master,  equally  skilled  in  the  best  Greek 
and  Roman  authors.  He  hath  a  true  spirit  for  liberty,  and 
with  all  these  advantages  is  extremely  decent  and  modest. 
Mr.  Swift  is  heir  to  a  little  paternal  estate  of  our  family  at 
Goodrich,  in  Herefordshire.  He  is  named  Deane  Swift, 
because  his  great  grandfather,  by  the  mother*s  side,  was 
admiral  Deane,  who,  having  been  one  of  the  regicides,  had 
the  good  fortune  to  save  his  neck  by  dying  a  year  or  two 
before  the  Restoration.**  He  published,  in  1755,  "  An  Es- 
say upon  the  Life,  Writings,  and  Character  of  Dr.  Jonathan 
Swift;**  in  1765,  the  eighth  quarto  volume  of  the  dean*s 

1  Life  by  Halrk«iworthl — Sheridan,—- aod  Johoioi.— Works  Uj  Nichoti.'  ^ 
iiKlcx;-*->Pop«*«  Workt,  BowIm'i  cdii'um. 


/ 


SWIFT.  «* 

^orks;  and,  in  1768,  tw'o  volames  of  his  "  Letters."  Mr. 
Swjift.died  at  Worcester,  July  12,  1783  :  be  had  long  me- 
ditated a  complete  edition  of  his  reiation's  works,  arid  had 
by  him  many  new  materials  for  that  purpose.  ^ 

SWINBURNE  (Henuy),  a  law  writer,  of  the  seven- 
teenth century,  was  tiie  son  of  Thomas  Swinburne  of  the  city 
of  York,  where  he  was  born.     In  his  sixteenth  year  he  was 
sent  to  Oxford,  and  entered  a  commoner  of   Hart-ball, 
whence  after  some  time  he  removed  to  Broadgate-ball,  now 
Pembroke  college,  and  there  took  his  degree  of  baehelor 
of  civil  law.     Before  he  left  the  university  he  married  He*' 
lena,  daughter  of  Bartholomew  Lant,  of  Oxford,  and  being 
then  obliged  to  quit  the  college,  he  returned  to  York,  and 
practised  in  the  ecclesiastical  courts  as  proctor.    He  after- 
wards commenced  doctor  of  civil  law,  and  became  very 
eminent  in  his  profession.     On  Feb.  10,  1612,  he  was  ad- 
vanced to  be  commissary  of  the  Exchequer,  and  judge  of 
the  prerogative  court  of  the  province  of  York,  in  which 
office  he  continued  till  his  death.     Of  this  event  we  have 
no  direct  memorial ;  but,  as  bis  will  was  proved  June  1 2, 
,1624^  we  may  presume  he   died  about  that   time.     He 
was  buried  in  the  cathedral  of  York,  leaving  his  dwelling 
.house  in  York  to  his  son  Toby,  and  a  beuefaction  to  the 
poor  of  the  eity.   It  appears  he  was  twice  married,  and  that 
his  second  wife's   name  was  Wentworth.      He   wrote  a 
'^Treatiseof  Spousals,  or  Matrimonial  contracts,'*  which 
was  not  published  until  1686,  4to;  but  his  more  celebrated 
work  was  his  ^^  Treatise  of  Testaments  and  Last  Wills,  com- 
piled out  of  the  laws,  ecclesiastical,  civil,  and  canon,  as 
also  out  of  the  common  laws,  customs,  and  statutes  of  this 
realm.''   This  work  has  passed  through  seven  editions,  4to. 
1590,  1611,  1635,  1677,  1728,  fol.  corrected  and  much  en« 
.  larged  in  1743,  and  lastly  in   1803,  with  valuable  atinota* 
tions  illustrative  of  the  subject  to  the  present  time,  by  the 
late  John  Joseph  Powell,  esq.  and  prepared  for  the  press 
by  James  Wake,  esq.  in  3  vols.  8vo.     Mr.  Hargrave  ob- 
serves, that  there  is  a  curious  dissertation  on  the  customs 
of  York,  in  respect  to  filial  portions,  which  forms  a  valuable 
part  of  the  wprk,  but  which  is  not  contained  in  the  first  edi- 
tion, having  been  afterwards  added  by  Swinburne.     Mr. 
Hargrave  also  complains  that  his  later  editors  have  not 
been  careful  to  distinguish  their  own  enlargements  from 

«  Swift's  Work!  hf  Nwholt,  k^ 


T0  SWINBURNE, 

what  belongs  to  tb6  author,  but  this  is  not  the  case  in  Pow- 
ell's edition,  whose  annotations  are  printed  distinct  from 
Swinburne^s  text.  ^ 

SWINBURNE  (Henry),  a  learned  traveller,  and  pro^* 
bably  a  descendant  of  the  preceding,  was  the  youngest  son 
of  the  late  sir  John  Swinburne,  hart,  of  Capheaton,  in  Nor- 
thumberland, the  long-established  seat  of  that  ancient  Ro* 
maa  Catholic  family.  He  was  educated  at  Scorton  school, 
in  Yorkshire,  and  afterwards  stu(lied  at  Paris,  Bourdeaux, 
and  in  the  royal  academy  at  Turin.  He  made  the  usual 
tour  of  Italy ;  and,  in  1774,  travelled  with  his  lady  on  the 
Continent,  for  the  express  purpose  of  indulging  their  taste 
for  antiquities  and  the  fine  arts.  He  spent  six  years  in 
France,  Spain,  Italy,  and  Germany;  formed  an  intimacy 
with  some  of  the  most  celebrated  literati  of  those  coun-^ 
tries,  and  received  spme  signal  marks  of  esteem  from  the 
sovereigns  of  the  courts  he  visited.  On  his  return  to  Eng- 
land he  retired  to  his  seat  at  Hamsterleyy  in  the  bishopric 
of  Durham,  which  thenceforth  became  his  principal  resi- 
dence. He  published  his  Travels  in  Spain  in  a  quarto  vo- 
lume, 1779 ;  four  years  after,  vol.  I.  of  bis  Travels  in  the 
Two  Sicilies,  and  a  Ild  two  years  after.  Both  these 
'  works  have  been  reprinted  in  octavo,  the  first  in  two,  the 
other  in  four,  volumes,  with  improvements.  The  learning  ^ 
and  ingenuity  of  Mr.  Swinburne  have  been  generally  ac- 
knowledged, and  the  warmth  and  animation  of  his  descrip- 
tions discover  an  imagination  highly  susceptible  of  every 
bounty  of  nature  or  art ;  but  he  is  perhaps  too  apt  to  re- 
linquish simplicity  for  profusion  of  ornament.  He  was  the 
first  who  brought  us  intimately  acquainted  with  Spain,  and 
the  arts  and  monuments  of  its  ancient  inhabitants.  By  the 
marriage  of  his  only  daughter  to  Paul  Benfield,  esq.  he  be- 
came Jn  vol  ved  in  the  misfortunes  of  that  adventurer,  and 
obtained  a  place  in  the  newly-ce$led  settlement  of  Trini- 
dad, where  be  died  in  April  1303.  His  library  had  been 
sold  by  auction,  by  Leigh  and  Sotheby,  the  preceding 
year.  * 

SWINTON  (John),  a  very  celebrated  English  anti^ 
quary,  was  a  native  of  the  county  of  Chester,  and  the  son 
of  John  Swinton,  of  Bextoh  in  that  county,  gent.  He  was 
born  in  1703.    The  circumstances  of  his  parents  were  pro* 

^  Atb.  Ox.  vol.  I. — Drake's  Eboracum. — Bridgman's  Legal  Bibliography. 
'  Nichols's  Bowyer. 


S  W  I  N  T  O  N.  71 

bably  not  afflaent,  as  he  was  entered  at  Oxford  in  the  rank 
of  a  ser?itor  at  Wadbaoi  college,  in  October  1719.  It  may 
be  presumed  that  he  recoiliinended  himself  in  that  society 
by  his  talents  and  behaviour,  for,  on  June  30,  1723,  he  wa^' 
elected  a  scholar  on  a  Cheshire  foundation  in  the  colleget 
In  the  December  following  he  took  his  first  degree  in  arts; 
Before  he  became  tnaster  of  arts  (which  was  on  Dec.  1, 
1726),  he  had  chosen  the  church  for  his  profession,  and 
was  ordained  deacon  by  the  bishop  of  Oxford,  May  30f 
1725 ;  and  was  afterwards  admitted  to  priest's  orders  on 
^ay  28,  }727.  He  was  not  long  without  some  preferment, 
being  admitted  to  the  rectory  of  St.  Peter  le  Bailey  in  Ox* 
ford  (a  living  in  the  gift  of  the  crown),  under  a  sequestra* 
tion,  and  instituted  to  it  in  February  1728..  In  June  the 
same  year,  he  was  elected  a  fellow  of  his  college ;  but,  de* 
sirous  probably  to  take  a  wider  view  of  the  world,  he  ac- 
cepted, not  long  after,  the  appointment  of.  chaplain  to  the 
English  factory  at  Leghjorn,  to  which  he  had  been  chosen* 
In  this  situation  be  did  not  long  enjoy  his  health,  and^ 
leaving  it  on  that  account,  he  was  at  Florence  in  April 
1733,  where  he  attended  Mr.  Coleman,  the  English  envoy, 
in  his  last  moments.  Mr.  Swinton  returned  through  Ve-» 
nice  and  Vienna ;  and,  in  company  with  «ome  English  gen» 
tlemen  of  fortune,  visited  Presburg  in  Hungary,  and  was- 
present  at  one  of  their  assemblies. 

It  is  possible  that  he  had  not  quitted  England  in  the 
summer  of  1730,  for  he  was  elected  a  fellow  of  the  Royal 
Society  in  June  that  year,  and  admitted  about  three  months 
later.  It  was  probably  while  he  was  abroad  that  he  was 
admitted  into  some  foreign  societies,  namely  the  academy 
degh  Apaiisti  at  Florence,  and  the  Etruscan  academy  of 
Cortoua.  On  his  return  be  seems  to  have  taken  up  his 
abode  at  Oxford,  where  he  resided  all  the  latter  part  of  bis 
life,  and  was  for  many  years  chaplain  to  the  gaol  in  that 
city.  It  may  be  prissumed  that  he  married  in  1743 ;  it  was 
then  at  least  that  he  gave  up  bis  fellowship.  In  1759  be 
became  bachelor  of  divinity  ;  in  1767  he  was  elected  Cuj- 
tos  Archioorum^  or  keeper  ^  the  university  records ;  and, 
on  April  4,  1777,  be  died,  in  the ^venty ^fourth  year  of  his 
age,  leaving  no  diildren.  His  wife  survived  till  1784,  and 
both  were  buried,  with  a  very  short  and  plain  inscription, 
in  the  chapel  of  Wadbam  college. 

The  monuments  of  bis  literary  life  were  numerous,  and 
learned,  but  not  of  great  magnitude.     He  published,  u 


Tl  S  W  I  N  T  O  N. 

'<  De  Lingus  Etrari»  Regalis  verntcula  Dissertatto,'* 
Oxon.  1738,  4to,  19  pages.  2.  ^  A  critical  essay  coo-i 
cerning  the  words  Aoi/ioiy  and  Aot^iowov,  occasioned  by  two 
late  inquiries  into  tbe  meaning  of  the  Demoniacks  in  the 
Iblew  Testament/*  London,  1739,  8vo.  3.  **  De  priscis 
Romanorum  Uteris  dissertatio/'  Oxon.  1746,  4to,  20  pages* 
4.  ^*  De  primogenio  Etrascorum  alphabeto,  dissertatio,*' 
Oxon.  1746.  5.  **  Inscriptiones  Citieae  :  sive  in  binas  In- 
scriptiones  Phoenicias,  inter  rudera  Citii  nuper  repertas, 
GonjectursB.  Accedit  de  nummis  quibusdam  Samaritaais 
et  Phceniciis,  vel  insolitam  prse  se  iiteraturam  ferentibus,' 
vel  in  lucem  hactenus  non  editis,  dissertatio,*'  Oxford, 
1750,  4to,  87  pages.  6.  **  Inscriptiones  Citiese :  sive  in 
binas  alias  inscriptiones  Phoenicias,  inter  rudera  Citii  nu« 
per  repertas,  conjectursB,"  4to,  19  pages.  7.  "  De  num- 
mis quibusdam  Samaritanis  et  Pbceniciis,  vel  insolitam  pras 
se  Iiteraturam  ferentibus,  vel  in  lucem  hactenus  non  editis, 
dissertatio  secunda,'*  4to,  36  pages.  8.  **  Metilia :  sive  de 
quinario  Oentis  Metiiise,  i  nummis  vetusti»  c»teroquin  mi- 
nimum notsB,  dissertatio,"  Oxon.  1750,  4to,  22  pages.  9. 
Several  dissertations  published  in  the  Philosophical  Trans- 
actions of  the  Royal  Society.  As,  <<A  dissertation  upon 
a  Parthian  coifi ;  with  characters  on  the  reverse  resembling 
those  of  the  Palmyrenes,"  vol.  xlix.  p.  593.  **  Some  re- 
marks on  a  Parthian  coin,  with  a  Greek  and  Parthian  le- 
gend, never  before  published,"  vol.  i.  p.  16..  ''A disserta- 
tion upon  the  Phoenician  numeral  characters,  anciently' 
used  at  Sidon,'^  vol.  i.  p.  791.  ^<  In  nummom  Parthicura 
hactenus  ineditum  conjecturap,  vol.  li.  p.  683.  <'  A  disser- 
tation upon  a  Samnite  Denavtus,  never  before  published, 
vol  lii.  p.  28.  ^*  An  account  of  a  subsrated  Denarius  of 
the  Pltetorian  family,  adorned  with  an  Etruscan  inscription 
on  tbe  reverse,  never  before  published  or  explained,*'  vol; 
Ixfi  p.  60.  **  Observations  upon  five  ancient  Persiistn  coins, 
struck  in  Palestine  or  Phosnicia,  before  the  dissolution  of 
the  Persian  empire,  vol.  Ixii.  p.  345.  Other  papers  by  him 
may  be  found  in  the  general  index  to  the  Philosophical 
Transactions.  10.  A  part  of  the  ancient  universal  history, 
contained  in  the  sixth  and  seventh  volumes  of  that  great 
work.  Tihe  particulars  of  this  piece  of  literary  history 
were  communicated  by  Dr.  Johnson  to  Mr.  Nichols,  in  a 
paper  printed  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine  for  December- 
1784,  p.  892.  The  original  of  that  paper,  which  affords  a 
atrong  proof  of  the  steady  attachment  of  Johnson  to  the 


SWINTON.  W 

1 

t 

interests  of  literature,  has  been,  according  to  his  desire,  de- 
posited in  the  British  Mnseum.     The  letter  is  as  follows: 

«  To  Mr.  Nichols. 

"  The  late  learned  Mr.  Swinton  of  Oxford  having  one 
day  remarked,  that  one  man,  meaning,  I  suppose,  no  man 
but  himself,  tould  assign  all  the  parts  of  the  Universal  His- 
tory to  their  proper  authors,  at  the  request  of  sir  Robert 
Chambers,  or  of  myself,  gave  the  account  which  I  now 
transmit  to  you  in  his  own  hand,  being  willing  that  of  so 
great  a  work  the  history  should  be  known,  and  that  each 
writer  should  receive  his  due  proportion  of  praise  from  pos- 
terity. I  recommend  to  you  to  preserve  this  scrap  of  lite- 
rary intelligence,  in  Mr.  Swinton's  own  hand,  or  to  deposit 
it  in  the  Museum,  that  the  veracity  of  the  account  may  ne- 
ver be  doubted.  I  am,  sir, 

your  most  humble  servant, 
Dec.  6,  1784.  Sam.  Johnson.** 

The  paper  alluded  to,  besides  specifying  some  parts 
written  by  other  persons,  assigns  the  following  divisions  of 
the  history  to  Mr.  Swinton  himself.  **  The  history  of  the 
Carthaginians,  Numidians,  Mauritanians,  Gaetulians,  Ga« 
ramantes,  Melano-Gsetulians,  Nigritse,  Cyrenaica,  Marma- 
rica,  the  Regie  Syrtica,  Turks,  Tartars,  and  Moguls,  In- 
dians, and  Chinese,  a  dissertation  on  the  peopling  of  Ame- 
rica, and  one  on  the  independency  of  the  Arabs."  * 

In  ,1740  Mr.  Swinton  was  involved  in  a  law-suit,  in  con- 
sequence of  a  letter  he  had  published.  It  appears  from  one 
of  the  newspapers  of  the  time,  that  a  letter  from  the  Rev* 
Mr.  Swinton,  highly  reflecting  on  Mr.  George  Baker,  hav- 
ing fallen  into  the  bands  of  the  latter,  the  court  of  King*t 
Bench  made  the  rule  absolute  for  an  information  against 
Mr.  Swinton.  These  two  gentlemen  were  also  engaged  for 
some  time  in  a  controversy  at  Oxford  ;  which  took  its  rise 
from  a  matter  relative  to  Dr.  Thistlethwaite,  some  time  war- 
<len  of  Wadham,  which  then  attracted  much  attention.  Mn 
Swinton  had  the  manners,  and  some  of  the  peculiarities 
often  seen  in  very  recluse  scholars,  which  gave  rise  to 
many  whimsical ,  stories.  Among  the  rest,  there  is  one 
mentioned  by  Mr.  Boswell,  in  the  Life  of  Johnson,  as 

*  This  lilt  it  f  iveo  in  PeshalPs  His-  the  Modern  Univerial  History  the  Life 

lory  of  the  city  of  Oxford,  p.  171,  and  of  Mobamined  and  the  History  of  Um 

very  probably  from  the  author's  autbo-  Ara)>s. 
lity  ;  but  it  is  added  that  bt  wrote  ia 


7*  SWINTON. 

having  happened  in  J  754.  Johnson  was  then  on  a  visk  in 
the  university  of  Oxford.  '^  About  this  time/*  he  says, 
'*  there  had  been, an  execution  of  two  or  three  criminals  at 
Oxford,  on  a  Monday*  Soon  afterwards,  one  day  at.  din- 
ner, I  was  saying  that  Mr.  Swinton,  the  chaplain  of  the 
gaol^  and  also  a  frequent  preacher  before  the  university,  a 
learned  man,  but  often  thoughtless  and  absent,  preached 
the  condemnation  sermon  on  repentance,  before  the  con- 
victs on  the  preceding  day,  Sunday  ;  and  that,  in  the  close, 
he  told  his  audience  that  be  should  give  them  the  remainder 
of  what  he  had  to  say  on  the  subject,  the  next  Lord's-day. 
Upon  which,  ope  of  our  company,  a  doctor  of  divinity,  and 
a  plain  matter-of-fact  man,  by  way  of  offering  an  apology 
for  Mr.  Swinton,  gravely  remarked,  that  he  had  probably 
preached  the  same  sermon  before  the  university :  **  Yes,  sir, 
(says  Johnson,)  but  the  university  were  not  to  be  hanged 
the  next  morning  !'*' 

SYBRECHT  (John),  a  landscape  painter,  was  born  at 
Antwerp,  about  1630,  and  brought  up  in  that  city  under 
his  father.  He  was  a  close  imitator  of  nature  in  alt  his 
landscapes*,  and  in  his  younger  days  went  upon  the  Rhine 
and  other  adjacent  places,  where  he  drew  several  plea- 
sant views  in  water*colours.  Having  spent  more  of  his 
Kfe  in  that  way,  than  in  painting,  his  drawings  were  more 
valued  than  his  pictures.  The  duke  of  Buckingham,  pass- 
ing through  the  Netherlands,  in  his  way  home  from  his 
embassy  into  France,  stayed  some  time  at  Antwerp;  where, 
meeting  with  some  of  this  master's  works,  be  was  so  well 
pleased  with  them,  that  he  invited  him  oyer  to  England, 
and  employed  him  atCliefden.  Sybrecht  continued  in  his 
service  three  or  four  years,  and  then  worked  for  the  nobi- 
lity and  gentry  of  England,  continuing  in  vogue  a  long 
time.  He  drew  several  sorts  of  cattle  remarkably  well, 
and  usually  contrived  to  place  some  of  them  in  his  land- 
scapes. He  died  in  London  about  170S,  and  was  buried 
in  St.  James's  church.  There  are  some  of  his  pictures  at 
Newstede-abbey,  lord  Byron's,  and  in  other  houses  belong- 
ing to  the  nobility.  In  1686  he  made  several  views  of 
Cbatsworth.' 

SYDENHAM  (Floyer),  deserves  a  fuller  account  than 
can  now  be  given  of  a  learned  and  diligent  man,  unfortu- 
nately  altogether  unpatronized,  who  undertook,   and  ii^ 

1  PreoediD^r  edit  of  this  Diot.  >  PaktBc;toii.— Walpole's  Aa«cd«tcs. 


S  Y  D  E  N  H  A  M.  7S 

part  executed,  a  translation  of  the  works  of  Plato.  His 
proposals  for  this  great  undertaking  were  published  in  a 
quarto  tract  in  i759 ;  and  he  produced  successively,  be* 
tween  that  time  and  1767,  translation  of  Ihe  '^  15,  a  dis- 
course on  poetry,"  of  "  The  Greater  Hippias,"  "  The 
Lesser  Hippias,"  "  The  Banquet,  Part  I.*'  and  "  The  Ban- 
quet, Part  11.''  He  is  said  to  have  lived  /or  some  years, 
and  finally  to  have  died,  in  great  indigence.  The  Gentle- 
man's Magazine  places  his  death  on  April' the  1st,  17S7, 
and' adds,  that  he  was  born  in  1710,  and  educated  at  Wad- 
ham  college,  Oxford,  where  he  took  the  degree  of  M.  A. 
April  30,  1734.  In  an  account  published  by  the  society 
called  the  Literary  Fund,  the  following  narrative  of  his 
death  is  given  :  *^  During  the  summer  recess  of  the  year 
1788,  an  event  took  place,  which  tarnished  the  character 
of  £nglish  opulence  and  humanity,  and  afflicted  the  vo- 
taries of  knowledge.  Floyer  Sydenham,  the  well-known 
translator  of  Plato,  one  of  the  most  useful,  if  not  one  of 
the  most  competent  Greek  scholars  of  his  age;  a  man  re- 
vered for  his  knowledge,  and  beloved  for*  the  candour  of 
bis  temper  and  the  gentleness  of  his  manners,  died  in  con- 
sequence of  having  been  arrested,  and  detained,  for  a  debt 
to  a  victualler,  who  had,  for  some  time,  furnished  his  fru- 
gal dinner.  At  the  news  of  that  event,  every  friend  of 
literature  felt  a  mixture  of  sorrow  and  shame ;  and  one  of 
the  members  of  a  club  at  the  prince  of  Wales^s  coffee- 
bouse  proposed,  that  it  should  adopt,  as  its  object  and 
purpose,  some  means  to  prevent  similar  afflictions,  and  to 
assist  deserving  authors  and  their  families  in  distress.*' 
Whether  the  account  reported  to  these  gentlemen,  of  the 
time  and  manner  of  Sydenham's  death  was  accurate  or  not, 
the  friends  of  literature  and  humanity  will  feel  great  conso- 
lation in  finding  that  it  gave  occasion  to  a  society  so  bene- 
volent in  its  designs  ;  which  arosej  after  a  few  changes  and 
Bolodifications,  out  of  the  proposal  above-mentioned.  The 
society  is  now  in  a  flourishing  and  improving  state,  and  has 
given  very  timely  and  important  assistance  to  many  deserv- 
ing authors.^ 

SYDENHAM  (Thomas),  a  very  eminent  physician,  and 
one  of  the  most  eminent  as  an  improver  of  the  art  that 
England  has  produced,  was  born  in  1624  at  Winford  Eagle 
in.  Dorsetshire,  where  bis  father  William  Sydienham,  esq.^ 

>  Prteedio^  edition  of  this  Dictuwary. 


76  SYDENHAM. 

bad  8  Imrge  fortune.  Under  whose  ca^re  he  was  educated, 
or  in  what  manner  he  passed  his  childhood,  is  not  known. 
At  the  age  of  eighteen,  in  1642,  he  entered  as  a  com* 
inoner  of  Magdalen-ball,  Oxford,  where  it  is  not  probable 
that  he  continued  long  ;  for  he  informs  us  himself,  that  he 
was  withheld  from  the  university  by  the  commencement  of 
the  war;  nor  is  it  very  clearly  known  in  what  state. of  life 
be  engaged,  or  where  he  resided  during  that  long  series  of 
public  commotion.  It  is  indeed  reported,  that  be  had  a 
commission  in  the  king's  army*,  but  no  particular  account 
is  given  of  bis  military  conduct ;  nor  are  >ye  told  what  rank 
be  obtained  (unless  that  of  a  captain),  when  he  entered  into 
the  army,  or  when  or  on  wbat  occasion  be  retired  from 
it.  It  is  certain,  however,  that  if  ever  he  took  upon  htm 
the  profession  of  arms,  he  spent  but  few  years  in  the  camp ; 
for  in  1648  he  obtained  at  Oxford  the  degree  of  bachelor 
of  physic,  for  which,  as  some  medical  knowledge  is  neces- 
sary, it  may  be  imagined  that  he  spent  some  time  in  qua« 
lifying  himself. 

His  application  to  the  study  of -physic  was,  as  he  himself, 
relates,  produced  by  an  accidental  acquaintance  wfth  Dr. 
Cox,  a  physician  eminent  at  that  time  in  London,  who  in 
some  sickness  prescribed  to  bis  brother,  and,  attending  him 
frequently  on  that  occasion,  inquired  of  him  wbat  profes- 
sion he  designed  to  follow.  The  young  man  answering 
that  he  was  undetermined,  the  doctor  recommended  physic 
to  him,  and  Sydenham  having  determined  to  follow  his  ad-' 
vice,  retired  to  Oxford  for  leisure  and  opportunity  to  pur- 
sue bis  studies. 

It  is  evident,  says  bis  biographer,  that  this  convert^ation 
must  have  happened  before  bis  promotion  to  any  degree  in. 
physic,  ~ because  he  himself  fixes  it  in  the  interval  of  hi)B 
absence  from  the  university,  a  circumstance  which  will  en- 
^able  us  to  confute  many  false  reports  relating  to  Dr.  Syden-* 
'ham,  which  h^ve  been  confidently  inculcated,  and  impli- 
'citly  believed.     It  is  the  general  opinion,  that  he  was  made 
\  pbrsician   by  accident  and  necessity ;  and  sir  ttichard 
Blackmore  reports  in  plain  terms  (in  the  preface  to  bis 
•*  Treatise  on  the  Small- Pox**),  that  be  engaged  in  prac- 
tice without  any  preparatory  study,  or  previous  knowledg^, 

i    *  Sarety  not .  in  the  king's  army,  which  he  had  %  brftther,'  an  ofllder  4f 

.This  is  .^ontrary  to  ali  authority.     Hit  high  rank  noentioaeil  bere^ft«i)    intit 

tfommissio'ty,  if  he  had  any,  must  have  \%    in    some   measure    confirmed   9^j 

•^Mn  flii  tit  pariMOitiflary  army,  in  Wood,  Our  earKeit  autbbiHy.    •*-    " 


.SYDENHAM.  77 

•f  the  medicinal  sciences ;  and  affirms,  diati  when  he  was 
consulted  by  him  what  books  he  should  read  to  qualify  him 
for  the  same  profession,' he  recommended  Don  Quixote. 
That  he  recommended  Don  Quixote  to  Blackmore,  we  are 
not,  continues  Dr.  Johnson,  to  doubt ;  but  the  relator  ifl 
hindered  by  that  self-love  which  dazzles  all  mankind,  from 
discovering  that  he  might  intend  a  satire  very  different 
from  a  general  censure  of  all  the  ancient  and  modern  wri* 
ters  on  medicine,  since  he  might  perhaps  mean,  either  se* 
riously  or  in  jest,  to  insinuate,  that  Blackmore  was  not 
adapted  by  nature  to  the  study  of  physic,  and  that,  whe* 
tfaer  be  should  read  Cervantes,  or  Hippocrates,  he  would 
be  equally  iniqualified  for  practice,  and  equally  unsuccess* 
ful  in  it.  Wha.tever  was  his  meaning,  nothing  is  more 
evident,  than  that  it  was  a  transitory  sally  of  an  imagina* 
tion  warmed  with  gaiety,  or  the  negligent  effusiotv  of  m 
mind  intent  on  some  other  employment,  and'  in  haste  tp 
dismiss  a  troublesome  intruder ;  for  it  is  certain  that  Syden- 
ham did  not  think  it  impossible  to  write  usefully  on  medi^ 
cine,  because  he  has  himself  written  .upon  it ;  and  it  is  not 
probable  that  he  carried  his  vanity  so  far,  as  to  imagine 
that  no  man  had  ever  acquired  the  same  qualiBcations  be- 
sides himself.  He  could  not  but  know  that  he  had  rather 
restored  than  invented  roost  of  his  principles,  and  therefore 
could  not  but  acknowledge  the  valbeof  those  writers  whose 
doctrines  he  adopted  and  enforced. 

That  he  engaged  in  the  practice  of  physic  without  any 
acquaintance  with  the  theory,  or  knowledge  of  the  opinions 
or  precepts  of  former  writers,  is  undoubtedly  false,  for  he 
declares  that  after  he  had,  in  pursuance  of  his  conversation 
with  Dr.  Cox,  determined  upon  the  practice  of  physic,  be 
applied  himself  in  earnest  to  it,  and  spent  several  years  ia 
the  university,  before  he  began  to  practise  in  London. 
Nor  was  he  satisfied  with  the  opportunities  of  knowledge 
which  Oxford  afforded,  but  travelled  to  Montpellier,  ^B 
Desault  relates  ('^  Dissertation  on  Consumptions^'),  in  quest 
of  farther  information,  Montpellier  being  at  that  time  the 
most  celebrated  school  of  physic.  It  is  a  common  opipipn 
that  he  was  thirty  years  old  before  he  formed  his  reaoUi- 
tion  of  studying  physic  ;  but  this  arises  from  the  mj^srepi;^- 
sentation  of  an  expression  in  his  dedication  to  Dr.  Maple- 
toft,  in  which  he  observes  that  from  his  conversation  With 
Dr.  Cox  to  the  publication  of  that  treatise  thirty  years  h^d 
intervened.    The  facts  already  related  sufficiently  confuie 


7» 


SYDENHAM. 


Uua  etrotf  since  it  appears  that  Sydenham,  after  baring 
beeii  fo^  some  time  absent  from  the  university,  returned  t^ 
it  in  order  to  pursue  his  physical  inquiries  before  he  was 
twenty- four  years  old;  for  in  1648,  when  exactly  of  that 
age,  be  was  admitted  to  the  degree  of  M.  B. 

Among  other  reports  respecting  this  great  man,  it  ha» 
also  beeh  said  that  he  composed  his  works  in  English,  but^ 
wM  obliged  to  have  recourse  to  Dr.  Mapletoft  to  translate 
them- into  Latin.  This  has  been  asserted  by  Ward  in  his 
Lives  of  the  Gresham  professors,  but  without  bringing  any 
proof* ;  and  it  is  observable  that  his  *^  Processus  Integri,*' 
published  after  his  death,  discovers  alone  more  skill  in  the 
Latin  language  than  is  commonly  ascribed  to  him.  It  is 
likewise  asserted  by  sir  Hans  Sloane,  with  whom  he  was 
familiarly  acquainted,  that  Dr.  Sydenham  was.  particularly 
versed  in  the  writings  of  the  great  Roman  orator  and  phi* 
losopher;  and  there  is  evidently  such  a  luxuriance  in  his 
style,  as  may  discover  the  author  who  gave  him  most  plea- 
sure, and  most  engaged  his  imitation. 

About  the  same  time  that  he  became  bachelor  of  physic, 
be  obtained,  by  the  interest  of  a  relation,  a  fellowship  of 
All  Souls^  college,  having  submitted,  by  the  subscription  . 
required,  to  the  authority  of  the  visitors  appointed  by  the 
parliament,  upon  what  principles,  or  how  consistently  with 
bis  former  conduct,  it  is  now  impossible  to  discover  f. 
When  he  thought  himself  qualified  for  practice^  he  fixed 
his  residence  in  Westminster,  became  doctor  of  physic  at 
Cambridge,  received  a  licence  from  the  college  of  phy- 
sicians, and  lived  in  the  first  degree  of  reputation,  and  the 
greatest  afBuence  of  practice,  for  many  years,  without  any' 
other  enemies  than  those  which  he  raised  by  the  superior 
merit  of  his  conduct,  the  bright  lustre  of  his  abilities,  or 
his  improvements  of  his  science,  and  his  contempt  of  per- 
nicious methods  supported  only  by  authority  in  opposition 
to  sound  reason  and  indubitable  experience.  These  men 
are  indebted  to  him  for  concealing  their  names,  when  he 


^  Dr.  Ward  did  bring  his  proofs, 
in\  letter  sent  to  the  Gent  Mag.  vol. 
XUT.  in  which  however  be  endeavours 
to  obviate  the  conclusion  that  might 
be  drawn  from  his  first  assertion, 
namely  that  Sydenham  was  not  ca- 
pable of  translating  his  works  into 
Latin,  and  this  he  has  done  very  can- 
didly and  very  satisfactorily. 


f  This  mistake  is  founded  on  that 
mentioned  in  the  last  note  but  one. 
Wood  informs  us  that  he  would  not, 
from  the  first,  join  the  young  students 
who  took  up  arms  in  defence  of  thQ 
king.  There  was  nothing  therefore  in 
his  present  conduct  inconsistent  witb 
his  former. 


Y  D  E  N  H  AM. 


'^9 


records  their  malice,  since  tbey  have  thereby  eseapf$4  the 
contempt  and  detestatioa  of  posterity*. 

Dr.  Sydenbami  however,  was  not  destined  for  long  \\(e. 
His  health  began  to  fail  in  the  fifty-second  year  of  his  age^ 
by  frequent  attacks  of  the  gout,  to  which ^he  had  long  been 
subject,  and  which  afterwards  was  accompanied  with  the 
stone  in  the  kidneys,  and  its  natural  consequence,  bloody 
urine.  These  were  distempers,  says  his  elegant  biogra* 
pber,  which  even  the  art  of  Sydenham  could  only  palliate, 
without  hope  of  a  perfect  cure,  but  which,  if  he  has  not 
been  able  by  his  precepts  to  instruct  us  to  remove,  he  has, 
at  least,  by  his  example  taught  us  to  bear ;  for  he  never 
betrayed  any  indecetit  impatience,  or  unmanly  dejection^ 
under  his  torments,  but  supported  himself  by  the  reflee- 
tions  of  philosophy,  and  the  consolations  of  religion,  and 
in  every  interval  of  ease  applied  himself  to  the  assistance 
of  others  with  his  usual  assiduity.  After  a  life  thus  usefully 
employed,  he  died  at  his  house  in  Pall-mall,  Dec.  29, 
1689,  in  the  sixty-fifth  year  of  his  age,  and  was  buried  in 
the  aile,  near  the  south  door,  of  the  church  of  St.  James's^ 
Westminster. 

His  works  have  been  collected  and  frequently  printed  at 
London  in  one  volume  8vo.  The  last  edition  is  that  by 
John  Swan,  M.  D.  of  Newcastle  in  Staffordshire,  1742. 
To  this  is  prefixed  a  life  of  Dr.  Sydenham,  by  Dr.  Johnson, 
which  we  have  chiefly  followed  in  the  preceding  account. 
His  works  were  also  printed  at  Leipsic  in  1711,  at  Geneva 
in  1716,  in  2  vols.  4to,  and  at  Leyden  in  Svo.  They  were 
written  by  himself  in  English,  but  translated  afterwards 
into  Latin,  of  which  it  is  our  opinion  he  was  fully  capable, 
although  these  translations,  as  already  noticed,  have  been 
attributed  to  Dr.  Mapleto ft  and  others.  The  last  English 
edition  is  that  by  Dr.  George  Wallis,  1788,  2  vols.  Svo,  with 
notes  and  opinions  of  subsequent  medical  writers. 


*  *«  The  great  Sydenham,  for  all 
bis  labours,  only  gamed  the  sad  and 
uojuftt  recoiBpence  of  calumny  and 
ignominy:  and  that  from  the  emula- 
tio]!i  of  some  of  his  collegiate  breth- 
ren and  others,  whose  indignation  at 
length  arose  to  that  height,  that  they 
endeavoured  to  banish  him,  as  guilty 
of  medicinal  heresy,  out  of  that  illus* 
trious  society ;  and  by  the  whispering 
of  others  he  was  baulked  the  employ- 
ment of  the  royal  family,  where  before 
be  was  called  among  the  first  physi- 
ciaai.    .Yet  some  patrons  this  great 


and  good  man  had  among  his  breth- 
ren, as  Goodall,  Brady,  Gaman,  and 
Dr.  Cole  of  Worcester,  as  may  be 
seen  by  their  epistles  in  bis  works. 
Dr.  JVIickletbwait  a  little  before  hia 
deaths  did  profess,  notwithltanding  all 
the  attempts  of  several  against  the 
methods  of  Sydenham,  that  these 
Would  prevail,  and  triumph  over  all 
other  methods :  and  the  event  has 
fully  verified  this  prediction  of  Dr. 
MicklethwaiU"  MS.  communicated 
by  C^r.  Lettsom  to  the  Qent.  Mag.  to!, 
LXXI.  p.  684. 


ei)  SYDENHAM. 

Sydenham  has  frequently  been  called  the  father  of  pby- 
aic  among  the  moderns.  He  tells  us,  in  the  preface  to  his 
works^  that '^  the  increase  and  perfection  of  the  medical 
^rt  is  to  be  advanced  by  these  two  m^ans  :  by  composing 
an  history  of  distempers,  or  a  natural  and  exact  descrip- 
tion of  distempers  and  their  symptoms  ;  and  by  deducing 
and  establishing  a  method  of  cure  from  thence/^  This  is 
the  way  which  that  great  delineator  of  the  right  road  to 
real  knowledge  in  all  its  various  branches,  lord  Bacon,  had 
pointed  out ;  and  its  being  more  closely  pursuecl  by  Syden- 
ham than  by  any  modern  physician  before  him^  is  what  has 
justly  entitled  him  to  those  high  encomiums  which  have 
ever  been  paid  him.  Sir  Richard  Blackmore  allows,  and 
all  are  now  convinced,  that  Sydenham,  *^  who  built  all  his 
masims  and  rules  of  practice  upon  repeated  observations 
on  the  nature  and  properties  of  diseases,  and  the  power  of 
remedies,  has  compiled  so  good  an  history  of  distempers, 
and  so  prevalent  a  method  of  cure,  that  he  has  improved 
and  advanced  the  heating  art  much  more  than  Dr.  Willis 
with  all  his  curipus  speculations  and  fancifut  hypotheses .^^ 
He  relates  of  himself,  in  his  dedication  to  Dr.  Mapletoft, 
that  ever  since  he  had  applied  himself  to  the  practice  of 
physic,  he  bad  been  of  opinion,  and  the  opinion  had  been 
every  day  more  and  more  confirmed  in  him,  that  the  me- 
dical art  could  not  be  learned  so  surely  as  by  use  and  ex- 
perience; and  that  he,  who  should  pay  the  nicest  and 
most  accurate  attention  to  the  symptoms  of  distempers, 
would  infallibly  succeed  best  in  searching  out  the  true 
means  of  cure.  **'  For  this  reason,"  says  he,  "  I  gave  my- 
self up  entirely  to  this  method  of  proceeding,  perfectly  se- 
cure and  confident,  that,  while  I  followed  nature  as  ray 
guide,  I  could  never  err."  He  tells  him  afterwards,  that 
Mr.  Locke  approved  his  method,  which  he  considered  as 
no, small  sanction  to  it;  and  what  he  says  upon  this  occa- 
sion of  Mr.  Locke  is  worth  transcribing:  ^*  Nosti  prse- 
terea,  quern  huic  mese  methodo  sufFragantem  habeam,  qui 
earn  intimius  per  omnia  perspexerat,  utrique  nostrum  con- 
junctissimum  dominum  Joannem  Locke  ;  quo  quidem  viro, 
live  ingenio  judicioqne  acri  &  subacto,  sive  etiam  antiquis, 
hoc  est,  optimis  moribus,  vix  superiorem  quenquam^  inter 
•OS  qui  nunc  sunt  homines  repertum  iri  confido  ;  paucissi- 
mos  certe  pares.^*  There  are  some  Latin  elegiac  verses  by 
Mr.  Locke,  addressed  to  Sydenham^  prefixed  to  bis  '^Tr«a- 
tis«  ujjMn  fevers/* 


StDEKHAM.  ii 

Mt.  Granger  has  remarked  that  Sydenham  received 
'  higher  honours  from  foreign  physicians  than  from  his  coun* 
trymen*  This,  however^  applies  only  to  his  contempo« 
raries,  for  no  modern  English  physician  has  ever  mentione4 
Sydenham  unless  in  terms  of  high  veneration.  The  enco* 
miums  of  Boerhaave  and  Haller  are  well  known  to  medical 
readers.  His  great  merit  consists  in  the  accurate  descrip* 
tions  which  he  has  left  us  of  several  diseases  which  first 
became  conspicuous  in  his  time.  His  account  of  the  small- 
pox, and  of  his  medical  treatment  of  that  diseases,  is  admi«- 
rable,  and  contributed  in  no  small  degree  to  establish  his 
celebrity.  He  was  the  first  person  who  introduced  the 
cooling  regimen  in  fevers,  a  method  of  treatment  frequently 
attended  with  the  happiest  effects^  though  it  must  be  ac- 
.  knowledged  that  be  did  liot  sufficiently  distinguish  between 
the  typhus  and  the  inflammatory  fever,  and  on  that  ac« 
couot  he  sometimes  carried  his  bleedings  to  an  excess.  He 
contributed  also  essentially  to  introduce  the  Peruvian  bark 
as  a  cure  for  intermittents. 

He  had  nn  elder  brother  William,  who  was  some  time 
gentleman  commoner  of  Trinity  college  in  Oxford,  and, 
entering  into  the  parliament's  army,  acquitted  himself  so 
well,  that  be  rose,  by  several  gradations^  to  the  highest 
post  and  dignities.  In  1649,  he  was  appointed  governor  of 
the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  made  vice-admiral  of  that  isle  and 
Hampshire.  In  1653,  he  was  summoned  to  parliament  for 
Dorsetshire;  in  1654,  made  commissioner  of  the  treasury, 
and  member  of  the  privy-qouncil ;  and  in  1658,  summoned 
to  parliameint  by  the  protector  Richard  Cromwell.  This 
connection,  together  with  his  own  principles  and  former 
engagements,  would  probably  binder  Dr.  Sydenham  from 
being  a  very  popular  pbysician,  during  the  period  of  his 
.  flourishing,  that  is,  iu  the  reigns  of  Charles  IL  and 
James  II. ;  yet  he  seems  to  have  owed  more  of  his  neglect  to 
the  envy  of  bis  contemporary  brethren. 

His  biographer  remarks  that  Dr.  Sydenham's  skill  in 
physic  **  was  not  bis  highest  excellence;  that  his  whol^  cha-* 
racter  was  amiable  ;  that  his  chi^f  view  was  the  benefit  of 
mankind,  and  the  chief  motive  of  his.  actions  the  will  of 
God,  wbom  be  mentions  with  reverence,  well  becoming 
the  most  enlightened  and  most  penetrating  mind.  He  was 
benevolent,  candid,  and  communicative,  ^incere»  and  re^i-^ 
gious ;  qualities^  which  it  were  happy  if  they  f Qf||f^  HRI^F 

VOL.XXIX,  G 


S2  &  Y  K  E  S. 

from  him,   who  emulate  his  knowledge,  and  imitate  hb 
inetbpds."  * 

SYKES  (Arthur  Ashley),  a  divine  of  the.  church  of 
England,  but  to  whom  that  church  was  little  indebted^  was 
the  son  of  Mr.  Arthur  Sykes,  of  Ardely  or  Yardly  in  Hert- 
fordshire, and  was  born  in  London  about  1684^  He  was 
educated  at  St.  Paul's  school  under  the  celebrated  Mr. 
Postlethwayte,  and  was  admitted  of  Corpus  Christi  college, 
Cambridge,  in  1701,  under  the  care  of  the  rev«  Charles 
Kidman,  B.  D.  tutor  of  that  college.  In  Feb.  1701-2  be 
was  appointed  a  scholar  of  the  house.     While  an  under-^ 

fraduate  he  wrote  some  Hebrew  verses  on  the  death  of 
ing  William,  which  were  printed  in  the  Cambridge  coU 
lection  on  that  occasion.  He  took  the  degree  of  B.  A.  in 
1704*5,  and  proceeded  M.  A.  in  1708.  After  leaving  col- 
lege he  was  employed  for  sopie  time  as  one  of  the  assistants 
at  St.  Paul's  school,  but  quitted  this  situation  as  ioconsist* 
ent  with  the  prosecution  of  his  private  studies.  In  1712-1 3 
be  was  collated  to  the  vicarage  of  Godmersham  in  Kent  by 
archbishop  Tenison,  who  had  a  great  personal  regard  for 
him,  and  was  a  generous  patron  to  the  members  of  Corpus 
Christi,  of  which  he  had  himself  been  fellow.  In  April 
1714  he  was  instituted  to  the  rectory  of  Dry-Drayton  in 
Cambridgeshire,  on  the  presentation  of  the  duchess  dow- 
ager of  Bedford^  and  in  August  followiog  he  resigned  his 
vicarage  of  Godmersham  in  Kent.  In  Nov.  1718,  be  was 
instituted  to  the  rectory  of  Rayleigh  in  Essex,  which  he 
retained  to  his  death,  but  now  resigned  the  living  of  Dry- 
Drayton.  In  Dec^  following,  at  a  meeting  of  the  gover-^ 
nor%  and  directors  of  King-street  chapel^  Golden-square, 
be  was  unanimously  appointed  afternoon  preacher  at  that 
place,  which  is  a  chapel  of  ease  to  St.  Jameses  Westmin- 
ster, of  which  his  friend  Dr.  Clarke  was  then  rector.  la 
.1721,  on  the  morning  preachership  becoming  vacant  by 
.  Dr.  Wilcocks's  promotion  to  the  see  of  Gloucester>  Mr. 
Sykes  was  unanimously  appointed  to  -succeed  him.  In 
January  1723-4  he  was  collated  to  the  prebend  of  Alton- 
Borealis  in  the  cathedral  of  Salisbury,  by  bishop  Hoadly, 
and  three  years  afterwards  his  lordship  appointed  him  to 
the  prsecentorship  of  the  same  cathedral,  yacant  by  the 
^eatb   of  their  common   friend  Dr.  Daniel  Whitby.     Iii 

1  Life  by   Dr.  JohBiOB.—Biog.  Brit.— Birch'f  Livet.— A^L  Ox.  T©1.  II.— 
ThMBioB'ft  liift.  of  ih«  Royal  Society. 


S  Y  K  E  S.  SS 

Ajpril  1725,  upon  the  nomination  of  Dr.  Clarke,  he  was 
appointed  assistant  preacher  at  St.  James's  church,  West- 
minster. In  1726  he  proceeded  to  take  the  degree  of 
D.  D.  in  the  university  of  Cambridge.  In  Feb.  1739  he 
was  advanced  to  the  deanry  of  St.  Burien  in  Cornwall, 
which  is  in  the  patronage  of  the  crown ;  and  on  October 
15,  1740,  he  was  collated  to  a  prebend  in  the  cathedral  of 
Winchester,  through  the  friendship  of  his  former  patron 
bishop  Hoadiy,  who  had  been  translated  to  the  see  of 
Winchester  in  1734.  His  ecclesiastical  promotions  seem 
to  have  ended  here. 

Duruig  many  years  Dr.  Sykes  had  been  greatly  afBicted 
ivith  the  gout  and  stone,  but  had  received  much  relief  from 
the  pains  of  the  latter  disorder,  for  fifteen  or  sixteen  years 
before  his  death,  by  the  medicine  purchased  by  parlia- 
ment of  Mrs.  Stephens,  for  the  public  use.  And  upon  the 
whole  be  enjoyed  a  general  state  of  good  health  and  spirits, 
until  he  was  seized  with  a  stroke  of  the  palsy,  while  attend- 
ing the  funeral  of  a  friend,  on  Monday  evening,  Nov.  15, 
1756,  and  died,  at  his  house  in  Cavendish-square,  at  two 
o'clock  in  the  afternoon  of  Tuesday  the  23d,  in  the  seventy- 
third  year  of  his  age.  He  was  buried  near  the  pulpit  in 
the  parish  church  of  St.  James*s  Westminster  on  the  30th 
of  November.  Dr.  Gregory  Sharpe,  who  succeeded  him 
in  King-street  qhapel,  and  was  afterwards  master  of  the 
Temple,  and  who  had  long  been  in  habits  of  friendship  with 
the  deceased,  officiated  upon  this  occasion. 

Dr.  Sykes  had  been  married  many  years  to  Mrs.  Eliza- 
beth Williams,  a  widow  lady,  and  a  native  of  Bristol,  but 
bad  no  children  by  her.  He  left  the  whole  of  his  fortune,^ 
which  was  considerable,  to  her  for  life,  and  afterwards  to 
.his  brother  the  rev,  George  Sykes,  rector  of  Rayleigh  in 
Essex,  and  vicar  of  Preston  in  Kent.  Mrs.  Sykes  died  in 
January  1763,  and  was  buried  near  her  husband  in  St. 
James's  church. 

;  Dr.  Sykes  .was  a  divine  of  the  school,  of  Clarke  and 
Hoadiy,  who,  while  they  made  it  the  business  of  their  lives 
to  oppose  the  distinguishing  doctrines  of  the  established 
church,  were  content  to  enjoy  both  its  dignities  and  emo- 
lument8« .  Such  men  have  been  well  represented  by  an  in- 
geni9us. critic*,  as  holding  a  grand  debate  between  con- 
victioQ  «nd  interest^  and  endeavouring  to  accommodate 

♦  Monthly  Reritw,  to).  LXXill.  p.  807. 

02 


84  S  Y  K  E  8. 

matters  with  As  much  ease  as  possible  between  both;  a 
sort  of  half-way  reformers^  who  endeavour  to  find  out  the 
secret  band  which  will  unite  the  two  opposite  extremes^ 
and  coalesce,  in  one  mass^  the  most  heterogeneous  quali* 
ties  of  inward  persuasion  and  outward  profession.  Tbejr 
subscribe  articles  which  they  do  not  believe^  and  reconcile 
it  to  their  conscience  by  calling  them  articles  of  peace  and 
not  oi faith;  and  by  this  principle  of  accommodation  they 
endeavour  to  secure  the  character  of  the  ^  children  of 
light,^*  without  wholly  relinquishing  the  good  things  whidi 
fall  to  the  share  of  the  "  children  of  the  world." 
'  Such  was  Dr.  Sykes,  who  in  all  his  controversial  writings 
(and  the  greater  part  of  his  writings  were  of  that  kind)  en- 
deavoured to  lay  open  the  church  to  persons  of  the  most 
opposite  sentiments,  especially  those  approaching  the  So- 
cinian  scheme,  and  therefore  argues  in  one  of  his  tracts, 
that  <^  ajatitude  of  opinion  is  intended  and  allowed  by  the 
legislature  to  subscribers,  as  thfey  are  members  of  the 
church  of  England,''  which  the  more  recent  author  of 
'^  The  Confessional"  has  amply  refuted.  It  was  of  course 
very  natural  for  Dr.  Sykes,  at  a  subsequent  period,  to  main- 
tain, in  other  pamphlets,  that  the  fences  which  the  church 
has  determined  to  secure  against  innovfiition  are  of  no  im- 
portance. 

His  publications  amount  in  the  whole  to  sixty-three. 
Most  of  these  are  only  pamphlets  on  temporary  topics,  and 
are  now  little  known  or  sought  after;  but  the  following 
have  been  thought  to  possess  a  more  permanent  character: 
'^  Essay  on  the  Truth  of  the  Christian  Religion;  wherein 
its  real  foundation  upon  the  Old  Testament  is  shown  ;'* 
this  was  published  in  1725  against  Collins;  and  ^^The 
principles  and  connexion  of  Natural  and  Revealed  Religion 
distinctly  considered,"  1740,  8vo.^ 

SYLBURGIUS  (Frederic),  a  learned  German,  emi- 
nent for  his  great  skill  in  Greek,  was  born  at  Marpurg,  in 
"the  landgraviate  of  Hesse,  in  1546,  or,  as  Saxius  says, 
1536.  His  father,  who  was  a  farmer,  gave  him  a  liberal 
education,  of  which  he  inade  so  good  a  use,  as  to  become 
pei^fect  in  the  Latin,  French,  and  Greek  languages,  at  a 
time  when  the  latter  was  understood  by  very  few.  He  was 
a  school-master  at  Licfaa,  for  some  of  the  first  years  of  hit 
life ;  but  afterwards  quitted  that  employment,  and  applied 

'  Memoirs  of  th«  life  and  Writings  <$f  Dr.  Syl^es,  by  Br.  Disney,  17S5,  St*. 


SYLBURGIUS.  85 

hioiself  wholly  to  the  revision  and  correction  of  ancient 
authors,  the  Greek  particalarly ;  many  of  which,  still  held 
in  estimation,  were  published  by  him,  from  the  presses  of 
Wecfael  and  CommeUn«  Among  these  were  Aristotle^ 
Herodotus,  Dionysius  Halicarnassensis,  Dion  Cassius,  Jus* 
tin  Martyr,  Clemens  Alexandrinus,  Theodoret,  &c.  He 
gave  some  assistance  to  Henry  Stephens  in  compiling  his 
^  Tt^esaurus  GrseccB  lingusB ;"  and  was  also  the  author  of  a 
Greek  grammar,  which  was  much  valued,  a  Hebrew  gram- 
mar, notes  upon  Clenardus^  &c.  For  these  and  other  ser« 
vices,  he  had  an  annual  stipend  allowed  him  by  the  uni- 
versity of  Marpurg.  He  was  universally  well  spoken  of  by 
the  learned,  and  died  much  lamented  by  them  in  1596. 
*^  Unhappy  event,*'  says  Casaubon,  *^  to  the  republic  of 
letters !  for,  a  few  days  before  his  death,  he  sent  me  word 
by  Commelin  of  many  new  labours  projected  and  begun* 
The  lovers  of  Greek  have  more  especially  reason  to  deplore 
the  loss  of  him." '  > 

SYLVESTER  (Joshua),  the  laborious  and  quaint  trans- 
lator of  Dtt  Bartas,  was  born  in  1563,  and  died  Septem- 
ber 28,  16I8,  His  death  happened  at  Middleburg  in  Hol- 
land. By  what  circumstances  he  was  induced,  or  com- 
pelled, to  quit  his  native  country  we  have  not  discovered ; 
but  John  Vicars,  his  friend,  who  styles  him  **  the  best  of 
Poets,"  speaks  of  it  as  a  reproach  to  his  country* 

And  hadst  thou  dy*d  at  home  it  had  been  better  ; 

It  would  (at  least)  have  giv'n  thee  much  content  i 

But  herein  England's  worthy  to  be  shent^ 
Which  to  thy  worth  did  prove  so  bad  a  debtor. 
Nor  minde  I  this,  but  then  I  blush  for  shame^ 

To  think,  that  though  a  cradle  thee  it  gave. 

Yet  (O  unkinde)  deny'd  thy  corps  a  grave  j 
Much  more  a  statue  resold  to  thy  name« 

He  was,  in  1597,  a  candidate  for  the  office  of  secretary 
to  the  company  of  merchant  adventurers  at  Stade,  of  which 
he  was  a  member ;  on  which  occasion  the  unfortunate  earl 
of  Essex  interested  himself  in  his  favour,  and  wrote  two 
letters  in  his  behalf,  dated  from  the ,  court  on  the  last  of 
April ;  a  private  one  to  Mr.  Ferrers,  the  deputy -governor, 
recommending  Mr.  Sylvester  as  an  able  and  honest  man  ; 
and  a  general  one  to  the  company,  to  the  same  purpose, 
in  which  he  mentions  that  he  had  received  a  very  good 

1  Melchior  Adam«^-Scaligftr  in  Scaligeraais  Secundii— Fabric*  Bibl.  Grac— 
8txii  ODomasL 


86  SYLVESTER. 

report  of  his  sufficiency  and  fitness  for  the  post  of  secretary, 
being  both  well  qualified  with  language,  and  many  other 
good  parts,  and  honest  and  of  good  conversation ;  two 
especial  motives  of  his  lordship's  request  in  bis  behalf. 
Sylvester's  translation  of  DuBartas  is  dedicated  to  l^ing 
James  ;  and  among  those  who  pay  him  the  highest  compli- 
ments appears  Ben  Jonson,  whom  tradition  makes  an  inti- 
mate friend,  and,  as  some  think,  a  relation.  He  translated 
also  the  Quatrains  of  Pibrac,  and  many  other  pieces  of 
French  poetry ;  with  some  from  the  Latin  of  Fracastorius, 
&c.  One  of  his  own  pieces  has  the  ridiculously  quaint; 
title  of  ^^  Tobacco  battered,  and  the  pipes  shattered,  (about 
their  ears  that  idlely  idolize  so  base  and  barbarous  a  weed  ; 
or  at  least-wise  over-love  so  loathsome  a  vanitie :)  by  a  vol- 
ley of  holy  shot  thundered  from  mount  Helicon.'*  This  may 
be  supposed  to  have  been  written  to  please  the  great  enemy 
of  tobacco,  James  L  Not  much  can  now  be  said  in  favour 
of  his  compositions,  either  the  translations,  or  those  that 
are  original,  although  he  gained  greater  reputation  from 
the  former  than  the  latter.  Dryden  tells  us,  in  the  Dedi- 
cation to  the  Spanish  Fryar,  that  *^  when  he  was  a  boy,  he 
thought  inimitable  Spenser  a  mean  poet,  in  comparison  of 
Sylvester's  Dubartas,"  and  ^*  was  wrapt  into  an  ecstacy 
when  he  read  these  lines : 

"  Now  when  the  winter's  keener  breath  began 
To  crystallize  the  Baltic  ocean ; 
To  glaze  the  lakes,  to  bridle  up  the  floods^ 
And  periwig  with  snow  the  bald-pate  woods.*' 

He  seeo^s  to  have  been  always  in  great  poverty,  and 
very  earnest  in  courting  the  great  for  relief.  He  appears, 
in  a  dedication  to  the  parliament,  to  allude  to  some  person 
of  the  name  of  Bowyer,  as  the  cause  of  bis  ruin  ;  for  he 
subscribes, 

*^  Your  under-clarke,  unworthily  undon 

By  over  trusting  to  a  starting  Boto^ 

Yer — while  too  strong^^  to  my  poor  wrong  and  woe.'* 

He  was  apparently  much  admired  in  his  time,  and  yet  was 
neglected ;  so  that  the  most  probable  cause  for  his  exile 
was  the  fear  of  a  gaol  at  home. ' 
SYLVESTRE* 

*  A  referenee  was  made  from  Ferrarietuis  to  Sylvestre,  but  this  person  ap- 
pears too  iusi^uificant  for  notice. 

1  Ath.  Ox.  Tol.  I. — Phillips's  Theatrum,  by  sir  £.  Brydges. — Cens.  Lit.  vol.  II. 
— Dudster's  Considerations  on  Milton's  Early  Reading,  1800.— Geot.  Mag.  vol* 
LXX  and  LXXV.— Ellis's  Specimeos,  &c. 


SYLVIUS.  87 

SYLVIUS,  or  DUBOIS,  or  DELEBOE  <James),  a  ce- 
lebrated physician  of  France,  was  the  son  of  Nicholas  dur 
Bois,  a  camblet- weaver,  who  had  eleven  sons  and  four 
daughters.  He  was  born  at  Amiens  in  Picardy,  in  1478, 
and  went  through  a  course  of  classical  learning,  under  bis 
elder  hrother  Francis  Sylvius;  who  was  principal  of  the 
college  of  Tou'rnay  at  Paris,  and  was  a  great  promoter  of 
letters  in  that  age  of  barbarism.  There  he  learned  the 
Latin  language,  in  much  greater  purity  than  it  had  been 
taught  for  a  long  time ;  and  hence  it  was,  that  his  writings 
are  distinguished  to  such  advantage  by  the  elegance  of  the 
style.  ^  He  became  a  very  accomplished  scholar  in  Latin 
and  Greek,  and  had  some  litde  knowledge  of  the  Hebrew  ; 
and  applied  himself  also  to  mathematics  and  mechanics  so 
succesisfuUy,  as  to  invent  machines,  which. deserved  public 
iiotipe.  When  the  time  was  come  for  giving  himself  en*- 
tirely  up  to  ph^'sic,  to  which  study  hid  inclination  had 
always  led  him,  he  traced  it  to  its  sources ;  and  engaged 
so  deeply  in  the  reading  of  Hippocrates  and  Galen,  that 
he  scarcely,  did  any  thing  but  examine  and  translate  those 
two  authors.  He  discovered  from  thence  the  importance 
of  anatomy,  and  applied  himself  to  it  so  ardently,  that  he 
became  as  great  a  master  as  tbat^ge  would  permit.  He 
studied  pharmacy  with  no  less  care,vai»d  took  several  jour^ 
neys  to  see,  upon  the  spot,  the  medicines  which  different 
countries  produce.  Upon  his  return^  to  Paris,  he  read 
lectures,  and  explained  in  two  years  a  eourse  of  physic 
from  Hippocrates  and  Galen  ;  which. so  much  extended  his 
reputation,  that  scholars  from  all  parts  of  Eurpp^  resorted 
to.  him.  But  being  prohibited  at  last  from  teachmg  as  not 
having  taken  his  degree,  he  went  to  Montpellier  in  1520 
for  that  purpose,  but  not  being  willing  to  pay  the  expences 
of  graduation,  he  returned  to  Paris,  and  by  an  agreement 
with  the  faculty,  recommenced  his  lectures,  although  only 
a  bachelor  of  pby.8ic.  In  .1535  he  taught  in  the  college  of 
Treguier,  while  Fernelius  taught  in  that  of  Cornouailles ; 
but  the  latter  had  few  scholars,  while  the  former  had  about 
five  hundred.  The  reason  of  this  difference  was,  that 
Sylvius  dissected  bodies,  and  read  lectures  upon  botany 
and  the  preparation  of  medicines,  advantages  which  the 
scholars  of  Fernelius  had  not.  The  professorship  of  physic 
in  the  royal  college  becoming  vacant  in  1548,  Sylvius  wa:i 
nominated  to  fill  it ;  which  he  did,  after  hesitating  about 
it  two  years.     He  continued  iu  it  till  his  death,  which  hap- 


«S  S  Y  L  V  I  U  S^ 

pened  Jan.  13,  1555*  He  was  never  married,'  and  shev^ed 
^ven  an  arersiou  to  women.  His  personal  character  was 
particularly  obnoxious.  His  behaviour  was  rude  and  bar*' 
|>arous.  He  bad  nothing  social  in  bis  temper^  or  ever  de- 
parted  from  a  certain  pompous  stiffness;  and  it  was  observed 
that  when  be  attempted  to  relax,  be  did  it  aukwardly. 
The  only  witticism  related  of  him  is,  that  *^  he  had  parted 
with  three  beasts,  bis  cat^  bis  mule,  and  his  maid.'*  His 
avarice  was  extreme,  and  he  lived  in  the  most  sordid  man- 
ner :  he  allowed  his  servants  nothing  but  dry  bread,  and 
bad  no  fire  all  the  winter*  Two  things  served  him  as  a 
remedy  against  cold ;  he  played  at  foot^rball,  and  carried 
9.  great  log  upon  bis  shoulders :  and  he  said  that  the  beat 
which  he  gained  by  this  exercise  was  more  beneficial  to 
bis  health  than  that  of  a  fire.  He  was  most  rigid  in  de- 
ikianding  bis  fees  from  bis  scholars,  yet  was  puzzled  often 
what  to  do  with  bis  money,  for  when,  in  1616,  hia  hbpse 
in  the  rue  de  St,  Jacques  was  pulled  down,  the  workmen 
found  many  pieces  of  gold,  which  be  had  probably  hid  and 
knew  not  where  to  find.  This  avarice,  which  was  bis  rul- 
ing passion,  exposed  him  to  the  wit  of  his  contemporaries. 
Buchanan  has  a  distich  on  him,  beginning  ''  Sylvius  bio 
situs  est,  gratis  qui  nil  dedit  unquam,  &c.*'  and  a  dialogue 
was  published  under  the  title  of  <^  Sylvius  ocreatus,'*  or 
'^  Sylvius  booted,"  of  which  it  was  thought  that  Henry 
Stephens  was  the  author,  by  the  assumed  name  of  Ludo-* 
vicus  Arrivabenus  Mantuanus.  It  is  founded  on  this  sup- 
position that  Sylvius,  wishing  to  pass  Acheron  without 
paying  anything,  went  in  boots  that  be  might  ford  it. 
This  satire  was  answered  by  John  Melet,  one  of  his  pupilsy 
who  adopted  the  name  of  Claudius  Burgensis,  and  entitled 
bis  performance  ^*  Apologia  in  Lud.  Arrivabenum  pro  D.  J« 
Silvio." 

The  various  works  of  Sylvius  which  had  been  published 
separately  were  collected  by  Ren6  Moreau,  under  the 
title  ^'  J.  Sylvii  opera  medica  in  sex  partes  digesta,  Casti- 
gata,  &c.''  Geneva,  1630,  foL  with  a  life  of  the  author, 
the  sathre  and  answer  just  mentioned,  and  Sylvius's  Latin 
poetry,  which  firsi  appeared  in  1584,  4to.  He  was  a 
strenuous  adherent  to  Galen,  except  in  his  love  of  judicial 
astrology,^ which  Sylvius  opposed*  The  French  have  some 
translations  from  his  works,  to  which  may  be  added,  not 
in  the  preceding  volume,  a  Latin  and  French  grammar 
printed  at  Paris  in  153  L     He  lived  upon  very  bad  terms 


SYLVIUS- 


S9 


with  Vesaliufy  who  occasioned  him  the  greatest  vexation 
lie  ever  suffered.  Sylvius,  whose  exceUence  lay  in  ana<^' 
lomy,  liad  prepared  a  work  upon  that  subject,  which  he 
considered  as  a  master-piece.  Upon  this,  Vesalius  pub« 
lished,  in  1541|  his  ^^Opus  Anatomicunii'*  which  was  so 
well  written,  and  illustrated  with  so  many  beautiful  figures^ 
that  it  was  universally  admired.  Two  circumsta.nces  ag« 
gravated  this  grievance;  Vesalius  had  been  Sylvius^s  pupil; 
und  he  had  attacked  Gsden,  whom  Sylvius  defended,,  even 
in  his  errors.^ 

SYMMACHUS  (Quintus  Aureuus),  a  citizen  and  se« 
nator  of  ancient  Rome,  and  consul  in  the  year  391,  has 
left  us  ten  books  of  epistles ;  from  which,  as  well  as  from 
other  tbiogsj  we  collect,  that  he  was  a  warm  opposer  of 
the  Christian  religion.  This  he  shews  particularly  in  the 
sixty-first  .epistle  of  the  tenth  book,  addressed  io  the  em* 
petor  Valentihian,  whom  be  petitioned  in  iavour  of  pa« 
ganism.  He  was  very  unfortunate,  after  having  enjoyed  a 
high  degree  of  favour  at  court.  The  emperor  Theodosiu* 
thought  proper  to  desire  that  he  would  protiounce  his  pa- 
negyric before  him ;  but  when  be  heard  that  Symmachus 
had  been  equally  liberal  in  his  praises  of  the  tyrant  Maxi» 
mus,  who  reigned  before  him,  and  to  whom  Theodosius 
himself  had  submitted  from  political  Motives,  he  banished 
Symmachus,  and  persecuted  him  so  even  tn  his  exile,  that 
with  all  his  prejudices  in  favour  of  paganism,  he  was 
obliged  to  take  refuge  in  a  Christian  church  to  save  his  life. 
AmmianusMarcellinuS' speaks  of  him  as  a  man  of  great 
learning  and  modesty ;  and  his  epistles  shew  him  to  have 
been  a  man  of  acute  parts,  and  of  eloquence,  such  as  elo- 
quence was  in  his  time,  that  is,  vei^bose  and  florid.  Sci- 
oppius,  Parens,  and  other  learned  men,  have  written  notes 
upon  the  epistles  of  Symmachus :  but  we  know  of  no  later 
Edition  of  them  than  that  of  Leyden,  16S3,  l2mo.  The 
first  edition,  which  has  no  date,  but  probably  was  printed 
between  1503  and  1S13,  is  veiy  rare  and  valuable.  Am- 
brose, bishop  of  Milan,  wrote  against  Symmachus ;  and  so 
did  the  Christian  poet  Prudentius.' 

SYNESIUSy  an  ancient  father  and  bishop  of  the  Chris«; 
tian  church,  flourished  at  the  beginning  of  the  fifth  cen- 
tury.    He  was  born  at  Cyrene  in  Africa,  a  town  situated 

^  £loy  D'ltU  Hitt  de  MedeciDe.— Bi<{g.  Udit.  art.  DuboU.— NiMroDy  vol* 
XXIX. 
!  CftTty  vol.  I.-«Fabrtcii  Bibl.  Lat.— Bkrant't  Censnra.-^Saxii  Onomait. 


90  S  Y  N  E  S  I  U  S. 

upon  the  borders  of  Egypt,  and  afterwards  trarelied  to  the 
neighbouring  couutry  for  improTement,  where  be  happily 
succeeded  in  bis  studies  under  the  celebrated  female  philo^ 
sopher  Hypatia,  who  presided  at  that  time  over  the  Pla« 
tonic  school  at  Alexandria,  where  also  the  eminent  mathe^p 
maticians  Theon,  Pappus,  and  Hero  ti^ught.  Nicephorus, 
patriarch  of  Constantinople,  who  wrote  annotations,  on  a 
piece  of  Synesius,  called  ^*  De  insomniis,"  represents  hioi 
as  a  man  of  prodigious  parts  and  learning ;  and  says,  that 
''  there  was  nothing  he  did  not  know,  no  science  wherein 
he  did  not  excel,  no  mystery  in  which  he  was  not  initiated 
and  deeply'  versed."  His  works  are  in  high  esteem  with 
the  curious ;  and  his  epistles,  in  Suidas's  opinion,  are  ad-* 
mirable,  and  in  that  of  Photius,  as  well  as  Evagrius,  ^*ele*. 
gant,  agreeable,  sententious,  and  learned."  Synesius  was 
a  man  of  noble  bicth,  which  added  no  less  weight  to  his 
learning,  than  that  reflected  lustre  on  his  quality ;  and 
both  together  procured  him  great  credit  and  authority.  He 
went,  about  the  year  400,  upon  an  embassy,  which  lasted 
three  years,  to  the  emperor  Arcadiusat  Constantinople,  on 
the  behalf  of  his  country,  which  was  miserably  harassed 
by  the  auxiliary  Goths  and  other  barbarians  ;  and  it  was 
then,  as  he  himself  tells  us,  that  ^<  with  greater  bold- 
ness than  any  of  the  Greeks,  he  pronounced  before  the 
emperor  an  oration  concerning  government.'*  About  the 
year  410,  when  the  citizens  of  Ptolemais  applied  to  Theo- 
pbilus  of  Alexandria  for  a  bishop,  Synesius  was  appointed 
Und  consecrated,  though  he  took  all  imaginable  pains  to 
decline  the  honour.  He  declared  himself  not  at  all  con- 
vinced of  the  truth  of  some  of  the  most  important  articles 
of  Christianity.  He^  was  verily  persuaded  of  the  existence 
of  the  soul  before  its  union  with  the*  body  ;  he  could  not 
conceive  the  resurrection  of  the  body  ;  nor  did  he  believe 
that  the  world  should  ever  be  destroyed.  He  also  owned 
himself  to  have  such  an  affection  for  his  wife,  that  be 
would  not  consent,  either  to  be  separated  from  her,  or  to 
live  iti  a  clandestine  manner  with  her;  and  told  Theophilus^ 
that,  if  he  did  insist  upon  making  him  a  bishop,  be  must 
leave  him  in  possession  of  his  wife  and  all  his  notions. 
Theophilus  at  length  submitted  to  these  singular  terms, 
*' upon'a  presumption,"  it  is  said,  ^^that  a  man,  whose 
life  and  manners  were  in  every  respect  so  exemplary,  could 
not  possibly  be  long  a  bishep  without  being  enlightened 
with  heavenly  truth.     Nor,"  continues  Cave,  "  was  Theo- 


8YNESIU9.  9t 

]^hilus  deceived  ;  for  Synesius  was  no  sooneir  seated  in  his 
bishopric,  than  he  easily  acquiesced  in  the  doctrine  of  the 
resurrection.'*  Baronius  says  in  his  Annals,  <^  that  he  does 
hot  believe  these  singularities  x)f  Synesius  to  have  been  his 
real  sentiments  ;  but  only  that  he  jpretended  them,  with  a 
view  of  putting  a  stop  to  the  importunities  of  Theophilus^ 
and  of  warding  off  this  advancement  to  a  bishopric,  which 
was  highly  disagreeable  to  him.'*  That  the  advancement 
was  highly  disagreeable  to  Synesius,  is  very  certain  ;  but 
it  is  likewise  as  certain,  that  Baronius's  supposition  is 
without  all  foundation.  There  is  extant  a  letter  of  Syne « 
sius  to  his  brother,  of  which  an  extract  may  be  given,  as 
illustrative  of  his  character  and  opinions. 

'^  I  should  be  exceedingly  to  blame  if  I  did  not  return 
most  hearty  thanks  to  the  inhabitants  of  Ptolemais,  for 
thinking  me  worthy  of  such  honours,  as  I  own  I  do  not 
think  myself  worthy  of :  yet  it  is  highly  incumbent  on  me 
to  consider,  not  only  the  great  things  they  offer,  but 
how  far  it  may  be  prudent  in  me  to  accept  them. — Now, 
the  more  I  reflect  upon  it,  the  more  I  am  convinced  of  my 
own  inability  to  sustain  the  ofHce  and  dignity  of  a  bishop ; 
and  I  will  frankly  tell  you  my  thoughts  upon  this  occasion. 
— While  I  had  nothing  to  support  but  the  character  of  a 
philosopher,  I  acquitted  myself,  I  may  say,  with  tolerable 
credit ;  and  this  has  made  some  imagine  that  I  am  (it  to  be 
a  bishop.  But  they  have  not  considered,  with  what  dif* 
ficulty  the  mind  acquires  a  new  bent ;  that  is,  adapts  itself 
to  a  province  it  has  hitherto  been  a  stranger  to.  I  for  my 
part  am  afraid,  that  by  quitting  the  philosopher,  and  put- 
ting on  the  bishop,  I  should  spoil  both  characters,  that  my 
new  honours  should  make  me  arrogant  and  assuming,  de- 
stroying at  once  the  modesty  of  the  philosopher ;  and  yet 
that  I  should  not  be  able  to  support  them  with  a  becomings 
dignity.  For  only  consider  my  way  of  life  hitherto.  My 
time  has  always  been  divided  between  books  and  sports. 
In  the  hours  of  study  nothing  can  be  more  retired,  but  in 
our  sports  every  body  sees  us ;  and  you  know  very  well, 
that  no  man  is  fonder  of  all  -kinds  of  recreations  than  my- 
self. You  know  also,  that  I  have  an  aversion  to  civil  em- 
ployments, as  indeed  my  education,  and  the  whole  bent  of 
my  studies,  have  been  quite  foreign  to  them.  But  a  bishop 
ought  to  be,  as  it  were,  a  man  of  God,  averse  to  pleasures 
and  amusements,  severe  in  his  manners,  and  for  ever  em- 
ployed in  the  concerns  of  his  flock.    Jt  requires  a  happy 


92  SYNESIUS. 

complication  of  qualities  to  do  all  this  as  it  should  be  dofie  ; 
to  sustain  such  a  weight  of  care  and  business;  to  be  per- 
petually conversant  with  the  affairs  of  men ;  and  yet  to 
keep  himself  unspotted  from  the  world.  It  is  true,  I  see 
this  done  by  some  men,  and  I  highly  admire  and  re^re 
them  for  it ;  but  I  am  myself  incapable  of  doing  it ;  and  I 
will  not  burthen  my  conscience  with  undertaking  what  X 
know  I  cannot  perform.  But  I  have  still  farther  reasons 
for  declining  this  charge,  which  I  will  here  produce ;  for 
though  I  am  writing  to  you,  yet  I  beg  this  letter  may  be 
made  public  :  so  that,  whatever  may  be  the  result  of  thit 
r  aflfair,  or  which  way  soever  I  may  be  disposed  of,  I  may^ 
at  least,  stand  clea^r  with  God  and  man,  and  especially 
with  Tbeophilus,  when  I  sl^U  have  dealt  thus  openly  and 
fairly.  I  say  then,  that  God,  the  laws  of  the  land,  and 
the  holy  hands  of  Tbeophilus,  have  given  me  a  wife  :  but 
I  declare  to  all  men,  that  I  will  neither  suffer  myself  to  be 
separated  from  her,  nor  consent  to  live  like  an  adulterer  in 
a  clandestine  manner  :  the  one  I  think  ipipious,  the  other 
unlawful.  I  declare  further,  that  it  will  always  be  my 
earnest  desire  and  prayer,  to  have  as  many  children  by  her 
as  possible.  Again,  let  it  be  considered' how  difficult,  or 
rather  how  absolutely  impossible  it  is,  to  pluck  up  those 
doctrines,  which  by  the  means  of  knowledge  are  rooted  in 
the  soul  to  a  demonstration.  But  you  know,  that  philo* 
sophy  is  diametrically  opposite  to  the  doctrines  of  Chris* 
tianity ;  nor  shall  I  ever  be  able  to  persuade  myself,  for 
instance,  that  the  soul  had  no  existence  before  its  union 
with  the  body,  that  the  world  and  all  its  parts  will  perish 
together,  and  that  the  trite  and  thread-bare  doctrine  of 
the  resurrection,  whatever  mystery  be  couched  under  it, 
can  have  any  truth  in  it,  as  it  is  professed  by  the  vulgar.  A 
philosopher,  indeed,  who  is  admitted  to  the  intuition  of 
truth,  will  easily  see  the  necessity  of  lying  to  the  people ; 
for  light  is  to  the  eye^  what  truth  is  to  the  people.  The 
eye  cannot  bear  too  much  light;  nay,  if  it  is  under  the 
least  indisposition,  it  is  actually  relieved  by  darkness :  in 
like  manner  fable  and  falsehood  may  be  useful  to  the  people^ 
while  unveiling  the  truth  may  do  them  hurt.  If,  therefore^ 
this  method  be  consistent  with  the  duties  of  the  episcopal 
dignity;  if  I  may  freely  philosophize  at  home,  while  I 
preach  tales  abroad  ;  and  neitherv  teach  nor  un teach,  but 
suffer  people  to  retain  the  prejudices  in  which  they  were 
educated,  I  may  indeed  be  consecrated ;  but  if  they  shall 


SYNESIUS.  8S 

say,  that  a  bishop  ought  to  go  farther,  and  not  only  apeak, 
but  think  like  the  people,  I  must  declare  off,  &c.'^ 

Besides  rejecting  the  doctrine  of  the  resurrection  of  the 
body,  in  bis  <^  Hymns"  Synesius  adapts  the  triad,  or  rather 
quaternion  of  the  schools,  to  the  received  Christian  doc» 
trine  of  the  Trinity.  If  the  language  of  these  mystical 
odes,  -says  Brucker,  be  compared  with  that  of  the  gnostics 
and  cabbalists,  with  the  theology  of  Proclus,  and  the  Zo- 
roastrean  oracles,  it  will  be  easily  seen  that  Synesius  was 
a  more  worthy  disciple  of  Hypatia  than  of  Jesus  Christ. 
His  work^  were  published,  together  with  those  of  Cyril  of 
Jerusalem,  by  Petavius  at  Paris,  1612;  and  afterwards, 
with  an  addition  of  notes,  in  1633,  folio.  .  They  are  far 
from  being  voluminous,  consisting  only  of  about  one  hun- 
dred and  6fty  epistles,  and  some  small  pieces.  He  is 
chiefly  celebrated  for  his  eloquence,  an  elegant  specimen 
of  which  remains  in  his  '<  Dion/'  a  treatise  on  the  manner 
in  which  he  instructed  himself. ' 

SYNGE  (Edward),  a  pious  and  leari^ed  archbishop  of 
Tuam  in  Ireland,  was  the  second  son  of  Edward,  bishop  of 
Cork,  &c.  and  was  born  April  the  6tb,  1659,  at  Inishonane, 
•of  which  parish  his  father  was  then  vicar.  He  was  educated 
at  the  grammar  school  at  Cork,  and  thence  admitted  a 
commoner  at  Christchurch,  Oxford,  where  he  took  the 
degree  of  B.  A.  but  on  bis  father's  death  returned  to  Ire- 
land, and  finished  his  studies  in  the  university  of  DubliBt 
m&  first  preferment  was  two  small  parishes  in  the  diocese 
of  Meath,  both  together  of  about  the  yearly  value  of  100/* 
These  he  exchanged  for  the  vicarage  of  Christchurch  in 
the  city  ofOork,  of  the  same  value,  but  one  of  the  moit 
painful  and  laborious  cures  in  Ireland.  This  lie  served 
for  above  twenty  years,  mostly  without  any  assistant; 
preached  twice  every  Sunday,  catechised,  and  discharged 
all  the  other  duties  of  bis  function.  Some  ecclesiastical 
jireferments,  tenable  with  bis  great  cure,  were  given  him 
at  different  times  by  the  bishops  of  Cork  and  Cloyne,  which 
at  last  increased  bb  income  tO'  near  400/.  per  annum.  In 
this  situation  an  offer  was  made  him.  by  government,  in 
1699,  of  the  deanery  of  Derry ;  but,  although  this  was  a 
dignity,  and  double  in  value  to  all  that  be  had,  yet  he  de« 
clined  itfrom  a  motive  of  filial  piety.  He  would  not  se« 
.parate  himself  from  an  aged  mother,  who  either  could  not, 

i  Cafe,  T»|.  l.«»F:«brio.  BibL  0]»o«-*Dttpio.— Bruck«r«-«-SaxM  OoQinasU 


\ 


M  S  Y  N  G  E. 

or  was  unwilling,  to  be  removed.  Hemaining  therefore  9t 
Corky  he  was  chosen  proccor  for  the  chapter^  in  the  con^ 
vocation  called  in  1 703.  Soon  after,  the  duke  of  Ormond, 
then  lord'lieutenaot  of  Ireland,  gave  him  the  crown's  title 
to  the  deanery  of  St.  Patrick's,  in  Dublin.  But  the  chap- 
ter disputed  this  title,  and  claimed  a  right  of  election  in 
themselves ;  and  to  assert  this  right,  they  chose  Dr.  Jobn 
Sterne,  then  chancellor  of  the  cathedral,  their  dean.  The 
title  of  the  crown  being  thus  thought  defective,  and,  after 
a  full  discussion  of  the  point,  found  to  be  so,Dr.  King,  arch- 
bishop of  Dublin,  proposed  an  accommodation,  which  took 
place,  and  in  consequence  Dr.  Sterne  continued  dean,  and 
the  archbishop  gave  the  chancellorship  to  Mr.  Synge. 

This  brought  Mr.  Synge  to  Dublin,  though  withoiit  any 
addition  of  income,  or  relaxation  from  labour,  for  the 
chancellor  of  St.  Patrick's,  as  such,  has  the  care  of  the 
parish  of  St.  Werburgh,  one  of  the  most  populous  in  Dub- 
lin. This  great  cure  Mr.  Synge  served  for  eight  years^ 
preaching  almost  constantly  to  a  crowded  audience.  Du- 
ring this  period  he  took  his  degree  of  D.  D.  and  a  new  con- 
vocation being  summoned  in  1713,  he  was  chosen  proctor 
for  the  chapter  of  St.  Patrick's.  On  Dr.  Sterne's  pro^ 
mbtion  to  the  see  of  Dromore,  the  archbishop  of  Dublin 
appointed  Dr.  Synge  his  vicar-general,  in  which  office  he 
continued  until  he  was  made  bishop  of  Raphoe,  in  1714. 
His  distinguished  zeal  for  the  revolution,  and  the  Hanover 
succession,  which  had  effectually  obstructed  his  prefer- 
ment in  the  latter  years  of  queen  Anne's  reign,  now  as 
effectually  promoted  it,  for,  in  1716,  he  was  made  arch- 
bishop of  Tuam,  over  which  see  he  presided  about  twenty- 
five  years.  He  died  at  Tuam,  July  24,  1741,  aged  eighty- 
two,  and  was  buried  in  the  church-yard  of  his  own  cathedral. 

It  is  remarkable;  of  this  prelate,  that  he  was  the  son  of 
one  bishop ;  the  nephew  of  another,  namely,  George  Synge, 
bishop  of  Cloyne  ;  and  the  father  of  two  bishops,  Edward^ 
bishop  of  Elphin,  and  Nicholas,  bishop  of  Kiilaloe.  This 
learned  divine,  in  the  course  of  bis  ministry,  composed 
and  published  several  excellent  treatises  f6r  the  promotion 
of  piety  and  virtue  ;'they  are  written  in  a  sensible,  easy, 
and  rational  manner;  and  have  been  so  well  received  by 
the  public,  as  to.  go  through  many  editions.  His  works 
form  altogether  4  vols.  12mo,  but  consist  of  small  tracts, 
which  are  all  printed  separately  for  Rivingtons  and  others. 
It  has  been  said  of  archbishop  Synge,  that  his  life  was  aa 


S  Y  N  G  1.  »4    , 

exemplary  as  bU  writings  were  instractive ;  and  that,  **  What 
lie  wrote  he  believed ;  and  what  he  believed  he  practised." ' 
SYRUS  PUBLIUS.— See  PUBLIUS. 


T. 


Jl  ABOUROT  (STfiPHEN),  a  French  author,  generally 
known  by  the  name  of  the  sieur  des  Accords,  was  born  in 
1549^  was  proctor  for  the  king  in  the  bailiage  of  Dijon, 
and  has  obtained  a  kind  of  fame  by  some  very  eccentric 
liublications.  That  which  is  best  known,  and  is  said  to  be 
least  exceptionable,  though  certainly  far  from  being  a 
jQQodel  of  purity,  was  first  published  by  him  at  the  age  of 
eighteen,  but  revised  and  much  augmented  when  he  was 
about  thirty 'five.  It  is  entitled  ^^  Les  Bigarrures  et  Touches 
du.  Seigneur  des  Accords ;''  to  which  some  editions  add 
''  avec  les  Apophtegmes  du  Sieur  Gaulard  et  les  escraignes 
Dijonoqises  ;'*  and  the  Vest  of  all  (namely,  that  of  Paris, 
in  1614),  ^^denouveau  augmentees  de  plusieurs  Epitaphes, 
Dialogues,  et  ingenieuses  equivoques."  It  is  in  two  vo- 
lumes^ 12mo,  and  contains  a  vast  collection  of  poems,  co- 
nundrums, verses  oddly  constructed,  &c.  &c.  The  author 
died  in  1590,  at  the  age  of  forty >one.  Having  one  day 
sent  a  sonnet  to  mademoiselle  B^g^r,  he  wrote  at  bottom, 
*^  A  tons  *Accords,'*  instead  of  his  name ;  the  lady  in  her 
answer  called  him  the  Seigneur  des  Accords,  and  the  pre- 
sident B^gar  frequently  giving  him  that  title  afterwards, 
Tabourot  adopted  it.  The  Dictionnaire  Historique  places 
his  birth  in  1547,  and  makes  him  forty-three  years  old  at 
his  death  ;  but  in  his  own  book  is  a  wooden  cut  of  him  in- 
scribed, setat.  .35,  1584,  which  fixes  his  age  as  we  have 
^iven  it,  if  the  true  time  of  his  death  was  1 590.* 

TACHARD  (GoY),  a  Jesuit,    and  a  missionary  from 
J^rance  to  the  court. of  Siam,  who  died  in  Bengal  of  a  con- 

t  Harris's  «dition  of  Warc^Biog,  Brit«  •  Diet.  Hist 


«S  <  T  A  C  H  A  ft  D. 

itegioos  dUsofder  in  1694|  is  recorded  as  the  anUiof  of  twd 
tvoyages  to  Siam,  io  2  vols,  at  Paris,  1686  and  1689.  tt 
Uku^-boffeyeTf  been  since  proved,  that  he  was  credulous 
in  the  Extreme ;  was  much  flattered  and  imposed  upon^ 
and  has  given  a  most  exaggerated  account  of  the  power 
and  wealth  6f  the  king  of  Siam ;  other  narratives  are  there-' 
fore  preferred  to  his.  He  went  first  with  the  two  French 
ambassadors,  the  chevalier  de  Chamont,  and  the  abb£  de 
Choisi. ' 

TACITUS  (Caius  Cornelius),  one  of  the  ^  most  emi- 
nent Roman  historians,  was  born,  most  probably,  in  the 
year  of  Rome  809  or  S 10,  or  about  56  of  the  Christian 
sera ;  but  the  place  of  his  nativity  is  no  where  mentioned. 
H/e  was  the  son  of  Cornelius  Tacitus,  a  procurator  ap» 
pointed  by  the  prince  to  manage  the  Imperial  revenue,  and 
govern  a  province  in  Belgic  Gaul.  Where  he  was  edu« 
<eated  is  not  known ;  but  it  is  evident  that  he  did  not  imbibe 
the  smallest  tincture  of  that  frivolous  science,  and  that  vi« 
cious  eloquence  which  in  his  time  debased  the  Roman  ge- 
siius.  He  most  probably  was  formed  upon  the  plan  adopte4 
in  the  time  of  the  republic ;  and,  with  the  help  of  a  sound 
•cbeme  of  home-discipline,  and  the  best  domestic  exam^ 
pie,  be  grew  up,  in  a  course  of  virtue,  to  that  vigour  of 
•mind  which  gives  such  animation  to  his  writings.  His  first 
ambition  was  to  distinguish  himself  at  the  bar.  In  the  year 
^ef  Rome  828,  the  sixth  of  Vespasian,  being  then  about 
eighteen,  be  attended  the  eminent  men  of  the  day,  in  their 
inquiry  concerning  the  causes  of  corrupt  eloquence,  and  is 
supposed  to  have  been  the  author  of  the  elegant  dialogue 
concerning  oratory,  usually  printed  with  bis  works. 

Agricola  was  joint  consul  with  Domitian  in  the  year  of 
Rome  830,  for  the  latter  part  of  the  yean  His  name  does 
not  appear  in  the  Fasti  Consulares,  because  that  honour 
was  reserved  for  the  consuls  who  entered  on  their  office 
on  the  kalends  of  January,  and  gave  their  name  tQ  tha 
whole  year.  Tacitus,  though  not  more  than  twenty,  had 
given  such  an  earnest  of  his  future  fame,  that  Agricola 
chose  him  for  his  son-in-law,  and,  thus  distinguished,  our' 
author  began  the  career  of  civil  preferment.  The  circum- 
stances of  his  progress,  however,  are  not  precisely  mienr 
«tioned,  although  Mr.  Murphy  has  given  us  some  ingenious 
5K)nJ6€tures  to  supply  this  deficie.ucy.     He  was  favoured 

J  Diet.  Hift. 


TACITUS.  «r 

by  Vespasian  atid  by  Titui^  and  rose  to  prtfferaieat  eveia 
under  the  tyrant  Domttian,  It  would  be  difficult,  says  bit 
biographer,  to  account  for  the  success  ^  a  man  who  iadl^ 
whole  tenourof  bis  conduct  preserved  an  ttobleiiMslie4cha*- 
meter,  if  he  himself  had  not  furnished  a  "Solution  of  the 
problem.  Agricola,  he  liells  us,  had  the  address  te  restrain 
the  headlong  violence  of  Domitian,  by  bis  prudence,  and 
the  virtues  of  moderation :  never  choosing  to  imitate  the 
zeal  of  those  who,  by  their  intemperance,  provoked  their 
£sce,  and  rushed  on  sure  destruction,  without  renderiny 
any  kind  of  service  to  their  country.  The  conduct  ^ 
Agricola  plainly  shewed  that  great  men  may  exist  in  safety 
under  the  worst  and  most  barbarous  tyranny.  We  may  be 
•ure,  that  he  who  commends  the  mild  disposition  of  his 
father-in-law,  bad  the  prudence  to  observe  the 'same  line 
of  conduct.  Instead  of  giving  umbrage  to  the  prince,  and 
provoking  the  tools  of  power,  he  was  content  to  display  bis 
eloquence  at  the  bar  Domitian,  however,  certainly  ad>- 
vanced  our  author's  fortune.  It  is  no  where  mentioned 
that  Tacitus  discharged  the  office  of  tribune  and  asdile,  but 
it  may  be  presumed  that  he  passed  through  these  station^ 
to  the  higher  dignity  of  prsetor,  and  member  of  the  quin* 
deoemviral  college,  which  he  enjoyed  at  the  secular 
l^aaies  in  the  year  of  Rome  841,  the  seventh  of  Dooai^ 
tian. 

In  the  course  of  the  following  year,  our  author  and  bis 
wife  left  the  city  of  Rome,  and  absented  themselves  more 
than  four  years.  Some  writers,  willing  to  exalt  the  vinue 
of  Tacitus,  and  aggravate  the  injustice  of  Domitian,  aa* 
sert,  that  Tacitus  was  sent  into  banishment*  This,  baw«- 
ever,  is  mere  conjecture,  without  a  shadow  of  probability 
to  support  it.  Tacitus  makes  no  complaint  against  DomU 
tian  :  be  mentions  no  personal  injury :  he  received  marks 
of  favour,  and  he  acknowledges  the  obligation.  It  may, 
therefore,  with  good  reason  be  affirmed,  that  prudential 
considerations  induced  our  author  to  retire  from  a  city, 
where  an  insatiate  tyrant  began  to  throw  off  ail  reserve,  and 
wage  open  war  against  all  who  were  distinguished  by  their 
talents  and  tlieir  virtue. 

Tacitus  had  been  four  years  absent  from  Rome  wben  he 
received  the  news  of  AgricoU's  death,  which  happened  ia 
the  year  of  Rome  846,  and  of  the  Christian  sera  M.  A  report 
prevailed  that  be  was  poisoned  by  the  emperor^s  orders ; 
his  rapid   course  of  brilliant  suacess  in  Briuin  faaviog 

V0L.XXIX.  H 


}98  T  AC  I  T  U  S. 

-alarmed  tbe  jealousy  of  Domitian,  who  dreaded  nothing^so 
much  tLs  a  great  military  character  :  but  Tacitus  acknow- 
ledges., that  this  report  rested  on  no  kind  of  proof.  After 
^  this  event,  however,  Tacitus  returned  to  Rome,  and  from 
•that  tiitie  saw  the  beginning  of  the  most  dreadful  aera,  in 
which  Domitian  broke  out  with  tinbridled  fury,  and  made 
the  city  of  Rome  a  theatre  of  blood  and  horror.  At  length 
this  tyrant  fell  the  victim  of  a  conspiracy,  and  war  succeeded 
%y  a  virtuous  emperor,  Nerva,  in  whose  reign,  in  the  year 
of  Rome  850,  Tacitus  succeeded  the  celebrated  Verginios 
Rufus,  as  consul  for  the  remainder  of  the  year,  and  for 
that  reason,  as  before  noticed,  his  name  is  not  to  be  found 
in  the  Fasti  Consulares.  In  honour  of  Verginius,  the  se- 
nate decreed,  that  the  rites  of  sepulture  should  be  per- 
formed at  the  public  expence.  Tacitus  delivered  the  fune- 
ral oration  from  the  rostrum,  and  the  applause  of  such  an 
orator,  Pliny  says,  was  sufficient  to  crown  the  glory  of  a 
well-spent  life. 

Nerva  died  Jan.  27,  in  the  year  of  Rome  851,  having,' 
about  three  months  before,  adopted  Trajan  as  his  successor. 
In  that  short  interval  the  critics  have  agreed  to  place  the 
publication  of  the  **  Life  of  Agricola,"  by  Tacitus,  but 
Mr.  Murphy  assigns  very  good  reasons  for  referring  it  to 
the  reign  of  Trajan.  The  "Treatise  on  the  Manners  of 
the  Germans,''  it  is  generally  agreed,  made  its  appearance 
in  the  year  of  Rome  851.  The  "  Dialogue  concerning 
Oratory"  was  an  earlier  production,  and  probably  was 
published  in  the  reign  of  Titus  or  Domitian,  who  are  both 
celebrated  in  that  piece,  for  their  talents  and  their  love  of 
polite  literature. 

The  friendship  that  subsisted  between  Tacitus  and  the 
younger  Pliny,  and  which  is  well  known,  was  founded  on 
the  consonance  of  their  studies  and  their  virtues.  When 
Pliny  says  that  a  good  and  virtuous  prince  can  never  be 
sincerely  loved,  unless  we  shew  our  detestation  of  the 
tyrants  that  preceded  him,  we  may  be  sure  that  Tacitus 
vras  of  the  same  opinion.  They  were  both  convinced  that 
"K  striking  picture  of  former  tyranny  ought  to  be  placed  in 
contrast  to  the  felicity  of  the  times  that  succeeded.  Pliny 
acted  up  to  his  own  idea  in  the  panegyric  of  Trajan,  where 
we  firtd  a  vein  of  satire  on  Domitian  running  through  the 
whole  piece.  It  appears  in  his  letters,  that  he  had  some 
thoughts  of  writing  history  on  the  same  principle,  but  bad 
pot  resolution  to- undertake  that  arduous  task.  Tacitus  had 
more  vigour  of  mind:  he  tljought  more  intensely,  and 


TACITUS.  99 

with  deeper  penetration,  than  his  friend.  We  find  that  he 
had  formed,  at  an  early  period,  the  plan  of  his  history, 
and  resolved  to  execute  it,  in  order  to  shew  the  horrors  of 
slavery,  and  the  debasement  of  the  Roman  people  through 
the  whole  of  Domitian's  reign.  From  the  year  of  Rome 
853,' when  along  with  Pliny,  he  pleaded  in  the  famous 
cause  of  Priscus,  the  proconsul  of  Africa,  and  in  behalf 
of  those  who  bad  been  oppressed  by  him,  Tacitus  appears 
to  have  dedicated  himself  altogether  to  his  history.  At 
what  time  it  was  published  is  uncertain,  but  it  was  in  some 
period  of  the  reign  of  Trajan,  who  died  in  the  year  of  Rome 
St70,  A.  D.  117.  In  this  work  he  began  from  the  accession 
of  Galba,  and  ended  with  the  death  of  Domitian,  i.  e.  from 
the  year  of  Rome  822  to  849,  a  period  of  twenty-seven 
years.  Vossius  says  that  the  whole  work  consisted  of  no 
less  than  thirty  books ;  but,  to  the  great  loss  of  the  literary 
world,  we  have' only  four  books,  and  the  beginning  of  the 
fifth.  In  what  remains,  we  have  little  after  the  accession 
of  Vespasian.  The  reign  of  Titus  is  totally  lost,  and  Do- 
mitian has  escaped  the  vengeance  of  the  historian's  pen. 

The  "  Annals"  followed,  including  a  period  of  fifty-four 
years,  from  the  year  767  to  the  death  of  Nero  in  821; 
but  of  these  have  perished,  part  of  the  fifth  book,  contain- 
ing three  years  of  Tiberius,  the  entire  four  years  of  Cali- 
gula, the  first  six  of  Claudius  and  the  last  two  of  Nero. 
Thestyleof  these  "Annals,"  Mr.  Murphy  observes,  differs 
from  that  of  the  History,  which  required  stately  periods, 
ponip  of  expression,  and  harmonious  sentences.  The  '^An- 
nals'' are  written  in  a  strain  more  subdued  and  temperate; 
every  phrase  is  a  maxim ;  the  narrative  goes  on  with  ra- 
pidity  ;  the  author  is  sparing  of  words,  and  prodigal  of  sen- 
timent; the  characters  are  drawn  with  a  profound  know- 
ledge of  human  nature,  and  when  we  see  them  figuring  on 
the  stage  of  public  business,  we  perceive  the  internal  spring 
of  their  actions ;  we  see  their  motives  at  work,'  and  of 
course  are  prepared  to  judge  of  their  conduct. 

Tacitus  intended,  if  his  life  and  health  continued,  to 
review  the  reign  of  Augustus,  in  order  to  detect  the  arts 
by  which  the  old  constitution  was  overturned  to  make  way 
for  the  government  of  a  single  ruler.  This,  in  the  hands 
of  such  a  writer,  would  have  been  a  curious  portion'  of 
history  ;  but  it  is  probable  he  did  not  live  to  carry  his  de- 
sign into  execution.  The  time  of  his  death  is  not  men- 
tioned by  any  skncient  author.     It  seems,  however,  highly 

H2 


J  <  w  -> 


100  TACITUS.      , 

probable  that  he  died  in  the  reign  of  Trajan,  and  we  maj 
reasonably  conclude  that  he  survived  his  friend  Pliny. 
The  commentators  assume  it  as  a  certain  fact,  that  he  must 
have  left  issue,  because  they  find  that  M.  Claudius  Tacitus, 
who  was  created^ emperor  in  A.  D.  275,  deduced  his  pedi- 
gree from,  our  historian ;  and  Vopiscus  tells  us  that  he 
ordered  the  image  of  Tacitus,  and  a  complete  collection  of 
his  works,  to  be  placed  in  the  public  archives,  with  a  spe- 
cial direction  that  twelve  copies  should  be  made  every  year, 
at  the  public  expence.  But  when  the  mutilated  state,  in 
which  our  author  has  come  down  to  posterity  is  considered^ 
there  is  reason  to  believe  that  the  orders  of  this  prince, 
who  reigned  only  six  months,  were  never  executed. 

Without  entering  on  the  merits  of  Tacitus  as  a  historian, 
which  have  been  the  subject  of  very  extensive  discussion, 
we  may  refer  to  Mr.  Murphy's  comprehensive  view  of  his 
life  and  genius.  It  is  universally  acknowledged  that  his 
works  are  among  the  most  precious  remains  of  antiquity, 
and  it  is  not  much  less  universally  acknowledged  that  he 
exhibits  the  defects  as  well  as  excellencies  ef  the  historian. 
The  first  edition  of  bis  works  was  published  at  Venice  by 
John  de  Spira  in  1468,  containing  the  last  six  books  of  the 
"  Annals,"  four  books  of  the  "  History,"  with  part  of  the 
fifth,  the  treatise  on  the  ^'  Manners  of  the  Germans,''  and 
the  "  Dialogue  concerning  Oratory,"  which  we  see  has 
always  been  printed  with  Tacitus's  works,  although  many 
critics  have  doubted  whether  it  was  hist  Another  edition 
was  published  in  a  year  or  two  after  by  Franciacus  Puteo* 
lanus^  more  correct  and  elegant  than  the  former,  with  the 
addition  of  the  life  of  Agricola.  The  first  six  books  ot  the 
^^  Annals"  had  not  then  been  found,  but  diligent  search 
being  made  in  all  parts  of  Eur<!>pe,  they  were  at  length  dis» 
covered  in  the  monastery  of  Corby  in  Westphalia.     Leo  X. 

'  purchased  this  treasure,  and,  under  his  patronage,  BeroaU 
dus,  in  15  i  5,  gave  the  world  a  complete  edition  of  the 
whole,  the  manuscript  having  beeo  deposited  in  the  Flo- 
rentine library.     The  principal  subsequent  editions  were 

'  tlmse  of  Froben,  1519,  1533,  and  1544,  fol.;  several  by 
Lipsius,  1574 — 1619  ;  by  Freinsheim,  163B  and  1664,  Svo; 

'  Elzivir,  1634,  1640,  2  vols.  12mo;  the  Variorum,  1672  awd 

•  1685,  2  vols.  Svo;  by  Rickius,  .  1687,  2  vols.  12mo;  by 
Gronovius,  1721,  2  vols.  4to;  by  Mrs.  Grierson  of  l>ubUii, 
1730,  3  vols.  Svo;  by  Ernest,  1752,  1772,  2  vols.  Svo;  by 
Lallemajid,  1760,  3vols..l2mo;  by  Broti^,  1771,  4  vols. 
4to;  byCrellius,  1779 — 92,  4  vols.  Svo;  by  Homer,  1790, 


TACITUS.  101 

I 

4  vols.  Svo;  at  Edinburgh,  1796,  4  vols,  4to  and  dvo; 
and  by  Oberlin,  1801,  2  vols.  «vo.  Brotier's,  undoubtedly 
the  best  edition,  is  the  model  of  all  that  followed.  There 
have  been  translations  of  Tacitus  in  most  European  Ian* 
guages.  His  whole  works  have  been  published  in  English, 
with  large  political  discourses  annexed,  by  Mr.  Gordon. 
The  style  of  Gordon  is,  however,  so  vicious  and  affected, 
that  it  is  impossible  to  read  him  with  patience ;  and  Ta- 
citus has  lately  found  a  much  more  elegant  and  judicious . 
translator  in  Mr.  Murphy,  whose  work  in  4  vols.  4to,  was- 
published  in  1793,  and  has  met  with  very  general  appro- 
bation. There  have  been  in  all,  four  English  translatiols 
of  Tacitus ;  that  of  Greenway  and  sir  Henry  Saville  in  the 
reign  of  Elizabeth  ;  that  performed  by  Dry  den  and  others; 
the  translation  by  Gordon ;  and  that  of  Murphy.* 

TACQUET  (Andrew),  a  Jesuit  of  Antwerp,  known  for 
his  skill  in  the  mathematical  sciences,  published,  among  o^her 
things,  a  good  treatise  on  astronomy ;  an  edition  of  Eu- 
'Clid's  Elements,  with  the  application  of  the  problems  and 
theorems  to  practical  use.  In  matters  of  astronomy,  the 
prejudices  of  the  times  seem  to  have  prevented  him  from 
more  effectually  defending  the  system  of  Copernicus.  He 
died  in  1660.  His  works  were  published  collectively,  at 
Antwerp,  in  1669  and  1707,  in  one  volume,  folio.* 

TAFFI  (Akdrea),  an  ingenious  artist,  born  at  Florence 
in  1213,  was  the  person  who  introduced  into  Italy  the  art 
of  designing  in  Mosaic,  having  learned  i^  from  spme  Greek 
artists,  who  were  employed  in  the  church  of  S.  Mark  at 
Venice.  The  chief  of  these  artists  was  a  man  whose  name 
was  ApoUonius.  With  him  Taffi  became  associated,  and 
they  worked  together  at  Florence,  with  great  success.  The 
most  famous  work  of  Taffi  was  a  dead  Christ,  in  a  ch^p^l 
at  Fk>rence ;  it  was  seven  cubits  long,  and  executed  with 
abundance  of  care.  He  died  in  1294,  at  the  age  of  eighty 
one.* 

TALBOT  (John),  a  name  mentioned  with  distinguished 
honour  in  the  English  annals,  was  second  son  to  Richard 
lord  Talbot,  and  was  born  at  Blechmore  in  Shropshire,  in 
the  reign  of  king  Richard  II.  Hrs  first  summons  to  parlia- 
ment was  in  the  eleventh  year  of  the  reign  of  king  Henry 
IV.     He  married  Maud,  the  eldest  of  the  two  daughters 

1  Lift  prafijifd  to  Mnrphy'i  traBiladoo. 

'  Mpreri.— Diet.  Hist. — Hutton's  Diet,  i^ew  edit.— 'Phiipt.  Transact*  vol.  lU. 

*  Bullaffl'a  Academte  des  Sei«n«es.— Diet.  Hiat. 


102  Talbot., 

4 
/ 

and  coheiresses  of  sir  Thomas  Nevil,  by  Joan,  sole  daugh- . 
ter  and  heiress  to  William  lord  Furnival.  In  the  first, 
year  of  Henry  V.  he  was  committed  to  the  Tower,  but  for 
what  reason  we  are  not  informed.  He  was,  however,  soon 
released,  and  constituted,  in  Feb.  following,  lord  lieutenant 
of  Ireland,  and  had  letters  of  protection  sent  him  thither 
by  the  name  of  sir  John  Talbot,  knight,  lord  Furnival. 
While  in  this  office,  he  took  Donald  Mac  Murghe,  an  Irish 
rebel  of  considerable  note  and  powers,  and  afterwards 
brought  him  prisoner  to  the  Tower  of  London. 

Although  we  capnot  fix  the  exact  time  of  his  going  to 
France,  it  appears  that  he  attended  Henry  V.  at  the  siege 
of  Caen  in  1417  ;  and  the  following  year,  in  conjunction 
with  Richard  Beauchamp,  earl  of  Warwick,  lord  Talbot 
took  the  strong  castle  of  Dumfront :  and  was  afterwards 
present  at  the  siege  of  Rouen,  on  all  which  occasions  be 
was  esteemed  one  of  the  bravest  of  those  officers  who  had 
contributed  to  the  conquest  of  France.  About  1422  we 
find  him  again  in  England,  employed  in  suppressing  some 
riots,  in  the  counties  of  Salop,  Hereford,  &c. :  but  he  re- 
turned again  to  t\^e  continent  before  the  year  1427,  at  which 
time  he  regained  possession  of  the  city  of  Mans,  which  had 
been  a  considerable  time  in  the  hands  of  the  English,  but 
bad  in  part  been  retaken  by  the  French,  who  were  now  at- 
tacked with  such  impetuosity,  that  all  their  troops  were 
either  kiUed  or  taken  prisoners.  The  unexpected  recovery 
of  this  important  place,  the  capital  of  the  province  of  Maine, 
as  it  was  entirely  x)wing  to  lord  Talbot,  contributed  not  a 
little  to  encrease  his  military  fame.  He  then  made  himself 
master  of  the  town  of  Laval,  and  having  joined  the  earl  of 
Warwick  in  the  siege  of  Pontorson,  carried  that  place  too, 
which  had  before  been  the  grand  obstacle  ,in  preventing 
the  regent,  the  duke  of  Bedford,  from  carrying  the  war  be- 
yond the  Loire.  On  its  surrender,  the  earl  of  Warwick 
appointed  lord  Talbot  and  lord  Ross  governors  of  it. 

In  1428,  the  earl  of  Warwick  having  returned  to. Eng- 
land, on  being  appointed  governor  to  the  young  king 
Henry,  Thomas  Montacute,  earl  of  Salisbury,  arrived  in 
France,  and,  accompanied  by  lord  Talbot,  sir  John  Fastolf 
(See  Fastolf)  and  others,  undertook  fche  memorable  siege 
of  Orleans,  in  the  course  of  which  lord  Talbot  exhibited 
such  striking  proofs  of  uncommon  valour,  that  his  very 
name  would  strike  terror  into  the  French  troops.  The 
siege  was  long  cj^rried  on  with  great  valour  on  the  part  of 


T  A  L  B  p  T.  l(Ml 

the.  Frj^Qch^  and  th.e  English,  had  much.rffispn  to  thiolc 
that  eyea  if  it  concluded  in  their  favour^  the  victory  would 
be  dearly  purchased.     They  continued  however,  to  be  ap- 
parently advancing  towards  the  accomplishment  of  this  im- 
portant object,  when  the  relative  positions  of  the  besiegers 
and  the  .besieged  began  to  assume  a  new  appearance,  ia 
consequence  of  one  of  the. most  singular  occurrences  that 
is  to  be  met  with  in  history,  namely  the  intervention  of  the 
celebrated  maid  of  Orleans^  Joan  of  Arc,  who^e  actions 
have  been  already  detailed.     (See  J[oan.)     It  .may  suffice 
here  to  add,  that  when  this  heroine,  whose  valour  was  at-  . 
tributed   to   supernatural   agency,   had    spread    dejection 
throughout  the  English  army,  the  earl  of  Suffolk  raised  the 
siege,  and  retreated  with  all  imaginable  precaution.     He 
afterwards  retired  with  a  detachment  of  his.  army  to  Jer-* 
geau,  where  he  .was  besieged  by  the  French,  attended  by; 
Joan  of  Arc,  and,  the  place  being  taken,..his  lordship  waa 
m^de  prisoner. 

After  the  siege  of  Orleans  was  raised,  lord  Talbot  re-t 
tired  to  Meun,  which  he. fortified,  and  then  seized  another 
town  in  the  neighbourhood,  and  threw  a  reinforcement  into 
Bangenci,  and  on  the  disaster  of  Suffolk,  he  succeeded  to 
tb^  command  of  the  remainder  of  the  British  troops.     He 
was  now  however  doomed  to  sustain  a  fatal  reverse  in  the 
bajttie  of  Patay,  which  the  French,  encouraged  by  their  en-' 
thusiasm,  began  in  so  sudden  a  manner  that  the  English 
had  no  time  to  form  themselves,  and  were  still  so  possessed 
with  the  opinion  that  their  enemies  were  assisted  by  a  su^ 
pernatural  .power,  that  all  the  efforts  of  lord  Talbot  were 
insufficient  to  make  them  sustain  the  attack  of  the  enemy. 
He  did  all  that  became  a  brave  man  and  an  able  general,, 
and  his  enemies  were  astonished  at  his  valour,' for  in  con* 
junction  with  the  lords  Scales  and  Hungerford,  and  sir 
Thomas  Rempstone,  he  sustained  almost  the  whole  fury  of. 
the  French  attack;  but  the  general  rout  of  his  army  was  at 
last  conppleted  by  the  French  with  great  slaughter,  and  lord/ 
Talbot,  who  was  wounded  in  the  neck,  was  taken  prisoner, 
together  with  some  other  officers  of  distinction. 

Lord  Talbot  had  sustained  a  tedious  captivity  of  three 
years  and  a  half  in  the  hands  of  the  French,  when  the  duke 
of  Bedford  found  means  to  have  him  ex^changed,  Feb.  12, 
HS3,  for  Xaintrailles,  a  French  officer  of  great  reputation  y 
and  after  p&y^ng  a  short  visit  to  England,  his  lordship,  re- 
suj(Q.ed^  bisi  cojniiiafid  in  France,  and  Joan  of  Arc^s  magic  . 


ia4  TALBOT. 

hftving  no  longer  any  influence^  »he  having,  aeoordliig  lo 
the  common  accountSi  been  p»l  to  death  as  an  iroposter^ 
or  a  witch.  Lord  Talbot,  whose  name  was  stilt  an  object  of 
terror,  extended  bis  conquests,  and  took  several  fortifiedl 
places,  with  bis  accustomed  skill  and  bravery.     lo  some 
instances  he  is  accused  of  having  treated  the  garrisona 
with  improper  severity,  and  perhaps  the  long  duration  of 
his  captivity  might  bave  contributed  to  increase  his  ani- 
mosity against  the  enemy.    Among  the  places  he  took 
were  the  castle  of  Joigny,  Beaumont  upon  the  Oise,  Cret), 
Pont  de  Maxeme,  Neufville,  Rouge  Maison,  Crespi  in  Va-* 
lois,  Clermont,  St.  Dennis,  and  Gisors.    One  of  his  exploits 
was  performed  in  a  singular  manner.     In  the  beginning  of 
1437,  the  weather  was  so  extremely  cold,  that  the  generak 
on  both  sides  could  not  undertake  any  regular  operation  in 
tike  field,  yet  even  this  lord  Talbot  contrived  to  turn  to  ad- 
vantage.   He  collected  a  body  of  troops,  and  putting  white 
cloths,  or  shirts,  over  their  other  clothes,  marched  with 
them  all  night,  and  brought  them  to  the  very  walls  of  Pon- 
toise,  unperceived  by  the  garrison,  who  did  not  distinguisli 
them  from  the  snow  with  which  the  ground  was  covered. 
They  then  mounted  the  walls  by  means  of  scaling-ladders, 
and  seizing  the  chief  gates,  lord  Talbot  made  himself  mas* 
ter  of  this  important  place,  which  exposed  the  Parisians  to 
the  continual  incursions  of  the  English  garrison  up  to  the 
^^ry  g&^B  of  Paris. 

His  next  conquests  were  Harfleur,  Tankerville,  Crotoy, 
where  he  defeated  the  troops  of  the  duke  of  Burgundy,, 
who  had  deserted  the  English  interest,  Langueville  in  N^- 
mandy,  Carles,  and  Manille,  and  performed  feats  of  great 
bravery,  when  the  French  attempted  to  recover  Pontoive. 
In  truth,  all  the  reputation  which  the  English  arms  in 
France  stilt  retained  appears  to  have  been  almost  whoity^. 
owing  to  the  abilities,  courage,  and  activity  of  lord  Tattot : 
and  in  consideration  of  so  great  merit,  be  was  advanced  to 
the  dignity  of  earl  of  Shrewsbury,  his  patent  of  creation 
bearing  date  May  20,  1442.  In  the  following  year,  he 
was  constituted  one  of  the  ambassadors  to  treat  of  peace 
with  Charles  VII.  king  of  France ;  and  the  yea/  after,  the 
king  acknowledging  himself  indebted  to  him  in  the  sum  of 
10,426/.  4tS,  and  a  farthing,  in  consideration  of  his  {great  s^r-> 
vices,  as  well  to  king  Henry  V.  (his  father)  as  to  himself, 
..  both  in  France  and  Normandy,  granted^  that  after  the  sam 
ef  twenty- one  thousand  pounds,  in  which  he  stood  indebted 


T  A  L  B  O  T*  101 

«ntp  Henry  the  cardinal  bisbop  of  Winchefltery  were  paid,* 
he  should  receive,  y^^rly,  four  hundred  marks  out  of  the 
eurtoma  and  dotiet  issuing  from  the  port  of  Kingston 
upon  HuIL  He  was,  the  same  year,  again  retaiiied  to  serre 
the  king  in  his  wars  of  France,  vitii  one  baron,  two  knights, 
fooraeore  and  sixteen  men  at  arms,  and  three  hundrea 
archers,  the  king  having  given  him  ten  thousand  pounds  in 
band. 

IiK]444  he  was  again  constituted  lieutenant  of  Ireland, 
where  he  landed  in  1446,  and  soon  after  held  a  parliament 
at  Trim,  in  which  several  good  laws  were  enacted  for  the 
security  of  the  English.     On  July  17,  the  same  year,  hav- 
ing then  the  titles  of  earl  of  Shrewsbury,  lord  Talbot,  Fur* 
nival,  and  Strange,  **  in  consideration  of  his  great  servicei 
and  blood  spilt  in  the  wars ;  as  also  considering  the  devas- 
tation and  spoil  done  iif  the  county  and  city  of  AVaterford, 
and  barony  of  Dungarvan,  in  the  realm  of  Ireland,  by  se- 
veral hostilities  of  the  rebels;  to  the  end  that  the  said 
realm  of  Ireland  might  thenceforth  be  better  defended  and 
preserved,  he  was  advanced  to  the  title  and  dignity  of 
earl  of  Wexford  and  Waiterford ;  having  the  said  city  and 
county  of  Waterford,  with  the  castles,  honour,  lands,  and 
barony  of  Dungarvan,  granted  to  him,  with  jura  regalia^ 
wreck,  &c.  from  Yooghal  to  Waterford,  to  ho)d  to  himself, 
and  the  heirs  male  of  bis  body ;  and  that  he  and  they  should 
thenceforth  be  stewards  of  that  realm,  to  do  and  execute 
all  things  to  that  office  appertaining,  as  fully  ^s  the  steward 
-  of  England  did  perform."     Which  patent  was  granted  by 
writ  of  privy. seal  and  authority  of  parliament.    He  returned 
to  England  the  next  year,  leaving  his  brother  Richard  TaU 
'bot, archbishop  of  Dublin,  his  deputy. 

In  1450,  being  again  in  the  wars  of  France,  where  the 
good  success  of  the  English  then  more  and  more  decline, 
he  was  at  the  surrender  of  Falaize,  and  quitted  that  place 
on  honourable  terms.    In  1451  he  was  made  general  of  the 
English  fleet,  then  going  out,  having  four  thousand  soldiers 
with  him  in  that  expedition;  and  the  year  following,  1452, 
lieutenant  of  the  duchy  of  Aquitaine,  having  under  him 
.  these  captains  of  his  men  at  arms  and  archers,  viz.  John 
'  VisGoant  Lisle  (his  eldest  son  by  his  second  wife),  sir  Ro- 
bert Hungerford,  lord  Molins,  sir  Roger  Camoys,  sir  John 
Lisle,  and  the  bastard  of  Somerset :  and  in  consideration 
of  his  great  charge  in  that  high  employment,  had  a  grant 
of  the  third«^  and  third  of  the  thirds,  which  were  reserved 


i06  T  A  L  B  O  T. 

to  the. king  upon  bis  retainer  therein.  He  then  marched 
thither ;  took  Bourdeaux,  and  put  a  garrison  into  it,  which 
success  caused  several  remote  cities  to  submit  to  his  autho* 
rity.  Hearing  that  the  French  bad  besieged  Chastilion, 
he  advanced  thither,  and  gave  them  battle,  on  July  20;, 
but  the  event  of  that  day  (though  for  a  while  it  stood  doubt-^ 
ful)  at  length  proved  fatal  to  the  English;  this  renowned 
general  being  killed  by  a  cannon  ball,  and  his  whole 
army  routed. 

He  died  on  Ju)y  20,  .1453,  aged  eighty,  as  the  inquisi* 
tion  after  his  death  shews ;  but  the  inscription,  on  a  noble 
monument,    erected  to   his   memory   at  Whitchurch,   in. 
Shropshire,  (to  which  his  body  was  removed  from  Roan) 
makes  his  death  on  the  7th  of  that  month. 

He  was  first  buried  at  Roan  in  France,  together  with  his. 
eldest  son,  and  the  inscription  for  him  is  thus  translated : 
^'Here  lyeth  the  right  noble  knt.  John  Talbot,  ^irl  of- 
Shrewsbury,  earl  of  Wexford,  Waterford,  and  Valence, 
lord  Talbot  of  Goderich  and  Orchenfield,  lord  Strange  of 
Blackmere,  lord  Verdon  of  Alton,  lord.  Cromwell  of  Wing- 
field,  lord  Lovetofte  of  Worsop,  lord  Furnival  of  Sheffield, 

.  lord  Faulconbridge,  knight  of  the  noble  orders  of  the  garter, 
St.  Michael,  and  the  golden  fleece,  great  marshal  to  Henry 

VI.  of  his  realm  of  France,,  who  died  in  the  battle  of  Bour- 

deaux,  1453/' 

It  has  been  observed  of  this  gallant  soldier  that  he  bad> 

been  victorious  in  forty  several  battles  and  dangerous  skir->^ 

mishes.     He  was  usually  called  the  Achilles  of  England. 

Camden,  .in  his  ^^  Remains,*'  says  that  his  sword  was  <^not 

long  since  found  in  the  river  of  Dordon,  and  sold  by  a  pea. 

sant  to  an  armourer  of  Bourdeaux,  with  this  inscription; 

but  pardon  (he  adds)  the  Latin,  for  it  was  not  his,  but  his 

camping  chaplain's  : 

"  Sum  Talboti  m.  mi.  c.  xliii. 
Pko  vincere  inimico  meo/** 

TALBOT  (Chables),  lord  high  chancellor  of  Great 
Britain,  descended  from  the  noble  family  of  Talbot,  was 
the  son  of  William*,  bishop  of  Durham,  and  was  born «in 

1  Coll.iiis'i  Peerage.*- MoD8trelet*s  Cbreiv — ^Kapin's  Hist.— British   Biogra- 
pby,  &c. 

*  William  Talbot,  bisbop  of  Dor-  second  earl  of  Shrewsbury,  and  was 

bam,  was  descended  from  sir  Gilbert  grandson  of  Sherrington  Talbot  of  SaU 

Ta!bot  of  Grafton,  knight  banneret,  warp  in  Worcestershire,  esq.  and  son 

and  Itnight  of  the   most  noble  order  of  William  Talbot  of  Stourton  castle 

of  the  garter,  third  son  of  John  the  in  Staffordshire,   hyt  Mary  daughter  * 


T  A  L  B  O  T.  107 

168.4.  Id. 1701  he  was  admitted  a  gentleman  commoner 
of^  Oriel  .college, .  Oxford,  where  he  proceeded  A.B.  in 
1704)  at  three  years  standing,  a  privilege  allowed  him  as 
the  son  of  a  bishop.  In  November  of  the  same  year,  he 
was  elected  a  fellow  of  All  Souls,  but  voided  this  by  mar- 
rying, in  a  few  years,  Cecily,  daughter  and  heir  of  Charles 
Matthews,  of  Castle  Munich,  in  the  county  of  Glamorgan, 
leisq.  and  great  grand-daughter,  by.  the  mother's  side,  of 
the  famous  judge  Jenkins. 

From  his  first  admission  into  the  university,  he  had  fixed 
upon  the  law  as  a  profession,  and  leaving  Oxford  before  he 
proceeded  farther  in  arts,  was  admitted  a  member  of  the 
society  of  Lincoln's-inn, .  and  was.  called  to  the  bar  a  con-^ 
siderable  time  before  his  course  of  reading  was  expired. 
He  set. out  with  great  success,  and  in  1719  was  chosen 
member  of  parliament  for  Tregony  in  Cornwall.  In  April 
17.26  he.  was  made  solicitor-general,  and  likewise  was 
chosen  member  for  the  city  of  Durham,  probably  assisted 
by  his  father's  interest,  who  was  then  bishop  of  that  see. 
In  Nov.  1733,  George  IJ.  delivered  to  him  the  great  seal, 
and  he  was  then  sworn  of  his  majesty's  privy  council,  and 
likewise  constituted  lord  high  chancellor,  and  created  a 
baron  of  Great  Britain. by  the  title  of  lord  Talbot,  baron  of 
Hensol,  in  the  county  of  Glamorgan.  On  these  promotions, 
he  resigned  the  chancellorship  of  the  diocese  of  Oxford^ 
which  had  been  given  him  by  his  father,  when  bishop  of 

of   Thomas   Doughty   of  Whittiogton  Durham^  of  which  county  he  was  made 

id  Worcestershire,  esq.     He  was  born  lord  lieutenant  and  custos  rotulorum. 

at  StourtOQ  castle  in  1659,  and  in  the  He  died  October  the  10th.  1730.     H*; 

beginning  of  1674  entered  a  gentle*  marrfed  Catharine,  daughter  of 

man   commoner  of    Oriel    college  in  King,  esq.  one  of  the  aldermen  of  Lon- 

Ozford.     On  October  the  16th,  1677,  don.     He  had  eight  sons,  and  several 

he  took  the  degree  of  bachelor  of  arls,  daughters  ;  of  whom  those  who  lived 

and  June  the  ^3d,  1680,  that  of  mas-  to  maturity    were,    1.   Charles,    the. 

ier.     He  afterwards  entered  into  holy  lord  Chancellor.     ^.  Edward,  archdea- 

orders,  and  in  the  reign  of  king  James  con  of  Berks,  who  died  in  1790.     3^ 

II.  preached  and  acted  with  great  zeal  Sherrington,    a  captain    of   foot.     4. 

againsi  popery.     lu  April  1691  he  was  Henry,  one  of  the  commissioners  of 

nominated  to  the  deanery  of  Worces-  the  salt  office.     5.  Henrietta  Maria, 

ter,  in  the  room  of  Dr.  George  Hickes,  married  to  Or.  Charles  Trimnel,  late 

ejected  for  refusing  the  oaths  to  king  bishop  of  Winchester.     6.  Catharine, 

William   and   queen   Mary;    and   in  married  to  Exton  Sayer,  LL.D.  chan- 

1699  was  advanced  to  the  bishopric  of  >  cellor  of  Durham,  and  surveyor  of  his 

Oxford,  to  which  he  was  consecrated  majesty's  land  revenues.    There  are 

September  the  24th,  having  leave  to  in   print  two'  speeches  of  his  in  the 

hold  bis  deanery  in  commendam.     In  •  House  of  Lords,  one  in  favour  of  the 

1715  he  was  translated  to  the  bishop-  union  between  England  and  .Scotland, 

ric  of  Sarum,  in  which  he  was  confirmed  and  the   other  upon  the  trial  of  Dr. 

April  the  83d.     In  September  ,1722  Sacheverell.     He  published  likewise  a 

htf.wai  translated^  t»  the  bishopric  of  .Tolume  of  sermons  in  8vo. 


lOS  TALBOT; 

ihatsM;  and  an  August  1735,  the  honorary  degree  of  doc«- 
tor  of  lavfB  was  conferred  upon  him  by  that  university.  He 
diedy  in  the  height  of  his  fame  and  usefulness,  of  an  ill- 
ness of  only  five  days,  Feb.  14,  1737,  at  his  house  in  Lin« 
coln*a4nn«>fields,  in  the  fifty«third  year  of  his  age.  He 
was  interred  at  Harrington  in  Gloucestershire,  where  his 
estate  was,  in  the  chancel  of  the  church. 

It  has  been  said  of  lord  chancellor  Talbot,  that  eloquence 
never  afforded  greater  charms  from  any  orator,  than  when 
the  public  attention  listened  to  his  sentiments,  delivered 
with  the  most  graceful  modesty ;  nor  did  wisdom  and 
knowledge  ever  support  it  with  more  extensive  power,  nor 
integrity  enforce  it  with  greater  weight.  In  apprehension 
he  to  hr  exceeded  the  common  rank  of  men,  that  he  in- 
stantaneously, or  by  a  kind  of  intuition,  saw  the, strength 
or  imperfection  of  any  argument ;  and  so  penetrating  was 
his  sagacity,  that  the  most  intricate  and  perplexing  maxes 
of  the  law  could  never  so  involve  and  darken  the  truth,  m 
to  con<ieal  it  from  his  discernment.  As  a  member  of  each 
.house  of  parliament,  no  man  ever  had  a  higher  deference 
paid  to  his  abilities,  or  more  confidence  placed  in  his  in- 
flexible public  spirit;  and  so  excellent  was  his  temper,  so 
candid  his  disposition  in  debate,  that  he  never  offended 
those  whose  arguments  he  opposed.  When  his  merit, 
and  the  unanimous  suffrage  of  his  country,  induced  hi9 
prince  to  intrust  him  with  the  great  seal,  bis  universal  affa- 
bility,  his  easiness  of  access,  his  humanity  to  the  distress, 
which  his  employment  too  frequently  presented  to  his  view, 
and  his  great  dispatch  of  business,  engaged  to  him  the 
affection  and  almost  veneration  of  all  who  approached  him. 
And  by  constantly  delivering  with  his  decrees  the  reasons 
upon  which  they  were  founded,  his  court  was  a  very  in- 
structive school  of  equity,  and  bis  decisions  were  generally 
attended  with  such  conviction  to  the  parties,  against  whose 
interest  they  were  made,  that  their  acquiescence  in  them 
commonly  prevented  any  farther  expence.  As  no  servile 
expedient  raised  him  to  power,  his  country  knew  h^  would 
use  none  to  support  hinoself  in  it. .  He  was  constant  and 
regular  in  his  devotions  both  in  bis  family  and  in  public. 
His  piety  was  exalted,  rational,  anc^  unaffected.  He  was 
firm  in  maintaining  the  true  interest  and  legal  rights  of  the 
church  ^of  England,  but  an  enemy  to  persecution.  When 
be  could  obtain  a  short  interval  from  business,  the  pompous 
formalities  of  his  station  were  thrown  aside  y  bis  table  w»s 


TALBOT.  10^ 

a  scene  where  witdom  and  science  dhonei  enlivened  nod 
adorned  with  elegance  of  wit.  There  was  joined  the  ut«> 
most  freedom  of  dispute  with  the  highest  good  breedings 
and  the  vivacity  of  mirth  with  primitive  simplicity  of  man* 
ners.  When  he  had  leisure  for  exercise,  be  delighted  ia 
fieid'Sports ;  and  even  in  those  trifles  shewed,  that  he  was 
formed  to  excel  in  whatever  he  engaged ;  and  had  he  in- 
dtilged  himself  more  in  them,  especially  at  a  time  when  be 
found  his  health  unequal  to  the  excessive  fatigues  of  his 
post,  the  nation  might  not  yet  have  deplored  a  loss  it  could 
ill  sustain.  But  though  he  was  removed  at  a  season  of  life 
when  others  but  begin  to  shine,  be  might  justly  be  said, 
^^  satis  &  ad  vitam  &  ad  gloriam  vi&isse  ;^'  and  his  death 
united  in  one  general  concern  a  nation,  which  scarce  ever 
unanimously  agreed  in  any  other  particular ;  and  notwith- 
standing the  warmth  of  our  political  divisions,  each  party 
endeavoured  to  outvie  the  other  in  a  due  reverence  to  bis 
momory.' 

'    TALBOT  (Catherine),  a  very  ingenious  lady,  the  only 
child  of  Edward  Talbot,  second  son  of  William,  bishop  of 
Durham,  and  nephew  to  the  chancellor,  was  born  in  May 
1720.     She  was  born  five  months  after  the  decease  of  her 
'  father,  who  died  at  the  e^rly  age  of  twenty-nine,  and  being 
a  younger  brother,  lefi  his  widow  in  a  situation  very  in« 
adequate  to  his  rank  in  life.     She  was  the  daughter  of  the 
vev.  George  Martyn,  prebendary  of  Lincoln^  aod  had  been 
*1barried  to  Mr.  Talbot  only  a  few  months.     Happily,  how- 
ever, for  her,  the  kind  attentions  of  a  dear  and  intimate  ^ 
friend  were  not  wanting  at  that  critical  period.    CathariaCt 
siMer  to  Mr.  Benson,  afterwards  bishop  of  Gloucester,  who 
bad  been  the  companion  of  her  early  youth,  and  whose 
brother  was  upon  an  equally  intimate  footing  with  Mr.  Tal- 
bot, was  residing  with  her  at  the  time  of  his  death,  and  was 
her  great  support  in  that  heavy  afBiction  ;  and  they  conti- 
nued to  live  together  and  bestow  all  their  joint  attention 
upon  the  infant  Catherine.     But  before  she  was  ive  years 
of  age,  this  establishment  was  broken  up  by  the  marriage 
of  Miss  Benson  to  Mr.  Seeker,  afterwards  archbishop  of 
Canterbury  (See  Secker),  but  then  rector  of  the  valuable 
living  of  Houghton-le- Spring  in  Durham.     Mr.  Secker, 
mindful  of  his  obligations  to  Mr.  Edward  Talbot,  as  men- 
tioned in  our  account  of  him,  immediately  joined  with  his 


I  Oca.  Oict«-BMf .  Brtr. 


no  "f  A  L  B  O  T. 

wife  in  the  request  that  Mrs.  and  Miss  Talbot  would  from 
that  time  become  a  part  of  bis  faintly.  The  offer  was  ac- 
oepted)  and  they  never  afterwards  separated;  and  upon 
Mrs.  Secker^s  death,  in  1748,  they  still  continued  with  him, 
and  took  the  management  of  his  domestic  concerns. 

Besides  her  mother's  instructions,  which  were  chiefly 
confined  to  religious  principles.  Miss  Talbot  enjoyed  the  ' 
benefit  of  a  constant  intercourse  with  the  eminent  divine 
with  whom  they  lived  ;  and  his  enlightened  mind  soon  dis- 
covered the  extent  of  her  early  genius,  and  was  delighted 
to  assist  in  its  improvement.  Hence,  although  she  never 
studied  the  learned  languages,  unless  perhaps  a  little  Latin, 
she  reaped  all  the  advantages  of  Mr.  Seeker's  deep  and 
extensive  learning,  of  his  accurate  knowledge  of  the  Scrip- 
tures, and  of  his  critical  and  unwearied  research  into  the 
sciences  and  languages  more  immediately  connected  with 
that  important  study.  Yet  though  so  much  attention  was 
bestowed  on  serious  pursuits^^  the  lighter  and  more  orna- 
mental parts  of  female  education  wer6  not  neglected  ;  and 
for  the  acquirena'ent  of  these  there  was  abundant  oppor- 
tunity in  the  different  situations  in  which  Mr.  Seeker's  ra- 
pid progress  in  the  church  placed  him.  From  the  time  that 
she  was  seven  years  old,  she  lived,  almost  constantly,  in 
or  near  large  cities ;  and  was  consequently  enabled  to  ac- 
quire every  useful  branch  of  education,  and  all  elegant  ac- 
complishments'. She  made  some  progress  in  music,  but 
much  more  in  drawing  and  painting  in  water-colours.  Nor 
were  the  sciences  and  modern  languages  neglected ;  she 
had  a  competent  knowledge  of  French  and  Italian,  and  late 
in  life  she  taught  herself  German.  She  studied  also  geo- 
graphy and  astronomy  with  much  care  and  attention,  and 
her  master  in  the  latter  of  these  sciences,  a  Mr.  Wright,  was 
the  m6ans  of  her  becoming  acquainted  with  the  celebrated 
Mrs:  Carter,  with  whoni  she  formed  a  strict  friendship,  the 
amiable  turn  of  which  may  be  seen  in  their  correspondence 
lately  published.  Miss  Talbot  formed  also  other  friendly 
connections  with  persons  of  m^rit  and  rank,  vvho  highly 
esteemed  her. 

At  what  age^he  began  to  compose  does  not  appear ;  but 
certainly  it  was  early  in  life,  for  her  poem  on  reading 
Hammond's  elegies  was  written  when  she  was  not  more 
than  twenty- two  years  of  age;  and  though  not  one  of  the 
best  of  them,  it  shows  that  she  was  familiar  with  composi-* 
tion,  and  that  her  powers  of  mind  had  been  accustomed  to 


TALBOT.  Ill 

^exertion.  Tfafere  are  no  dates,  however,  to  her  different 
productions,  and  therefore  we  cannot  trace  her  progress  in 
composition  or  sentiment,  nor  could  she  be  prevailed  upon 
by  her  friends  either  to  arrange  her  papers,  or  to  piiblish 
them  herself.  This  is  much  to  be  regretted,  for  the  world 
has  been  sufficiently  inclined  to  do  justice  to  Miss  Talbot's 
talents;  and  few  books  of  moral  and  religious  instruction 
have  had  a  greater  sale,  and  gone  through  more  editions 
than  the  little  posthumous  volume  of  her  miscellaneous 
•works.  Of  the  "  Reflections  on  the  Days  of  the  Week," 
published  separately,  upwards  of  25,O0Q  copies  have  been 
sold  ;  and  of  the  collection  of  her  works,  that  now  before 
us  (1812,  8vo)  is  the  seventh  edition.  This  is  a  circum- 
stance not  less  creditable  %o  the  age,  than  it  is  to  the  author ; 
and  it  also  proves  the  correctness  of  her  friend's  judgment 
into  whose  hands  they  were  put  by  Mrs.  Talbot.  Mrs.  Car* 
ter  published  them  upon  h^r  own  account  and  at  her  own 
hazard,  and  the  event  shewed  that  she  bad  formed  a  just 
isstimate  both  of  their  merit  and  the  reception  they  would 
meet  with. 

But  Miss  Talbot  ought  not  to  be  considered  by  posterity 
merely  as  an  author.  Great  as  her  talents,  and  brilliant  as 
her  accomplishments  were,  she  possessed  qualities  of  in- 
finitely more  importance,  both  to  herself  and  society.  Her 
piety  was  regular,  constant,  and  fervent.  It  was  the  spring 
of  all  her  actions,  as  its  reward  was  the  object  of  all  her 
hopes. '  iHer  charity,  including  the  whole  meaning  of  the 
word,  in  its  apostolic  sense,  was  extended  to  all  her  ac- 
quaintance, rich  as  well  as  poor ;  and  to  the  latter  she 
gave,  not  only  such  *  relief  as  her  circumstances  would  al- 
low (for  she  was  never  rich)  but  what  was  infinitely  more 
valuable  to  her,  no  small  portion  of  her  time.  There  is 
reason  to  believe  that  she  was  often  Dr.  Seeker's  almoner, 
for  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  he,  who  when  he  became 
arqhbishop  of  Canterbury,  constantly  bestowed  in  charity 
'  upwards  of  2,000/.  a  year,  had  been  equally  bountiful  be- 
fore in  proportion  to  his  income. 

On  the  death  of  this  affectionate  friend  in  1768,  who 
bequeathed  Mrs.  Talbot  and  hier  daughter  about  400/.  a 
year,  they  removed  from  Lambeth-palace  to  a  hou^e  in 
Grosvenor-street,  but  in  the  following  year  the  declining 
state  of  Miss  Talbot^s  health  obliged  them  to  leave  London 
for  a  cooler  and  better  air.  Their  kind  and  constant  friend, 
the  late  marchioness  Grey,  lent  them  for  this  purpose  her 


lit  T  A  L  B  0  T. 

hou^e  at  Ricbmood,  togeiber  with  everj  thing  she  could 
think  of  to  contributiB  to  their  comfort  or  amusement^  aad 
from  this  delightful  retreat  Miss  Talbot  only  returoed  io 
time  to  breathe  her  last  in  her  mother's  house  in  town^ 
Jan.  9,  1770,  in  the  forty-ninth  year  of  her  age.  H^ 
.chief  disorder,  added  to  a  very  weak,  and  now  completely 
worn-out  constitution,  was  a  cancer,  which  had  beqo  £^ 
three  years  preying  upon  her  enfeebled  frame* 

These  particulars  we  have  extracted  from  an  elegant 
memoir  of  her  life  prefixed  to  the  last  edition  of  ^pr  ^orka 
by  ^he  rev«  Montague  Pennington,  but  must  refer  lo^il;.fpr 
much  interesting  information  respecting  Misfi  Talbot^^ 
amiable  character  and  disposition*  Her  works  consist  of 
**  Reflections  on  the  Seven  Days  of  the  week;'*  ^'  Essayf 
on  various  subjects;**  '^  Letters  to  a  friend  on  a  Futufie 
Stat^  •'*  "  Dialogues ;'?  "  Prose  Pastorals ;",  "  Imitationa 
of  Ossian  ;"  /^^Aflegoriea  ^  and  "  Poetry*'' '  . 

TALBOT  (Pfi^ER),  a  Roman  catholic  writer,  of  coc^si* 
derabje  <;elebrity  in  ^is  day,  was  the  son  pf  sir  WilU^ift 
Talbot,  and  was  born  in  1620,  of  an  ancient  family  in  tjm 
county  of  Dublin.  He  wa«  brother  to  colonel  Richard 
Talbot,  commonly  called,  8||bout  the  court  of  Englaii^dp 
^<  Lying  Dick  Talbot,'*  whom  James  IL  creaied  diike  ^ 
Tyrconnell,  and  advaiuced  t^  tb^  tieotenaiicj  of  IreJan^. 
Peter  was  received  into  the  society  of  ibe  Jesuits  in  Port^ 
gal  in  1635,  and  after  studying  philosophy  and  divinity^ 
Went  into  holy  orders  at  Rome,  whence  he  returned  tp 
Portugal,  and  afterwards  to  Antwerp,  where  be  read  lec^* 
tures  on  moral  theology.  He  was  supposed  to.  be  thf.prer- 
son  who,  in  1656,  reconciled  Charles  IL  then  at  CciQgjf^ 
to  the  popish  religion,  and  Charles  is  reported  to  hav^ 
sent  hioi  secretly  to  Madrid  tfO^  intifnate  to  the  c)0ttrt4lf 
Spain  bis  conversion.  He  wa§  also  sent  by  bis  auperiora  lo 
JlnglaiDd  to  promote  the  interests  of  the  Romisfa  churcli| 
which  he  appears  to  ha'ge  attempted  iu  ayery  singular  waj^ 
^y  paying  bis  court  to  Cromwell^  at  whose  funeral  be  -a^ 
tended  as  one  of  the  mourners,  and  even  joined  Lambeit 
io.  opposing  general  Monk's  declaration  for  the  king.  He 
Aed^b^refore  at  the  restoration,  but  was  enabled  to  retttrh 
Uie  year  following,  when  the  king  married  the  infanta  of 
pQi:ltttgal,  and  be  became  one  of  the  priests  who  officiated 
io  ber  family.    His  intriguing  disposition,  however,  created 

>  Life  AS  above.— -Mrs.  Carter's  Life  and  Corresp«ndeii«e.. 


tome  confusipn  at  court,  and  be  was  ordef^d  to  d(*part  the 
kingdom.  The  Jesuits,  too,  among  whom  he  bad  bete 
educated,  thought  him  too  busy  anj^  factious  to  be  re- 
tained in  their  society,  and  it .  is  supposed  that  by  theic 
interest  pope  Clement  IX.  was  prevailed  upon  to  dispense 
with  his  vows,  and  to  advance  him  to  tb^  titular. archbishop-^ 
ric  of  Dublin,  in  1669.  On  his  return  to  Ireland  he( 
recommenced  his  services  in  behalf  of  the  church  of  ^Rome, 
by  excommunicating  those  regulars  and  seculars  of  his 
^wn  persuasion  who  had  signed  a  testimony  of  their  loyalty 
to  the  king*  His  ambition  and  turbulence  led  him  also  to 
<|Qarrel  with  Plunket,  the  titular  primate,  a  quiet  man^ 

Sver  whom  be  claimed  authority,  pretending  that  the  king 
ad  appointed  him  overseer  of  all  the  clergy  of  Ireland  ; 
huiT  when  this  authority  was  demanded,  he  never  could  pro* 
dace  it.  In  1670,  when  lord  Berkeley  landed  as  lord  lieu- 
tenant,  Talbot  waited  upon  him,  and  being  courteously 
received,  had  afterwards  the  presamption  t^  ippeaic  befoi^, 
the  council  in  his  archiepiscopal  x:b.aracter,  a  thing  without 
S  precedent  sinee  the  reformation.  He  was,  however,  dis<* 
toissed  without  punTshment  \  but  when  the  popish  plot  was 
^covered  in  England  in  1678,  he  was  imprisoned  in  the 
castle  of  Dublin,  pn^  suspicion  of  being  concerned  in  it^ 
wd^'^died  there  in  1680:  He  was  a  man  of  talents  and 
learning,  bi&  ^iaiiru^  mibitioQs,  and  turbulent.  Sotwell, 
Harris,  and  Dod  J  mive  enumerated  several  of  his  publica* 
iions,  which,  says.  Dodd,  are  plausible,  and. generally  in 
defence  of  the  Jesuits,  but  some  of  them  are  virulent 
against  the  English  church.  ^ 

Talbot  (Robert),  one  of  our  earliest  antiquaries,  was 
born  at  Thorp,  in  Northamptonshire,  and  was  educated  at 
Winchester  school,  whence  he  was  admitted  of  New  college, 
Oxford,  in  1525.  He  left  the  university  in  1530,  but 
took  the  degree  of  D.  D.  either  there  or  in  some  other 
place.  In  1541  he  was  made  a  prebendary  of  Wells,  and 
April, 9,  1547,  treasurer  of  the  cathedral  church  of  Nor- 
wich, which  he  possessed  at  the  time  of  his  death,  Aug. 
27,  1558.  He  was  a  very  diligent  searcher  into  the  anti- 
quities of  his  country,  and  bis  collections  proved  of  great 
service  to  Le}and,  Bale,  Caius,  Camden,  and  others.'  He 
aho  furnished  archbishop  Parker  with  many  Saxon  bocjc^f 
some  of  which  he  had  from  Dr.  Owen,  physician  to  Henry 

1  Harris'i  edition  of  Ware.^X)oda'»  Cb.  Hist. 

VOL.XXIX.  i       ^ 


U4  TALBOT, 

VIII.  Ue  left  bis  MSS.  to  New  college.  He  was  the  fint 
of  our  countrymen  who  illustrated  Antoninus's  Itinerary 
with  various  readihgrg  and  notes,  which  were  of  great  use 
to  Camden,  and  are  printed  by  Heame  at  the  end  of  the 
third  volunde  of  Leland's  Itinerary  from  a  MS.  in  the  Bod-^ 
leian  library,  which  belonged  to  John  Stowe>  and  is  in  his 
handwriting;  but  Talbot's  notes  reach  only  to  the  sixth 
ken  Two  other  copies  are  in  Bene^t  college  library ;  a 
fd'urih  is  in  Caius  college  library,  with  additions  by  Dr.. 
Caius ;  and  a  fifth  in  the  Cotton  library.  Camden  followed 
bis  settlement  of  the  stations  in  most  instances,  but  Wil^- 
}iam  Burton  frequently  differs  from  him  in  his  **  Commen* 
tary  otfi*  Antoninus  his  Ittnerary/*  His  other  MSS.  are  ^  Au- 
inm  ex  Stercore ;  vei  de  iEnigntaticis  et  Prophettcis,''  in^ 
,  C!orpus  college,  Oxford ;  and  *^  De  cbartis  qutbusdam  Re- 
gum  Britannorum,*'  in  Bene't  college,  Cambridge.^ 

TALIACOTIUS,  of  TAGLIACOZZO  (Gaspab),  pro- 
fessor of  medicine  and  anatomy  in  the  university  of  Bo^ 
logna,  was  bom  in  that  city  in  i  546,  and  died  there  Nor*. 
7,  1599,  in  the  fifty- third  year  of  his  age.  There  is  little 
recorded  of  his  life  ;-  his  fame  depends  on  his  having  prac*^ 
lised  the  art  of  restoring  lost  parts  of  the  body  by  tnsition^ 
particnlarly  the 'nose,  which  has  been  a  topic  of  ridicule 
ever  since  it  was  mentioned  by  Butler  in  his  Hudibras, 
<<  So  learned  Taliacotius  from,  key  Addison  has  also  a 
humorous  paper  on  the  same  subject  in  the  Tatler  (No. 
260),  and  Dr.  Orey  some  remarks  in  his  notes  on  Hudi-^ 
l^ras.  TaIiacotius>  however,,  was  not  the  inventor  of  tfaii^ 
art,  for  he  allows  that  Alexander  Benedictus  and  Vesaliutr 
had  given*  some  account  of  the  same  art  before  him,  tod 
Ambrose  Par6  mentions  a  surgeon  who  practised  it  much 
and  successfully.  Charles  Bernard^  seijeant-surgeon  to 
^een  Anne,  asserts,  that  though  those  ivbo  have  not  ex-- 
amined  the  history  may  be  sceptics,  there  are  incontestable 
-proofs  that  this  ari;  was  actually  practised  with  dexterity 
and  success.  Other  writers  have  doubted  whether  Talia- 
cotius did  more  than  write  on  the  theory,  but  there  seem» 
no  foundation  for  depriving  him  of  the  honours  of  success 
in  practice  also.  Our  readers  may,  indeed,  satisfy  themi-' 
Selves  as  to  the  practicability  of  the  art,  as  far  as  the  nose 
is  concerned,    by  perusing  a  very  recent  treatise,  "An 

account  of  two  successful  operations  for  restoring  a  lost 

t 

■  4 

^  Ath.  Ox.  ToL  I,— Leland  in  Encom.— -Bale.— Cough's  To^iography.  . 


T  A  1,  r  A  C  O  T  I  U  S.  Ill 

Nose,  fram  the  ixiteguoieifts  of  the  forehead,  inthecaass 
of  two  officers  of  bis  majesty's  army,"  by  J.  C.  Carpue^ 
aiirgeon,  1815,  4ta  The  lips  and  eai%  were  the  otber 
parts  which  Taliacotins  professed  to  restore }  and  bis  writ- 
ings on  the  subject  are,  1.  ^^  Epistola  ad  Hieronymum  Mer^ 
culiarem  de  naribus,  multo  ante  abscissis,  reficiendis,*^ 
Francf.  1587,  8vo.  2.  ^^  De  Gurtornm  Chirurgia  per  insi« 
tionem  libri  duo,"  Venice,  1697,  fol.  and  reprinted  at 
Francfort,  1 598,  8vo,  under  the  title  ^*  Chirurgia  nova  de 
narium,  aurtum,  labiorumque  defecto,  per  insitioneln  gu<> 
tis  ex  bumero,  arte  hactenus  omnibus  ignpta,  sarciendo.^ 
The  magistrates  of  Bologna  bad  such  a  high  opinion  of 
Taliacotius's  success,  that  they  erected  a  statue  of  him, 
holding  a  nose  in  bis  hand. ' 

TALLARI)  (CAitfiLLE  p^HosTUN,  count  of),  an  admired 
general,  and  mareschal  of  France,  was  born  Feb.  14,  1653, 
the  son  of  Roger  d^Hostun,  marquis  of  la  Beaume.  '  Like 
other  young  nobles  of  France,  be  chose  the  army  for  fai^ 
profession,  and  at  the  age  of  sixteen  had  the  royal  regiment 
of  Cravates,  in  which  command  he  signalized  himself  for 
ten  years.  In  1672  be  attended  Louis  XIV.  into  jHolland, 
obtained  soon  after  the  confidence  of  Tur<^ne,  and  dis<« 
tioguisbed  himself  on  several  occasions.  He  was  rsnsed  ib 
the  rank  of  lieutenant-general  in  1693,  and  in  1697  was 
employed  in  an  embassy  to  England.  On  the  renewal  of 
war,  he  commanded  on  the  Rhine  in  1702,  and  soon  after 
was  created  mareschal  of  France.  He  distinguished  him- 
self in  the  ensuing  year  against  the  Imperialists,  and 
gained  a  brilliant  advantage,  which,  however,  be  rather 
disgraced  by  bis  pompous  manner  of  announcing  it.  He 
was  less  fortunate  in  1704,  when  being  engaged  against 
the  English  in  the  plains  of  Hochstedt,  near  Blenheim^  he 
was  defeated  and  brought  a  prisoner  to  England,  where  he 
remained  for  seven  years.  Soon  after  this  battle,  be  said,, 
in  a  kind  of  peevish  compliment  to  the  duke  ef  Marl* 
borough,  **  Your  grace  has  defeated  the  finest  troops  in 
Europe  ;^*  **  You  will  except,  I  hope,"  said  the  duke, 
*'  the  troops  who  beat  them.*'  His  residence  in  England, 
say  the  French  historians,  was  not  without  its  use  to  France ; 
as  he  very  much  assisted  in  detaching  queen  Ani»e from  the 
party  of  the  allies,  and  causing  the  recall  of  the  duke  of 

*  Eloy  Diet.  Hist,  de  Mct^icine,— Ndtcs  on  the  Tatltr,  ssd  wQnftHu; 

clibr«s. 

I  2 


llf  T  A  L  L  A  R  D. ' 

Marlborough.  He  returned  to  Paris  in  17 15,  and  waif" 
created  aAluke.  In  1726  be  was  named  secretary  of  states 
^hkh  booQur  he  did  not  long  retain,  but  died  March  3^ 
1728^  at  the  age  of  severity-six.  He  was  a  man'  of  good 
talents  and  character ;  bis  chief  fault  being  that  he  was 
rather  inplined  to  boasting./  ^ 

TALLENTS  (Fbancis),  a  non- con  for  mist  divine  of  con- 
siderable  eminence  and  learning,  was  born  at  Paisley,  near 
Chesterfield,  Nor.' 16 19,  and  educated  at  the  public  schools 
at  MiCnsfietd  and  Newark,  whence  he  went  to  Peterhouse, 
^ambridf;e,.  but  being  chosen  sub-tutor  to  the  sons  of  the 
eapl  of  Suffolk,  removed  for  that  purpose  to  Magdalen 
college,  and  in  1642  travelled  with  them  on  the  continent 
On  his  return  he  was  chosen  fellow  of  Magdalen  college^ 
and  afterwards  became  senior  fellow  and  president.  In 
1648  be  was'ordained  at  London,  in  the  presbyterian  forok 
In  1652  he  left  the  university,  and  went  to  Shrewsbury, 
where  he  became  minister  of  St  J  Mary^s.  At  the  restora- 
tion, an  event  in  which  he  rejoiced,  he  was  inclined  to 
conform,  but  pt'obably  scrupling  to  be  re-ordained,  whicn. 
was  thtt  chief  obstacle  Vvith  many  other  non-conformist», 
he  was  ejected.  In  1670  he  again  visited  the  continent's 
tutor  to  two  yotmg  gentlemen,  and  about  three  years  after- 
wards returned  to  Shrewsbury,  and  preached  in  a  dissent- 
ing meeting  there,  while  unmolested  '  Uk  lived  also  some 

Affet  reaching  thb 


sermon- was  preached  by  the  cel^rated  Matthew  Henry, 
who,  in  anaccount  appended,  gives  him  a  Very  high  cha- 
«racter  f6r.piety,  learning,  and  moderation.  He  was  one  i!X 
those  of  whom  the  great  Mr.  Boyle  took  early  notice,  and 
;lived  in^  friendship  with  all  his  life.  He  published  a  fe^ 
religiQti|s,  chiefly  eoutroversiM,  tracts,  bpt  .i^  principalty 
.Remembered  as  the  editor. of  aVork  once  iu'V^ry  High  re«- 
jiutation,  "  A  view  of  Universal  History;  ^'r,  chrolholo^icitl 
.Tables,''  engraved  iii  his  bouse  and  mider  biis  particulai: 
inspectiion)  on  sixteen  large' copper-plates.  *  /  -  >'  i 

TALLIS  (Thomas),  one  of  the  greatest  Jhlisicikns  di 
ibis  country,  err'of  Europe,  in  his  time,  Nourished  abbilb 
the  middle  of 'ibe^xteenth  century.  He  is  said  to  hai^ 
been  oi^anist  of  Ae  f oyai  chapel  to  king  Henry  Vlll.  king 


T  A  L  1  1  S.  lit 

SJd ward  VI.  queeo  Mary y  and  ^cj^qeeo  Elizabeth;  bat  the 
Inscripooii  on  bis  graye-stoiTewarniiits  .no  8ii€b  assertion; 
p[n  tii9  two  reigns  of  Edward  Vt,  and  queen  Mary^  he  was 
simply  a  geutlen)an  of  the^jcbap^l^  and  served  for  seven- 
pence  halfpenny  a  day ;  but  under, £lizabetb|  he  and  Bird 
were  gentleman  of  the  chapel  apd'^r^pists.     The  studies 
of  Tallis  seem  to  have  been  wholly  devoted  to  the  service 
of  the  churchy  for  bis  natne  is  not  to  be  found  to  any  mu- 
sical poQipositions  of  sougs,  ballads,  madrigals,  or  any  of 
tbos^  lighter  kinds  of  mu^c  framed  with  a  view  to  private 
recreation.     Of  the  many  disciplfes  who  had  profilied  by  his 
iinstruction,.Bird  seems  to  have  possessed  the  greatest  share 
of  his  affection,  one  proof  of  which' was  a  joint  publicatipii 
hy  them  of  ctne  of  the  noblest  eollectionsof  hymns  and 
o|her  comppsitioHs  for  the  service  of  the  church  that  ever 
appeared  io  any  age  or  country.   Thjs  was  printed  by  Vau* 
troliier  in  l?75f  with  the  title  of '^  Can tioAes  quss  ab  ar^ 
^upiientio  sacrs^  vocantur  quinque  jet  sex  partium, .  Autori-* 
.bus  Thomas,  Talii^io  et  Gulielmo  Birdo,^  Anglis,  sereuissi* 
mae  reginai  majestati^a.prtyato  sacello  genqjrosis  et  organ.<^ 
istisy^'  and  was  published  under  the  protection  of  a  patent 
x>f  queen  Elizabeth,  the  first  of  the  kiiod  that  bad  ever  beea 
;gr^rited.  ,5^ 

Though  it  has  beeA  commonly  said  th^t  Tallis  was  orm 
(ganist  to  Henry  VIIL  and  the  three  fiuccieec||ng  princes 
liis  (|espenda[^s,,  it  may.  well  be  dqubted  wbet^^r  any  ky^ 
fiQan  were iemployed  in ;|bat  office  till. the  begini^ing  of  the 
oreign  of  queen  El jizahe|b,.  vHsen  Tallfs  and  Bird  were  se^ 
verally  appointed  mrgaoisj^s  of  the  royal  chapel.  Notwith*- 
'staqfipling  be  ^as.  a  diligent  collector,  of  .q^usical  antiquities, 
and  a  careful  peruser. of  the  worics.pf  .other  men,  the  com** 
;pj[^itiQns.of  TaUis,  learui^d  and  elegf^nt  as  they  are,  are  so 
truly  original,  that  hemay  justly,  be.  9aid  to  be  the  father 
«f  tbQ  cathedral  style?;  and,  ^thi^ugl}  a,,like  appeUatioa  is 
givi^n  by  the  Italian/;  tbil^lejstrioa,  it  is  much  to  be  ques- 
tioned, considering  t|iiejbtaie,.^{ien  Tallis  flourished,  whether 
he  could  derive  t^e  least  mlvj^niiage  from  the  improvements 
"  of  that  gre^  ajaq.  Perhapp.  i%e.  laid  %he  foundation  of  his 
studies  in  the  wq^karof  the'ol^  qs^thedralif  ts  of  this  king*- 
dom,  ahd^.probabtl}^  in  those^  pf  the  Gemiau  musicians, 
.w))o  ^n  bis  tiipe  .ha,d  the  iNrere^Lueopfi  ^j^he  Italians ; 
and  that  he  had  an  emulation  to  excel  even  these^  may 
be  presumed  frc^m  the  foUowing  pactieulan  John  Oken- 
heim^  a  native  of  the  Low  Countries,  and  a  disciple  uf 


lis  T  A  L  L  I  & 

lodoeus  Prtt€Qsi»y  had  made  a  conpofition  for  no  fewer 
that!  thirty*stx  Toicfes,  which,  Glareanos  says,  waa  greattyi 
admired    Tallis  composed  a  motet  in  forty  parts,  the  bis^ 
tory  of  which  stupendoas  composition,  as  ^r  b»  it  can  now 
be  traced,  is  given  by  sir  John  Hawkins.     Notwithstanding 
his  supposed  attachment  to  the  Romish  religion,  it  seems 
that  Tallis  accommodated  himself  and  his  stisdies  to  the 
alterations  introduced  at  the  reformation.     With  this  view, 
he  set  to  music  those  several  parts  of  the  English  litargy, 
which  at  that  time  were  deemed  the  most  proper  to  be 
stmg,  namely,  the  two  morning  services,  the  one  compre* 
bending  the  "  Venite  Exnltemus,**   « Te   Deum,'*    and 
*'  Benedictus  ;*'  and  the  other,  which  is  part  of  the  com« 
tnunion^officO)  consisting  of  th^  ^  Kyrie  Eleison,*'  *^  Ni- 
eene  Creed,''  and  **  Sanctus :"  as  aUo  the  evening  service, 
containing  the  *^  MagniBcat,*'  and  ^^  None  dimittis.**     AU 
these  are  comprehended  in  that  which  is  called  Tallis's 
first  service,  as  being  the  first  of  two  composed  by  hsm« 
fie  also  set  musical  notes  to  the  Preces  and  Responses, 
and  composed  that  Litany  which  for  its  excellence  is  sung 
on  solemn  occasions  in  all  places  where  the  choral  service 
is  performed.     As  to  the  Preces  of  Tallis  in  his  first  ser*- 
vice,  they  are  no  other  than  those  of  Marbeck  in  his  book 
of  Common-prayer  noted:  the  Responses  are  somewhat 
diffeient  in  the  tenor  part,  which  is  supposed  to  contain 
the  melody ;  but  Tallis  has  improved  them  by  the  addition 
mf  three  parts,  and  has  thus  formed  a  judicious  contrast 
between  the  supplications  of  the  priest  and  the  suffrages  of 
^e  people  as  represented  by  the  choir.    The  services  of 
Tallis  contain  dso  chants  for  the  *<  Venite  Exultemus,*' 
mnd  the  ^<  Creed  of  St.  Athanasius  :"  these  are  tunes  thait 
divide  each  verse  of  the  psalm  or  hymn  according  to  the 
pointing,  to  the  end  that  the  whole  may  be  sung  alter- 
nately by  the  choir,  as  distinguished  by  the  two  sides  of 
the  dean  and  the  chanter.    Two  of  these  chants  are  pub^ 
lished  in  Dr.  Boyce's  Cathedral  Music,  vol.  I.    The  carl^ 
of  selecting  from  the  Comilft)d-prayer  the  ofiices  most  pro- 
per to  be  sung  was  a  matter  of  some  importance,  especially 
as  the  rubric  contains  no  directions  about  it ;  f9r  this  rea- 
son it  is  supposed  that  the  musical  part  of  queen  Etiza- 
beth's  liturgy  was  settled  by  Parker,  archbishop  of  Canteie^ 
bwy,  who  was  not  only  it  great  divine,  an  i&xclrtloiit'Catibft- 
lawyer  and  ritualist,  and   a  general   scholar,  but  also-  a 
skilful  musician.     Besides  ^be  offices  above-mentioned. 


T  A  L  L  I  8.  119' 

conttitoting  what  am  now  term^  the  Morniof  ,  Commas 
ntoQ,  knA  Evening  Senriees,  in  ibar  parts^  with  the  Precet» 
Responses,  and  Litany,  Tallis  composed  many  anthems. 
He  died  Nov.  23,  1585,  and  was  buried  in  the^  parish- 
church  of  Gre^i wich  in  Kent ;  where  there  is  a  brass  plate 
for  him  in  the  chaocet ;  the  mscription  on  which  was.  re^ 
paired  by  dean  Aldricb,  and  may  he  seen  in  Strype's  Stow> 
fcnt  no  memorial  now  remains.  ^ 

TAMERLANE,  or  Timwr  Bec,  the  great  conqiieror  of 
the  East,  was  born  in  I3S5,  in  the  village  of  Kesch,  be- 
longing to  the  ancient  Sogdiana«  His  name  of  Tamerlane 
is  derived  by  some  writers  from  Tinmr  Lenc^  (mt  Tirnur  the 
iame^  as  he  had  some  defect  in  his  feet.  His  origin  is  un«- 
certain,  some  reporting  him  to  be  the  son  of  a  shepherd, 
«nd  others,  of  the  royal  blood.  He  mised  himself,  how* 
ciwr,  by  his  personal  courage  and  ttJents.  He  was  dktin«» 
fished  early  foy  these  qualities;  and,  having  acquired 
some  followers  devoted  to  bis  fortunes,  his  first  oonqnest 
was  that  of  Balk,  the  capital  of  Khorasan,  on  the  frontiers 
of  Persia.  He  then  made  himself  ma^er  of  the  whole  pre^ 
vince  of  Gandahar,  and  returning  to  subdue  the  people 
beyond  the  Oxus,  took  Bagdad;  He  now  determined  to 
undertake  the  conquest  of  India ;  bat  his  soldiers,  fatigued 
by  their  former  efforts,  refused  at  first  to  follow  him;  On 
this  occasion  he  employed  a  pretended  prophet  to  exhort 
them  in  the  name  of  heaven;  and  having  made  them 
itthamed  of  their  reluctance,  and  filled  them  with  a  strong 
enthusiasm,  led. them  on  to  greater  victories.  Delhi  feM 
before  him,  and  he  became  possessed  of  the  immense  trea- 
sures of  the  Mogul  empire.  Returning  from  his  Indian 
exploits^  he  entered  Syria  and  took  Damascus :  and  Bag^ 
dad  having  attempted  to  revolt,  he  made  a  terrible  exam- 
ple^ by  putting  many  thousands  of  the  inhabitants  to  the 
eword,  and  delivering,  the  city  to  pillage.  Bajazet,  em- 
peror of  the  Turks,  now  attracted  his  notice,  and  to  him 
he  sent  an  embassy,  requiring'him  to  do  justice  to  some 
Mahometan  prinoes  whom  he  had  deposed,  and  to  abandon 
the  siege  of  Constantinople.  This  haughty  message  being 
as  haughtily  answered,,  war  was  commenced  between  them* . 
Tamerlane  marched  towards  Bajazet,  whom,  in  1402,  he 
engaged^  conquered,  and  took  prisoner,  in  the  plains  of 
Ancyra  near  Phrygia.    The  haute  lasted  three  days.    Tlie 

\  Hawkins  and  Bwrncjr'e  Hittmrkt  of  Maiic 


120  T  AM  ER  L  A  N  E. 


Turkish  vfptmn  8ay»  that  after  tMs  emat,  Tmaedwa&utkKA 
.Biy^et  ft  hat  he  would  have  (lone  to  him^  jS  he  ^mA  be«a 
.victorious.^  ^i  I  would. have  shut  yo«r?4tiVf  said  Bajas€t» 
•^^  in  an  iron  cage.**  Upon  which  he  Was  ktmaelf  com^ 
demned  to  the  same  puuisfament.  Some  ^mters,  houieirer^ 
boast  of  the  generosity  aad  magnaotmitjr  of  aheconqueiisc; 
JBe  this  as  it  may,  he  certainly  carried  his  vietorieBito»'« 
wonderful  extent :  while  he  wasriengaged  in ;  the>  war  >witb 
Bajazet^  he  vanquished  Egypt,  and  adzed  the  imok^se 
treasures  of  Grand  Cait^o^  nor*  could  any  thing  in  the  East 
withstand  hioir  He  died  about  three  years  •after  his  ivit^ 
Aory,.  on  the  first  of  April,  1405,  in,  :tbe  seventy-firstryear 
of.,4is  age,  and  the  thirly-siaih  nf -his  rdgnJ>  .When  he 
found  death  approaching,  he  called  the  princes  togedsier,^ 
4^>pointed  his  grandsou^to.hfs  hiaMir,»anfd  diec^  ^xtifessing  , 
liis.ampiioit  fa^h  inrtbeKara^  iiad.ir<9f^eetio^j(he.8ttcnMk 
words  of  .the  Mahpmetao^  <<  TbefOria  moiGodtbMiiSodv^ 
and  Mahomet  is  bis  pro[4iet»*\      >  .  ii    ^        .-^.p  '  - 

Timur,  according  tp^^Arabsbab,  waai^l  ^asid  ebspiilifti^ 
wi.ih  a  fair  ,complexioa,.;i^d  agreeaMoiooiifitfeiiance^i4Ie 
was,  very  strong,  tand  well  made,  <ex0ep^-;his  llameni^, 

^    which  .was  on  the  right  side  ^f  and  as  -vigosousi  in  xronstitili^ 
tioqi as. undaunted  in  .courage.     He  I'etaioed'^Jiiaiikciiikiesi 

'   tOrtba^la^t,   Zn  bis«Minners(he  appears  to/havoheeilisftrim^^ 
faa4n|(.  not  on^y /alsi«ibood,  hut*  even  jestiilg;   eiHis.hi^Oovy^ 
aJ^Kds  a  wofi^rlul  example  of  long  andun«ariai^leisuflcesa 
atJbeadiog  ooemaiifi :.  He  «c#iiquered.se  sanch  jts^AlesamlefV  - 
but  with  far  Iwi  buplmnitj&f^.  -        ,    *.•      .    ^    1     . 
^    TANCRED  (GiUiiSToraw^,  a  gentltmasrwbatdlcscirMB 
to,.  bO;  reBorded)a<uftPg>  the  «benefafiftor8.  :to   literature,^ 
v9Mi  grfiat  gi^audson  tO'  sir  Richard.  ^Taffcred/  ^who .  was . 
luigbted  for  bi§  servicea  and  a^eye  siiffisringa  during  tbe- 
rebellion*    Tbi^v.sir  ilicbard<  was  the  son  of  GharJjosTian^  * 
cr^nd,  esq.  who  pi^Fch^ed  the  manor  and  rectory  of  ^Hmi^> 
ley)  anciently  QuipcJef,  situated  bctweea  Yorkiand  AU-^ 
boipougb.     Christofj^r  Tancred,  the  sqb^ecl^of  this  article^ ^< 
died[in.l754  unosarried,  and  left :biis  house  and < estate  at; 
Whixley  for  the;  maintenance  of  tv^telvie  deeafjedgefitlesMii  > 
who  bave  borne  arms  in  tbe'S^F^H<re.of  abeir  oounti^,  eaotai 
of    whom  receive  twentyTtlwo^guioeaa  amnnally^  jBid>a 
s^mrate  apai^tment  is  asHgiied^ta  each  ><rf  tbeni,;bat  the*^ 
whole  di^e  ioipomaton*,  liealso  founded  feurcmedicaitexbi^i 


«/ 


}  DBiT.  Hai|,.n9i«»^. 


TANeRI/*D.  lit 

l»kioD^at'Alni»'caltege;<'fbiir  in  ditrinity  it'difisfs^cqU 
Jb|^  CMibMc%e^i«iid  four  law  studc^tdiips  at  Lin^ohiV 
jMi  oR  wbkfa  he  was ca^  beneher.  Tb^fte  were  origihftn^  6f 
tbe  yearljr  value  of  SOl.,  bol  ftre  imht  lObk^ee^ch.  The  trua- 
(eeaio  tbiS'feflndiaiionaire  the  roasters  6(  Caius  and  Cfarist^i 
oeliage^  the  president '^nghe  eoUege  of  Pbysicians,  tbe 
treasofer  of  Lincoln VIiin,vtahe  master  of '  the  Cfaarter- 
li^se^  the.'president  of  Cfartst's^'hospital,  and*  tHe  governor 
of  Greenwich '  botpitai.  These  ekhibitions  co&ticioe  f^ 
about  eight  years,  three  years  after  taking  the  degree  of 
M.  A.  or  M.  B.  and  after  being  caUed  to  the  Bar ;  and  a 
Latin  oration  is  spoken  annually,  by  one  of  the  exhibition- 
«s  and  students,  in  coflsmemoration  of  their  liberal  beue* 
faetor** 

TANNER  (ThomjlS),  an  excellent  antiquary,  was  the 
eon  ofra  father  of  both  his  names,  ticar  of  Market  Laving^ 
-ton  in  Wilts,  and  was  born  in  1674.  He  beeilnie  a  stu- 
dent in  Queen^s-college,  Oxford,  in  Michiteltaas-term, 
IMfi  ;•  adaskted  clerk  in  that  house,  1690;  B.  A.  1693; 
aiftered  inse  beigr  orders  at  Christmas,  1694;  and  became' 
chaplain  •ofAiUsouls^coUege  in  January  following ;  chosen 
feUow  of  the  same,  .1697  ;  chancellor  of  Norfolk,  and  rec* 
tor  of  Thorpe  near  Norwich  in  1701;  He  was  installed 
prebendary  of  Ely,  Sept.  10,  1713,  (which  he  quitted  in 
.1?23};  made  archdeacon  of  Norfolk,  Dec.  7,  1721 ;  candQ 
of  Cbrist-ichurch,  Feb.  3,  1723-4;  and  proloentor  of  the 
lower  bouse  of  convocation,,  which  was'  convened  anno 
4727.'  To  this  honour  he  was  unanimously  elected  on  ac-- 
coiint*of  his  great  abilities,  however  contrary  to  his  pwo 
inwliliatioBs ;  and ;  was  consecrated'  bishop  of  St.  Asaph, 
Jan^  23, .  1 732.  Bishop  Tanner  died  at  Christ-church,  Ox^ 
faad,  ])ec«  14,  173d ;  and  was  buried  in  the  nave  of  that 
catbeldsal,*  near  the  pulpit;  without  any  funeral  pomp,  ac- 
cording to  his  own  direction.  He  or'dered  his  body  to  be 
.wuapp^  tip  in  the  coarsest  crape,  and  his  cofBn  to  be 
covered  with  sevge,  not  cloth :  the  pall-bearers  to  have 
eachvof  them  one  of  Baskett-s  folio  bibles;  the  under- 
bearers  a  Sherlock  upon  Death ;  to  the  dean  of  Cbristr 
cbur^,  he  left  five  pounds;  to  the  eight  canons  fivesbil- 
iiogs  each ;  eighty  pounds  to  buy  coats  for  eighty  poor 
men;  and  one  hundred  pounds  to  the  college,  towarda 
their#iibsacy:tbeii  building.    A  monument  to  his -memory 


)  HargroTe^s  Hist  of  Koftmbeiw^.— pent.  Ma|^.  toI.  LXXVII* 


123  TANNER. 

ia  affixed  to  one  of  the  pillars,  with  an  intcription«  AncMher 
inscription,  aini  a  translation  of  it,  may  be  seen  in  the 
**  Anecdotes  of  Bowyer.'*  He  was  thrice  married,  first,  to 
Rose,  eldest  daughter  of  Dr.  Moore,  bishop  of  Ely^  and 
by  her,  who  died  March  15,  1706,  aged  twenty-five,  be 
had  a  daughter  who  died  in  her  infancy;  secondly,  to 
Frances,  daughter  of  Mr.  Jacob  Preston,  citizen  of  Lon- 
don«  She  died' June  11,  1718,  aged  forty,  and  left  two 
daughters,  who  both  died  young,  and  bis  son  and  heir,  tbe 
fer.  Thomas  Tanner,  who  died  in  1760,  at  that  time  pre- 
centor of  St.  Asaph,  rector  of  Kessingland,  and  vicar  of 
LowestofF.  The  bishop  married,  thirdly,^  in  1733,  Miss 
Eliaabetb  Scottow,  of  Thorpe,  near  Norwich,  with  a  fmv 
tune  of  15,000/.  She  survived  him,  and  married  Robert 
Brittffe,  esq.  recorder  of  Norwich,  aad  M.  F.  She  died 
in  1771. 

Bishop  Tanner^s  character  seems  to  have  descended  to 
posterity  without  any  blemish.  His  virtues  are  acknow«- 
ledged  by  his  contemporaries,  and  .of  his  learning  a»  an 
antiquary,  which  was  very  exien^ive,  he  was  most  readily 
communicative  to  all  who  were  engaged  in  publications  of 
that  nature.  He  had  a  eonsiderable  .hand  in  the  second 
edition  of  Wood's  *^  Athenae,'*  but  appears  to  have  givea 
offence  to  some  of  Wood's  firiends,  by  softening  certain  of 
bis  prejudices  as.  well  as  bis  coarse  language.  This  pro* 
duced  something  like  a  eontroveray,  which  the  reader  may 
.  find  detailed  in  the  life  of  A.  Wood,  prefixed  to  his  ^  An^ 
nals,'^  or  in  the  preface  to  the  new  edition  of  the  ^<  Athe- 
iise,'*  by  Mr.  Bliss.  Of  the  publications  more  particularly 
belonging  to  himself,  the  first  appeared  before  he  was 
twenty  years  old.  It  formed  an  excellent  compendium  of 
our  religious  houses,  setting  forth,  when  and  by  whom 
they  were  founded,  their  dedications,  orders,  and  value^; 
and  was  entitled,  *^  Nbtitia  Monastica,  or  a  short  History 
the  Religious  Houses  in  England  and  Wales,^*  169^,  8v0. 
This  was  so  favourably,  received  that  it  became  very  scarce^ 
and  at  the  request  of  bis  friends  he  set  aboiit  revising  and 
enlarging  it  in  1715,  but  the  duties  of  his  station,  aird 
afterwards  his  infirmities,  prevented  him  from  leaving  it 
quite  complete.  It  appeared,  however,  under  the  care  of 
the  rev.  John  Tanner,  his  brother,  in  1744,  folio,  under 
the  title  of  '*  Notitia  Monastica;  or  an  Account  of  all  the 
Abbies,  Priories,  and  Houses  of  Friers,  heretofore  iq  Eng- 
land and  Wales;  and  also  of  all  the  Colleges  andHospitsds 


TANNER-  t2S 

founded  before  A.  D.  151 1.  By  the  right  rev.  Dr.  Tbomiis 
Tanner,  late  lord  bishop  of  St  Asaph.  Published  by  Joha 
Tanner,  A.  ML  vicar  of  Lowestoft  in  Saflblk,  and  precentor 
of  the  cathedral  church  of  St.  Asaph.*^  Of  this  a  much 
improved  edition  was  published  in  1787^  by  Mr.  Nasmith; 
but  the  greater  part  of  the  impression  having  been  con- 
sumed in  Mr.  Nicholses  fire,  it  now  ranks  among  scarce 
books.  His  <<  Bibliotheca  Britannico-Hibernica/'  which 
employed  him  forty  years,  was  published  in  1748,  folio, 
with  a  posthumous  preface  by  Dr.  Wilkins.  He  left  large 
collections  for  the  county  of  Wilts,  and  large  notes  oa 
Richard  Hegge's  Legend  of  St.  Cuthbert,  1663.  His  im« 
mense  and  valuable  collections  are  now  in  ibe  Bodleian 
library  at  Oxford.  His  portrait  was  engraved  by  Vertue 
in  1736,  at  the  expence  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries* 
The  portrait  prefixed  to  the  '*  Notitia,"  is  inscribed,  **  He- 
verendns  admodum  Thomas  Tanner,  Asaphensia  Episco- 
pus,  PrimsevsB  Antiquitatis  Cultor.  G.  Vertue  sculp.  1748.** 
This  print  was  a  copy  of  that  engraved  by  Vbrtue^  with 
aome  difference  in  the  decoration,  ana  this  addition  to  the 
inscription  :  **  Hoc  ectypum  fratris  sui  dignissiofii  antiquis 
moribus  ornati  posteris  sacratum  esse  voluit  Soc.  Ant. 
Lond.  1736."* 

TANSILLO  (Lbwis),  an  Italian  poet,  whose  works  were 
once  proscribed  by  the  inquisition,  and  having  become 
acarce,  are  therefore  accounted  valuable,  was  born  at  Nola 
about  1520.  He  passed  a  great  part  of  his  life  attached  to 
the  service  of  don  Pedro  de  Toledo,  viceroy  Of  Naples,  and 
don  Garcias  de  Toledo,  commander  of  the  gatlies  in  the 
same  kingdom.  The  period  of  his  death  is  not  precisely 
known,  but  he  is  said  to  have  been  judge  of  Gaieta  in 
-1569 ;  and,  as  he  was  then  in  a  very  bad  state  of  health, 
it  supposed  to  have  died  soon  after.  He  had  the  reputa- 
tion  of  a  very  good  poet,  and  bis  productions,  as  far  as 
they  are  now  known,  are  these:  1.  '^11  Vendemmiatore,^* 
'the  Vintager,  a  poem ;  in  which  he  described  in  too  free 
M  manner,  the  licence  of  the  inhabitants  in  the  vicinity  of 
Nola,  at  the  time  of  the  vintages;  Naples,  1534;  Venice, 
•1549,  4to.  On  this  £iccount  all  his  poems  were  put  into 
'the  Index  expurgatorius.     Mortified  at  this  rigour,  he  ad- 

dressed  an  ode  to  the  pope,  asserting,  that,  though  his  poem 

c 

*  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  11.— Biog.  Brit — LeUers  from  Emiaeot  penooi,  1813,  3  volf. 
^fo.—- Gougb's  Topogri^by.— Sip.  NicelsoB*0  Lfittn»  vol.  L  p.  ^7.-- Ni«holB*i 
Bowyer.    • 


Itt  T  A  N  $  I  L  L  O. 

vas  licentiousi  his  life  had  not  been  so;  remonsifatinf 
against  the  inclusion  of  hia  innocent  productions  in  the.aeuy- 
tence  with  the  culpable  piece;  and  declaring  that  be, w^^ 
employed  in  a  poem  upon  the  tean  of  St.  Petisrt  ivb^ 
jneritSy  be  trusted,  would  atone  for  bis  ofEence, ,  aad  pro« 
cure  him  deserved  honour*  In  consequence  of  this  od|S» 
iivhen  the  next  edition  ,of  tbe  Ind^x  espurgatorius  ap- 
peared^ not  only  the  innoxious  pp^;iii9f  but  the  Veodemmi* 
.atore  also,  were  omitted,  as  if  .tbe  repentance  of  the  pf>&L 
bad  purified  his  poem  I  2.  ^^  ll,.CavallarizzQ/VVijceDS9» 
Svo.  4.  Sonnets,  Songs^  Stanj^as,  and  some  Copaediea. 
Lastly,  .in  17^7,  professor  Ra'nza  published  an.  j^edi^ed 
poem  of  Tans^illo's,  entitled  '^  Balia/'  ji^hich  ba»  be^  ^|^ 
fgantly  translated  into  Euglisb  i^ji  Mr*  BOS9O0,  jindeq  the 
title  «  The  Nurse,"  1758,  4to,*  .     ,  ;    ♦    j 

TARIN  (P£T£a),  a  French  phj^cian,  boraat.CQur^enai« 
died  in  1761,  at  what  age  is  uncertain,,  H^twas.knowm^by 
various  works,  of  which  the  followMig,were.]tbet;hief  r.^. 
•^Elements  of  Pbysiplogy,"  translated,  from  ^bci  X^auifk  pf 
Haller,  1752,.  Syo.  ?.  *•  Adversiria  <Anatj:)a)g^a,  I75j(?,  Ug^ 
with  a  medical,  BibIiogra4>by,  «i&tracted  fro^  the  <<  Mt^lbor 
,dus  Studii  Medici V  pf  Hf^ller*  4^  .".Qst^agjp-a|xbia,'VParMv 
1753,  4to,  a  compilation,  illustratea  by,  ongraxiogs,  .^^^ 
"  Aothropqtomie,''  pcjjh^  ,art  qt  dissiecUng^a75Q»  2^j^oI^ 
l2ou>..    6.  ^^  Desi9i>gr^pli^e» '  or  a.treati^e^.po  .U^unWntil^ 


bious.     tie  wrote  also  9Pi^e.  medical  .articles  for  tb^fȣi)^ 

cyclopedia.*  ,  ,  ,  /  ,n 

TARTINI  (Joseph),,  styled  by  Dr.  Bur;>iByj^  "Oi^iaOr 

]nirable,'\was  born  in  April  1692, j^t.^iranpjp  tb(e:pi;Qf 

vince  of  Istria.     His  father,  bavjng  j>.i^/^a  a  great  bei)dfa% 

tor^cto.tbe  cathe<jlral  at  Pare^zo,  was  enifobledfor  hiis/juetx* 

Joseph  ^as  intended  fpr  the  Uw«  bu^  t^l^ing  ^p  tb|9  siudj 

of  music,  among  his  other  pursuits,  it  .prfivaijed  pvj^,,a^ 

the  rest  ia gaining  bis  attachment,     {a^ljip,  ,be  yvaa  j^ent 

'  to  the  university  of  Pa4ua»  to  study  as  a  Jpivili^n^  ^t^  bet 

fore  he  was  twenty,  having  married  without.the  con$e|9t  pjt 

j^is  parents,  they  wholly  abandoned  him.     After  wandering 

for  some  time  in  search  of  an  asylum,  be  twas  Veceiv^d  in^li 

coi^yent  at  Assjssi,  by  a  monk  to  wbo^ifi  be,wfia:rela^^j^ 

^   * «  Timb6Mbi.<»RMoe's  ptefac*.  <  £loy/I)l^«  Hist,  dt  iMUdecinW 


TART  IN  I.  X2S 

Here  be  amused  himself  by  prae^sing  the  violioy  till  betog 
inccideiitaUy  discovered  by  a  Paduan  acquaintance,  family 
differences  were  accooimodated,  and  be  settled  with  his 
#ife  at  Ventee.  While  he  femaihed  there,  he  heard,  in 
1iy'i4f  the  celebrated  Veractni^  whdse  performance,  exceI-» 
iifig  every  thing  he  had  then  heard,  excited  in  his  mind  a 
wonderful  emulation.  He  retired  the  very  next  day  to  An- 
iHina,  to  study  the  use  of  tb^  bow  with  more  tranquillity, 
Mdahain,  if  possible,  those  poi/i^fers  of  energy  and  expres- 
sion wfajch  he  had  so  greatly  admired.  By  diligent  study 
'and  practicb,^be  apquited  such  skill  aod  reputktion,  that  in 
i7il^,*he  was  itivitedto  the  place  of  first  violin,  and  n>aster 
t>f  the  bs^nfl,  in  the  fettiOus  church  of  St.  Antony  of  Faduk* 
He  Incd^  41sb  freqqen^  invitations,  \yhich  he  declined,  to-  vi« 
lit  PaKkWd  London.^  By  ^12%  he  had  made,  many  excel- 
lent scholars,  and  formed  a  scb'ooY,  of  method  oif  pjcactiee, 
that^  wtis  tfehftBrated*aU  ovef^Europe^  and  increased  iii  fame 
lb  the  ^nd  of  his  life.  Ih  1T44,  be  is  s&id  to  l^ave  changed 
Mis  $iyiej^froai  extremeKf' difficult  execution,  to  graceful 
^i  ^j^ressive;  istntl'Fai^dalino  Bini^  on'e  of  his  best  scho- 
ktl,  Wvln^  h^ird  M  the  change,  placed'  himself  afresh 


\ 
I 


'       / 


regret 

td^d  near  ftfty  years';  antl  wberehe'wasnbt\'oiTly. regarded 
i^4t^'chief  and  most  attractive  ornkD^nt,1^ut  as  ti  philosp^* 
|Aer,  and  even  a  saints  having  devoted  .'himseljf  to  the  ser- 
vifce*of  bis  jiatroti  St.  Antony  orPdclua,  ' 

^'Tfatf  first  book  of  solos  by  TaVtini,  wa^  published  at  Am* 
tfterdam,  in  1734,  the  second  at  Rome;  in  1745';  and  Dr. 

2urney  relates  tljat  he  possesses  the  third,  slxth,^j&v^eath, 
h[9  Ainth  of^^^ublicalious,  besides  two  books  printed  in 
Srtgland,  ambtinting  toupwards  of  fifty  solos;  exclusive  pi 
id&tiusdripts.  fiis  <ioncertos  amount  to  t\yo  butidr^^d'^  but 
afstiH'eptitious  copy  of  two  sets  having  appeared  iu  Ho|p 
*^'  d'y  he  would  never  own  tbem.  OPthese,  which  are  yet 
iposed  to'bd  certa^61y  genuine,  six  were  composed  i^ 
UiS'fifs^  matin^r,  and  sixaft^r^  1744,  when  be  had  improve^ 
h^tr  9tyti^.  B\it  his  mojbt  celebrated  work  is  his  *f  Trattato 
lU  Mli^ca,**  or  treatUie  on  music,  iii  ^hich,  though  His  sys- 
«ifiH,-'ai^'to  the  scientific  part,  has  since  been  confuted,  he 
kp^e^t^^B  bhe  ,6f  the  most  ingenious  theorists  of  this  ceri- 
tW^  '^If  Wks  pVjblished  in  1754,  in  4to.  "Republished,  in 
^^^T^oaiaPJiB^^M^*?^^  ^^^  prineipi  dell'  Armonia  Musicale; 


12«  T  A  R  T  I  N  L 

•ontanata  nel  Biatonieo  genere/'  aiuHber  theoretical  workL 
Tartini  was  so  ambitious  of  being  thougbt  a  follower  of 
Coretli's  precepts  and  principles,  that,  after  bis  own  repu* 
tation  was  in  its  zenitb,  be  refiised  to  teach  any  other  mil* 
sic  to  bis  disciples,  till  the^  bad  studied  the  opera  quinia^  6i 
solos  of  Corelli.  His  masical  character  is  thus  drawn  by 
the  very  able  judge  to  whose  account  we  have  already  re** 
'ferred :  f*  Tartini,  on  a  recent  examination  of  his  works^ 
seems,  to  my  feelings  and  conceptions,  io  have  had  a  larger 
portion  of  merit,  as  a  mere  instrumentil  composer,  than 
any  other  author  who  flourished  during  the  first  fifty  or 
sixty  years  of  the  present  century.  Though  be  made  Co^ 
relii  his  model  in  the  purity  of  bis  harmony,  and  simplicity 
of  bis  modulation,  be  greatly  surpassed  that  composer  in 
the  fertility  and  originality  of  bis  invention ;  not  only  in 
the  subjects  of  his  melodies,  but  in  the  truly  cantabUe  man^ 
ner  of  treating  them.  Many  of  his  adagios  want  nothing 
but  words  to  be  excellent,  pathetic,  opera  songs.  His  aU 
legros  are  sometimes  difiicult ;  but  the  passages  fairly  be**' 
long  to  the  instrument  for  which  they  were  composed,  and 
were  suggested  by  bis  consummate  knowledge  of  the  finger* 
board,  and  powers  of  the  bow.  He  certainly  repeats  bis  pas** 
sages,  and  adheres  to  bis  original  motive^  or  thetne,  toe 
much  for  the  favourite  desultory  style  of  the  present  times; 
but  it  must  be  aHowed  that,  by  his  delicate  selection  and 
arrangement  of  notes,  bis  passages  are  always  good  ;  play 
them  quick,  or  play  them  slow,  they  never  seem  unmeaning 
or  fortuitous.  Indeed,  as  a  harmonist,  be  was,  perhaps, 
more  truly  scientific  than  any  other  composer  of  his  time, 
in  the  clearness,  character,  and  precision  of  bis  bases;  whicli 
were  never  casual,  or  the  effect  of  habit,  or  auricular  pre- 
judice and  expectation,  but  learned,  judicious,  and  cer- 
tain."* 

TARRANTIUS  (Lucius),  surnamed  Firmanus,  beclkuse 
be  was  a  native  of  Firmum,  a  town  in  Italy,  flourished  at 
the  same  time  with  Cicero,  and  was  one  of  bis  .friends. 
He  was  a  mathematical  philosopher,  and  therefore  -wan 
thought  to  have  great  skill  in  judicial  astrology.  He  was 
particularly  famous  by  two  horoscopes  which  he  drew,  the 
one  the  horoscope  of  Romulus,  and  the  other  of  Rome. 
Plutarch  says,  '<  Varro,  who  was  the  most  learned  of  the 
Romans  in  history,  had  a  particular  friend  named  Tarran- 

^  Burney'fHistrOfMosio. 


T  A  R  R  A  N  T  I  U  S.  127 

tfire,  wbo^  out  curiosity,  applied  himself  to  draw  fabtoscopesy 
by  means  of  a'stroaomical  tables,  and  was  esteemed  the 
most  eminent^  in  his  time.*'  Historians  controvert  some 
|Mirticular  circumstances  of  bis  calculations  ;  but  all  agree 
in  conferring'on  himthe  bonorarytitle  Prince  of  astrologers.*^ 

TARTAGLIA,  or  TART  A  LEA  (Nicholas),  a  noted 
mathematician,  was  born  at  Brescia  in  Italy,  probably  to- 
vfrards  the  conclusion  of  the  fifteenth  century,  as  we  find 
ht  was  a  considerable  Ulster  or  preceptor  in  matbematics 
iff  1521,  when  the  first  of  his  collection  of  questions  and 
answers  was  written,  which  he  afterwards  publislied  in 
1546,  under  the  title  of  **  Quesiti  et  Inventioni  diverse,"  at 
Venice,  where  he  then  resided  as  a  public  lecturer  on  ma* 
theniatics,  he  having  removed  to  this  place  about  15S4* 
This  work  consists  of  nine  chapters,  containing  answers  to 
ft  number  of  questions  oi^  all  the  different  branches  of  ma« 
thematics  and  philosophy  then  in  vogue.  The  last  or  ninth 
#f  these,  contains  the  questions  in  algebra,  among  whicK 
taee  chose  celebrated  letters  and  communications  between, 
Tartalea  and  Cardan,  by  which  our  author  put  the  latter  in 
possession  'of  the  rules  Sor  cubic  equations,  which  he  first 
diacoTered  in  1530. 

The  fiv^t  work  of  Tartatea^s  that  was  published,  was  his 
**  Nova  Seientia  itiventa,''  Venice,  1537,  in  4to.  This  is  a 
treatise  on  the  theory  and  prai^tise  of  gunnery,  and  the 
first  of  the  kind,  he  being  the  first  writer  on  the  flight  and 
path  of  balls  and  shells.  This  work-  was  translated  into 
£nglish  by  Lucar,  and  printed  at  London  in  \6S^,  folio, 
with  many  notes  and  additions  by  the  translator.  «  Tartale& 
f^ublished  at,  Venice,  1 543,  in  folio,  the  whole  books  of 
Euclid,  accompanied  with  many  curious  notes  and  com- 
mentaries. But  the  last  and  chief  work  of  Tartalea  was  hit 
^Trattatodi  NumerietMisure,"  1556, and  1560,fol.  This  is 
an  universal  treatise  on  arithmetic,  algebra,  gecHuetry,  men- 
SQration,  &c.  It  contains  many  other  curious  particulars 
af  the  disputes  between  our  author  and  Cardan^  which 
ended  only  with  the  death  of  Tartalea,  before  the  last  pare 
ef  this  work  was  published,  or  about  1 558.' 
^  TASSIE  (James),  a  very  ingenious  artist,  in  the  mqdeU 
Kng  department,  was  born  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Glas- 
gow, of  obscure  parents,  and  began  life  as  a  country  stone* 

« 

•  *  Geo.  Dict-*-HuttQD*s  Dictionary. 
I  Bullart's  Academie  d«t  Scieoces.— Gen,  0iet»— Huttoo'S'  DictioDary* 


•I 


128  .  T  A  S  S  I  E. 

BiMon^  without  the  etpectttion  of  ever  ri«ng  h^(iier:    Ga« 

ing  to  Glasgow  on  a  fair-day,  to  enjoy  himself  with  bltf 
companions,  at  the  time  when  the  Fouiis^s  were  attempting 
to  establish  an  academy  for  the  fine  arts  in  that  city,  \m 
saw  their  collection  of  paintings,  and  felt  an  irresistible  im- 
pulse to  became  a  painter.  He  accordingly  removed  to 
Glasgow  y  and  in  the  academy  acquired  a  Knowledge  of 
drawmg,  which  unfolded  and  improved  hit  natural  taster 
He  was  frugal,  industrious,  and  persevering;  but  he  was 
poor,  and  was  under  the  necessity  of  devoting  himself  to 
atone-cutting  for  his  support ;  not  without  the  hopes  that 
he  might  one  day  be  a  statuary  if  be  could  not;  be  a  painter. 
Resortii^  to  Dublin  for  employment,  he  became  known  to 
Dr.  Quin,  who  was  amusing  himself  in  his  leisure  hours 
witb  endeavouring  to  imitate  the  precious  stones  in  coloured 
pastes, .  and  take  accurate  impressions  of  the  engnMrin|^ 
that  were  on  them. 

That  art  was  known  to  the  ancients,  and. many  specimens 
from  them  are  now  in  the  cabinets  of  the  curious.  It  seemi^ 
to  have  been  lost  in  the  middle  ages ;  was  revived  iu  Ttalj 
under  LeoX.  and  the  Medici  family  at  Florence ;  and  be« 
cam^  more  perfect  in  France  under  the  reg(^ocy  of  the^ 
duke  of  Oileaiis,  by  his  labours  and  those  of  BoQsb^rg. 
By  those  whom  they  instructed  as  assistants  in  the  labora- 
tory it  continued  to  be  practised  in  Paris,  and  was  carried 
to  Rome.  Their  art  was  kept  a  secret,  and  tlieir  collec- 
tions were  small.  It  is  owing  to  Quin  and  to  Tassie  that  it 
has  been  carried  to  such  high  perfection  in  Britaip,  au4 
has  attracted  the  attention  of  Europe.^  .     a 

Dr.  Quin,  in  looking  out  for  an  assistant,  soon  discpvered 
Tassie  to  be  one  in  whom  he  could  place  perfect  confi- 
dence. He  was  endowed  witb  fine  taste.;  he  was  modest 
iand  unassuming ;  be  was  patient;  and  possessed  the  highest 
integrity.  The  doctor  committed  his  laboralorv  and  ex^ 
periments  to  his  care.  The  associates  were  fully  succfi^s-. 
fill  V  and  found  tliemselves  able  to  imitate  all  the  gems^  and^ 
take  accurate  impressions  of  the  engravings.  As  the  doc-^ 
tor  had  followed  the  sublect  only  for  ^is  amusement,  wheo^ 
the  discovery  was  completed,  be  encouraged  Mr.  Tassie  t« 
repair  to  London,  and  to  devote  himself  to  the  preparatioQi 
and  sale  of  those  pastes  as  bis  profession.  Accordingly,  m, 
1766,  he  arrived  in  the  nietropolis ;  but  he  was  diffideot 
and  modest  to  excess ;  very  unfit  to  introduce  himself  to 
the  attentiou  of  persons  of  raok  and  of  afioencsie ;  besides. 


T  A  S  8  I  E.  129 

the  number  cff  engraved  gems  in  Britain  was  small ;  and 
those  few  were  little  iioticed.  He  long  struggled  under 
llifficulties  which  would  have  discouraged  any  one  who  was 
not  possessed  of  the  greatest  patience^  and  the  wartiiest  at- 
tachment to  the  subject.  .  But  he  gradually  emerged  from 
obscurity,  obtained  competence,  and  what  to  him  was  more^ 
he  was  able  to  increase  his  collection,  and  $icid  higher  de- 
grees of  perfection  to  his  art.  Jiis  name  soon  became  r©»' 
*spected,  and  the  first  cabinets  in  Europe  were  open  for 
bis  use ;  and  he  uniformly  preserved  the  greatest  attention 
to  the  exactness  of  the  imitation  and  accuracy  of  the  en- 
graving, so  that  many  of  his  pastes  were  sold  on  the  con- 
tinent by  the  fraudulent  for  real  gems.  His  taste  led  him 
to  be  peculiarly  careful  of  the  impression  ;  and  he  uni- 
foronly  destroyed  those  with  which  he  was  in  the  least  disr 
sQttisfied.  'The  art  has  been  since  practised  by  others  ;  and 
many  thousauds  of  pastes  have  been  sold  as  7'assie^s,  which 
he  would  have  considered  as  injurious  to  his  fame.  Of  the 
fame  of  others  be  was  not  envious;  for  he  uniformly  spoke 
with,  frankness  in  praise,  of  those  w|3o  executed  them  well, 
ibough  they  were  endeavouring  to  rival  hUnself. 

To  tixe  ancient  engravings  be  added  a  numerous  collec* 
tfon  of  the  most  eminent  modern  ones ;  many  of  which  ap* 
proach  in  excellence  of  workmanship,  if  not  in  simplicity 
of  design  and  chastity  of  expression,  to  the  most  celebrated 
of  the  ancients.  Many  years  before  he  died  he  had  a 
Commission  from  the  empress  Catherine  of  Russia,  for  above 
15,000  different  engravinp;s,  which  being  executed  in  the 
k;est  and  most  durable  manner,  were  arranged  in  aJegant 
Cabinets,  and  w^re  placed  in  the  apartments  of  the  palace 
of  Czarsk  Zeb.  In  executing  this  commission,  Mr.  Tassie 
availed  himself  of  all  the  advantages  which  the  improved 
state  of  chemistry,  the  various  ornamental  arts,  and  the 
knowledge  of  the  age,  seemed  to  afford.  The  impressions 
were  taken  in  a  beautiful  white  enamel  composition,  whi9h' 
h  not  subject  to  shrink,  or  form  air-bladders  ;  which  emits 
fire  when  struck  with  steel,  and  takes  a  fine  polish^;  and 
which  sljews  evefy  stroke  and  touch  of  the  artist  in  highe]: 
fiferfection  than  any  other  substance.  When  the  colours^ 
mixed  colours,  and  nature  of  the  respective  originals,  coi)Id 
bli  ascjertained,  they  were  imitated  as  compfetely  as  art  can 
iitiits^te  them :  insomuch  that  many  of  the  paste  intaglios 
and  came6s  in  this  collection  are  such  faithful  imitations,., 
that  ahlstfc^emsl^fv^^  haVe  owned' they"  could  hardly  be 

Vol.  XXIX.  K 


•»  'S 


130  T  A  S  S  I  E. 

distinguished  froiki  the  originals.  And  when  the  colottr 
and  nature  pf  the  gems  could  not  be  authenticated^  th« 
pastes  were  executed  in  agreeable,  and  chiefly  transparent 
cqlours :  constant  attention  being  bestowed  to  preserve 
the  outlinesy  extremities,  attributes,  and  inscriptions.  It 
Yft^as  the  learned  Mr.  Raspe  (from  whom  this  account  is 
taken),  who  arranged  this  great  collection,  and  made  out 
the  descriptive  catalogue,  (See  ^^A  Descriptive  Catalogue/^ 
&c.  2  vols.  4to,  1791.) 

Mr.  T^ssie  died  in  1799,  at  which  time  his  collection  of 
engravings  amounted  to  20,000.  For  a  number  of  years 
he  pn^ctised  tl:^  modelling  of  portraits  in  wax,  which  he 
afterwards  moulded  and  cast  in  paste.  In  taking  likenesses 
he  was,  in  general,  uncommonly  happy :  and  it  is  remark- 
able, that  he  believed  there  was  a  certain  kind  of  inspira- 
tion (like  that  mentioned  by  the  poets)  necessary  to  give 
bim  full  success.  The  writer  of  his  life  in  the  Encyclopan'* 
dia  Britannica,  in  conversing  with  him  on  the  subject, 
always  found  him  fully  persuaded  of  it.  He  mentioned 
many  instances  in  which  he  had  been  directed  by  it :  and 
even  some,  in  which,  after  he  bad  laboured  in  vain  to 
realize  his  ideas  on  the  wax,  be  had  been  able,  by  a  sud- 
den flash  of  imagination,  to  please  himself  in  the  likeness 
several  day^  after  he  had  seen  the  original.  He  possessed 
also  an  uncommon  fine  taste  in  architecture,  and  would 
have  been  eminent  in  that  branch  if  he  bad  followed  it.  In 
private  life  Mn  Tassie  was  universally  esteemed  for  his  uni- 
form piety,  and  for  the  simplicity,  the  modesty,  and  bene- 
iK>lence,  that  shone  in  the  whole  of  his  character. ' 

TASSO  (ToRQUATO),  a  most  celebrated  Italian  poet, 
was  descended  from  the  illustrious  bouse  of  the  Tassi  of 
Almenno,  abo^it  five  miles  from  Bergamo,  a  family  which 
bad  supported  itself  by  alliances  till  the  time  of  Bernardo 
Tasso,  whose  mother  was  of  the  bouse  of  Cornaro.  Th6 
estate  of  Bernardo,  the  father  of  our  poet,  was  ik)  wise 
equal  to  his  birth  ;  but  this  deficiency,  in  point  of  fortune, 
was  in  some  measure  compensated  by  the  gifts  of  under- 
tianding.  His  .\yorks  in  verse  and  prose  are  recorded  as 
iQonuments  of  his  genius ;  and  his  fidelity  to  Ferrante  of 
Saiiseverino,  prince  of  Salerno,  to  whom  he  was  entirely 
devoted,  entitled  lum  to  the  esteem  of  every  osian  of  ho- 
iHHir.     This  prince  had  made  him  his  secretary,  a»nd  taken 

1  Dr.  ei«if '« .Sup|>le«Kut  to  the  JgncycUp,  BritMnien. 


T  A  S  S  a  131 

• 

faim  with  him  to  Naples,  where  he  settled,  i^d  married 
Portia  di  Ro$si,  of  one  of  the  moi(t  illustrious  families  in 
that  city. 

Portia  was  six  months  gone  vtqth  child,  when  she  was  in* 
yited  by  her  sister  Hippoiita  to  Sorrento,  ta  pay  her  a 
visit.  Bernardo  accoaipanied  her  thither  :  and  in  tbia 
place  Portia  was  delivered  of  a  son,  on  the  1 1th  day  of 
March,  1 544,  at  noon.  The  infant  was  baptised  a  few 
days  after,  in  the  metropolitan  church  of  Sorrento,  by  the 
name  of  Torquato.  Bernardo  and  Portia  returned  soon 
after  to  Naples  with  him,  concerning  whom  historisms  re« 
late  incredible  things  of  his  early  and  promising  genius. 
They  tell  us,  that*  at  si'x  months  old,  he  not  only  spoke 
and  pronounced  his  words  clearly  and  distinctly,  but 
thought,  reasoned,  expressed  bis  wants,  and  answered 
questions ;  that  there  was  nbthing  childish  in  his  words, 
but  the  tone  of  his  voice ;  that  be  seldom  laughed  or  pried ; 
and  that,  even  then,  he  gave  certain  tokens  of  that  equality 
of  temper  which  supported  him  so  welt  in  his  future  mis* 
fortunes. 

Toward  the  end  of  his  third  year,  Bernardo  bis  father 
was  obliged  to  follow  the  prince  of  Salerno  into  Germany, 
which  journey  proved  the  source  of  all  the  sufferings  of 
Tasso  and  his  family.  The  occasion  was  this :  Don  Pedro 
of  Toledo,  viceroy  of  Naples  for  the  emperor  Charles  V, 
bad  formed  a  design  to  establish  the  inquisition  in  that' 
city.  The  Neapolitans,  alarmed  at  this,  resolved  to  seodi 
a  deputation  to  the  emperor,  and  made  choice  of  the  prince 
of  Salerno,  who  seemed  most  able,  by  his  auihority  and 
riches,  to  oppose  the  viceroy.  The  prince  havit)g  con- 
sented, Bernardo  Tasso  accompanied  him  into  Germany  ; 
but,  before  his  departure,  committed  the  Qwe  of  his  son 
to  a  man  of  learning ;  under  whom,  at  three  years  of  age, 
they  tell  us,  he  began  to  study  grammar;  and,  at  four, 
was  sent  to  the  college  of  the  Jesuits,  where  he  made  so 
rapid  a  progress,  that  at  seven  he  was  pretty  well  acquainted 
with  the  Latin  and  Greek  tongues;  at  the  same  age  he 
made  public  orations,  and  composed  some  piex^es  of  poe- 
try, of  which  the  style  is  said  to  have  retained  nothing  of 
puerility. 

The  success  the  prince  of  Salerno  met  with  in  his  em- 
bassy greatly  increased  his  credit  amongst  the  Neapolitans, 
but  entirely  ruined  him  with  the  viceroy,  who  so  much 
exasperated  the  emperor  against  the  prince  of  Salerno^ 

K  2  .  » 


1S3  T  A  S  S  O. 

that  Ferrante,  finding  there  was  no  longer  any  security  fot 
bim  at  Naples,  and  having  in  vain  applied  to  gain  an  ai|' 
dieuce  of  the  emperpr,  retired  to  Rome,  and  renounced 
his  allegiance  to  Charles  V.  Bernardo  Tasso  would  not 
abandon  his  patron  in  his  ill  fortune ;  neither  would  he 
leaye  his  son  in  a  country  where  he  himself  was  soon  to  be 
declared  an  enemy  ;  and  foreseeing  he  should  never  be 
able  to  return  thither,  be  took  Torquato  ^  with  him  to 
Rome. 

As  soon  as  the  departure  of  the  prince  of  Salerno  was 
known,  he,  and  all  his  adherents,  were  declared  rebels*  to 
the  state ;  and  Torquato  Tasso,  though  but  nine  years  of 
age,  was  included  by  name  in  that  sentence.  Bernardo, 
following  the  prince  of  Salerno  into  France,  committed 
his  son  to  the  care  of  his  friend  and  relation  Maurice  Ca- 
taoeo,  a  person  of  great  ability,  who  assiduously  cultivated 
the  early  disposition  of  his  pupil  to  polite  literature.  After 
the  death  of  Sanseverino,  wh^ch  happened  in  three  or  four 
years,  Bernardo  returned  to  Italy,  and  engaged  in  the  ser* 
vice  of  Guglielmo  Gonzaga,  duke  of  Mantua,  who  bad 
given  hiii9  a  pressing  invitation.  It  was  not  long  before 
be  received  the  melancholy  news  of  the  decease  of  hjs' 
wife  Portia,  which  determined  him  to  send  for  his  son, 
that  they  might  be  a  mutual  support  to  each  other  in  their 
affliction.  He  was  now  his  only  child,  for  his  wife,  befdt;'e 
her  death,  had  married  his  daughter  to  Martio  Sersale^  a 
gentleman  of  Sorrento.  He  was  greatly  surprised,  on  his 
son's  arrival,  ta  see  the  vast  progress  he  had  made  in  hi» 
studies.  Although  but  twelve  years  of  age,  he  bad,  ac- 
cording to  the  testimony  of  the  writers  of  his  life,  entirely 
completed  his  knowledge  in  the  Latin  and  Greek  tongues  : 
h«  was  well  acquainted  with  therules  of  rhetoric  and  poe(;ry, 
aed  completely  versed  in  Aristotle^s  ethics.  Bernardo  soon 
determined  to  send  him  to  .the  university  of  Padua,  \o 
study  the  Jaws,  in  company  with  the  young  Scipio  Gon- 
zaga, afterwards  cardinal,  nearly  of  the  same  age  as  him-> 
self.  With  this  nobleman  Tasso^  then  seventeen  years  of 
age,  contracted  a  friendship  that  oever  ended. but  with  his 
life.  He  prosecuted  his  studies  at  Padj^a  wit^greax  dili- 
gence and  success:  at  the  same  time  employing  his  leistire 
hours  upon  philosophy  and  poetry,  be  soon  gave  a  public 
proof  of  his  talents,  by  his  poem  of  "  Ripaldo,"  Which  he 
published  in  the  eighteenth  year  of  his  age..  T^ls  i>oem, 
which  is  of  the  romance  kind,  is  divided  into  twelve  books 


y  A  s  s  o.  ii^ 

in  ottava  rima,  a<ld  contains  the  adventures  of  Rinakilf^ 
the  famous  Paladin  of  the  court  of  Gharlemain,  who  mak^i 
so  principal  a  figure  in  Ariosto^s  work,  and  the  Brst  achie?e<- 
xnents  of  that  Knight  for  the  love  of  the  fair  Clarice,  whom 
he  afterwards  marries.  The  action  of  this  poem  precedes 
that  of  the  **  Orlanda  Furioso:"  It  wiis  composed  in  ten 
months,  as  the  author  himself  infdrnis  us  in*  the  preface, 
and  was  first  printed  at  Venice  in  1562.  Paolo  Be^ii  speaks 
very  highly  of  this  performance,  which  undoubtedly  is  not 
unwdrthy  the  early  efforts  of  that  genius  which  afterwards 
.produced  the  "  Jerusalem." 

-Tasso^s  father  saw  with,  regret  the  success  of  his  son's 
,poem  :  he  was  apprehensive,  and  not  without  reason,  tbut 
the  charms  of  poetry  would  detach  him  from  those  more 
,soiid  studies  which  he  judged  were  most  likely  to  raise  him 
in  the  world :  and  he  knew  well,  by  his  own  experience, 
that  the  greatest  skill  in  poetry  will  not  advance  a  man^s 
private  fortune.  He  was  not  deceived  in  his  conjecture  ; 
Torquato,  insensibly  carried  away  by  his  predominant  pas- 
sion, followed  the  examples  of  Petrarch,  Boccace,  Ariosto, 
and  others,  who,  contrary  to  the  remonstrances  of  their 
friends,  quitted  the  severer  studies  of  the  law  for  the  more 
pleasing  entertainment  of  poetical  composition.  In  short, 
h^  entirely  gave  himsif  up  to  the  study  of  poetry  and  phi- 
losophy. His  firkt  poem  extended  his  reputation  through 
all  Italy  ;  but  his  father  was  so  displeased  with  his  conduct 
that  he  went  to  Padua  on  purpose  to  reprimand  him.  Though 
he  spoke  with  great  vehemence,  and  mad^  use  of  several 
harsh  expressions,  Torquato  heard  him  without  interrupting 
him.,  and  his  composure  contributed  not  a.  little  to  increase 
his  father's  displeasure.  "  Tell  me,*'  said  Bernardo,  "  of 
what  use  is  that  vain  philosophy,  upon  which  you  pride 
yourself  so  much  ?"  "  It  has  enabled  me,"  said  Tasso 
modestly,  "to  endure  the  harshness  of  your  reproofs.'*' 

The  resolution  Tasso  had  tike n  to  devote  himself  to  the 
Muses  was  known  all  over  Italy ;  the  principal  ^persons  of 
the, city  and  college  of  jpologna  invited  him  thither  by 
meai)s  of  Pietro  Doiiato  Cesi,  then  vice-legate,  and  after- 
wards legate.  ^  But  Tasso  had  not  long  resided  there,  when 
he  was  pressed  4>y  Sci'pio  GoUzaga,  elected  prince  of  the 
academy  established  at  Padua,  under  the  name  of  Etherei, 
to  return  to!  that  city.  He  could  not  wirtfastand  this  sohbita- 
tion  ;  and  Bolosgina  being  at  that  time  the  sgeue  of  civil 
compnotion,  he  was  the  more  willing  to  seek  elsewhere  for 


1S4  T  A  8  S  a 

tbe  repose  be  loved.  He  was  received-  with  extreme  joy 
by  all  the  abAdeaiy,  and  being  incorporated  into  that  so- 
ciety, at  the  age  of  twenty  years,  took  tipon  himself  the 
name  of  Pentito  ;  by  which  he  seemed  to  show  that  he  re- 
pented of  ait  the  time  which  he  had  employed  in  the  study 
of  the  law.  In  this  retreat  he  applied  himself  afresh  to 
philosophy  and  poetry,  and  soon  became  a  perfect  master 
of  both  :  it  was  this  happy  mixture  of  his  studies  that  made 
him  an  enemy  to  all  kinds  of  licentiousness.  An  oration 
was  made  one  day  in  ihe  academy  upon  the  natare  of  love; 
the  orator  treated  his  subject  in  a  very  masterly  manner, 
but  with  too  little  regard  to  decency  in  the  opinion  of 
Tasso,  who,  being  asked  what  he  thought  of  the  discourse, 
replied,  ^'  that  it  was  a  pleasing  poison.'* 

Here  I'usso  foniied  the  design  of  his  celebrated  poem. 
*' Jerusalem  Delivered  f'  be  invented  the  fable,  disposed 
the  different  parts,  and  determined  to  dedicate  this  work 
to  the  glory  of  the  house  of  Este.   He  was  greatly  esteemed 
by  Alphonso  II.  the  last  duke  of  Ferrara,  that  great  patron 
of  learning  and  learned  men,  and  by  his  brother,  cardinal 
Luigi.     There  was  a  sort<of  contest  between  these  two  bro-- 
tfaers,  in  relation  to  the  poem  :  the  cardinal  imagined  that 
be  had  a  right  to  be  the  MsBcenas  of  all  Tasso's  works,  as 
<^ Rin^ildo,"  his  iirst  fMece^  had  been  dedicated  to  him: 
•the  duke,  on  the  other  band,  tbooght  that,  as  his  brother 
had  already  received  his  sliere  of  honour,  he  ought  not  to 
be  otfended  at  seeing  the  name. of  Alpbonso  at  the  head  of 
the  **  Jerusalem  Delivered.*'   '  Tasso  for  three  or  four  years 
.suspended  his  determination :  ut  length,  being  earnestly 
pressed  by  both  the  brothers  to  take  up  iiis  residence  in 
Ferrara,  he  suffered  himself  to  be  prevailed  upon.     The 
duke  gave  him  an  apartment  in  his  palace,  where  he  lived 
'141  peace  and  affloencei  end  pursued  his  design  of  i39m- 
pleting  his  ^^  Jerusalem,"  wktcb  he  now  resolved  to  dedi- 
cate to  AlphoDSO.     The  duke,  who  was  destroos  of  fixing 
TasBo  near  binl^  had  thonglils  of  marrying  hist  advanta- 
geously^ bttt  he  always  evaded,  aiiy  proposal  of  that  kifid  : 
though  he  appeared  peculiarly  devoted  to  Alphonso,  yet 
he  neglected  wot  to  pay  his  co«rt  to  the  oirdinal.' 
•    The  name   of  Tasso  now  became  faiaiobs;  tht^oa^h   all 
Europe :  and  the  caressea  he  iteceived  from  Charles  IX.  in 
a  journey  he  made  to  France  with  tardinal  Lufigi,  who  went 
thither  in  quality  of  legate,  show  that  his  reputation  was 
not  cettfined  to.  his  ovai  country.  '.The  cardinal's  legation 


T  A  8  S  O.  136 

being  finished,  Tasso  returned  to  Ferrara,  where  he  applied 
himself-  to  finish  bis  '^Jerusalem,"  and  in  the  mean  time 
published  his  <'  Aminta/'  a  pastoral  comedy,  which  was 
received  with  universal  applause.  This  performance  was 
looked  upon  as  a  master-piece  in  its  kind,  and  is  the  ori* 
ginat  of  the  "  Pastor  Fido'*  and  "  Filli  di  Sciro.''  It  was 
not  easy  to  imagine  that  Tasso  eould  so  well  paint  the 
effects  of  love,  without  having  himself  felt  that  passion  : 
it  began  to  be  suspected  that,  like  another  Ovid,  he  had 
raised  his  desires  too  high,  and  it  was  thought  that  in  many 
of  his  verses  he  gave  bints  of  that  kind.  There  were  at 
ike  duke's  court  three  Leonoras,  equally  witty  and  beau- 
tiful, though  of  different  quality.  The  first  was  Leonora 
of  Este,  sister  to  the  duke,  who  having  refused  the  most 
advantageous  matches,  lived  unmarried  with  Lauretta, 
duchess  of  Urbino,  her  elder  sister,  who  was  separated 
from  her  husband,  and  resided  at  her  brother's  court. 
Tasso  had  a  great  attachment  to-this  lady,  who,  on  her  side, 
honoured  him  with  her  esteem  and  protection.  She  wasi 
wise,  generous,  and  not  only  well  read  in  elegant  litera- 
ture, but  even  versed  in  the  more  abstruse  sciences  All 
these  perfections  were  undoubtedly  observed  by  Tasso, 
who  was  one  of  the  most  assiduous  of  her  courtiers  *  and  it 
appearing  by  his  verses  that  he  was  touched  with  the  charms 
of  a  Leonora,  they  tell  us  that  we  need  not  seek  any  fur-> 
ther  for  the  object  of  his  passion. 

The  second  Leonora  that  vmM  given  him  for  a  mistress 
was  the  Gfountess  of  San  Vitale,  daughter  of  the  count  of 
Sala,  who  lived  at  that  time  at  the  court  of  Ferrara^  and 
passed  for  one  of  the  most  accomplished  persons  in  Italy. 
Those  who  imagiued  that  Tasso  would  not  presume  to  lift 
his  eyes  to  his  master^s  sister,  supposed  ttmt  he  loved  this 
kdy.  It  is  certain  ihat  he  had  fre(}aent  opportunities  of 
discoursing  with  her,  and  that  she  had  frequently  been  the 
subject  of  his  verses.  The  third  Leonora  was  a  lady  in  the 
service  of  the  princess  Leonora  of  Est^a '  This  person  was 
thought  by  some  to  be  the  most  proper  object  of  the  poet^s 
gallaptry.  Tasso,  several  times,  employed  his  muse  in 
her  service ;  in  one  of  his  pieces  he  confe»ises  that,  con- 
sidering the  princess  as  too  high  for  his  hope,  be  had  fixed 
bis  affection  upon  her,  as  of  a  condition  more  suitable  to 
bis  own.     But  if  any  thing  can  be  justly  drawn  from  this 

E articular,  it  seems  rather  to  strengthen  the  opinion,  that 
is  desires,  at  least  ^t  one  time,  had  aspired  to  a  greater 


156  T  A  S  8  O. 

height.  It  appears,  however,  difficult  to  determine  with 
certeinty  in  relation  to  Tasso's  passion ;  especially  wlien 
we  consider  the  privilege  allowed  to  poets :  though  M. 
Mirabaud  makes  no  scruple  to  mention  it  as  a  circdimstaoc« 
almost  certain,  and  fixes  it  without  hesitation  on  the  prin- 
cess  Leonora.  Tasso,  himself,  in  several  of  his  .  poems, 
seems  to  endeavour  to  throw  an  obscurity  over  his  passion. 
.  In  the  mean  while  Tasso  proceeded  with  his  '*  Je- 
rusalem," which  h^  completed  in  the  thirtieth  year  of  his 
age :  but  this  poem  was  not  published  by  hiii  own  autho- 
rity ;  it  was  printed  against  his  \vill,  as  soon  as  he  had 
finished  the  last  book,  and  before  he  had  time  to  give  the 
revisals  and  corrections  .that  a  work  of  such  a  nature  re- 
quired. The  public  bad  already  seen  several  parts,  <whicb 
bad  been  sent  into  the  world  by  the  authority^  of  his  pa- 
trons. The  success  of  this  work  was  prodigious :  it  'was 
translated  into  the  Latin,  French,  Spanish,  and  even  the 
oriental  languages,  almost  as  soon  as  it  appeared  *,  and  it 
piay  be  said,  that  no  such  performance  ever  before  raided 
its  reputation  to.  $uch  a  height  in  so  small  a  space  of  time. 
But  the  satisfaction  which  Tasso  must  have  felt,  in  spite  of 
'  all  bis  philosophy,  at  the  applause  of  the  public,  was  soon 
disturbed  by  a  melancholy  event.  Bernardo  Tasso,  who 
spent  his  old  age  in  tranquillity  at  Ostia  upon  the  Po,  the 
government  of  which  place  had  been  given  him  by  the  duke 
of  Mantua,  fell  sick.  As  soon  as  this  news  reached  his 
son,  he  imuaediately  vi^ent  to  hitn,  attended  him  with  the 
most  filial  reg-ard,  and  scarce  ever  stirred  from  his  bed- 
side during  the  whole  time  of  his  iUness:  but  all  these 
cares  were  ineffectual ;  Bernardo,  oppressed  with  age,  aild 
overcome  by  the  violence  of  his  distemper,  paid  the  un- 
avoidable tribute  to  nature,  to  the  great  affliction  of  Tor-* 
quato.  The  duke  of  Mantua,  who  bad  a  sincere  esteem 
ibr  Bernardo,  caused  him  to  be  interred,  with  much  pomp, 
-ia  the  church  of  St,  Egidius  at  Mantua,  with  this  simple 
inscription  on  4iis  tomb  : 

^'  dsSA  BfeRNARDI   TaSSI." 

'  This  death  seemed  to  forebode  other  misfortunes  to 
Tasso ;  foV  the  remainder  of  his  life  proved  almost  one  con- 
tinued series  of  vejcation  and  arffliction.  About  this  time  a 
swarm  of  criticsbegan  to  attack  his  "  Jet-usatemj^'arid  the 
'fldaddmy  d^lTk' Crusca,  in  particular,  published  a  criticism 
*oV  his  poem,  in  which  they  scfupled  not  to  prefer  the  rhap- 


T  A  S  S  O.  1ST 

* 

Bodies  of  Palci  and  Boywrdo  to  the  '^  Jerosalem  Delivered*'* 
During  Tush's  residence  in  the^  duke's  coort,  he  had 
contracted  an  intimacy  with  a  gdntlenan  of  Ferrara,  and 
having  entrusted  him  with  some  transactions  of  a^verydeli** 
cate  oatore^  this  person  waa  so  treaeherous  as  ta  speak  of 
them  again.  Tasso  reproached  bis  friend  with  his  indis* 
cretiopi  who  received  his  ejipostuUtion  in  such  a  manner, 
that  TassOrWas  so  far  exasperated  as  to  strike  him :  a  cbaU 
lenge  immediately  ensued  ;  the  two  opponents  met  at  St. 
Leonard's  gate ;  but,  while  they  were  engaged,  three  bro* 
diers  of  T'asso's  antagonist  came  in  and  basety  fell,  all  at 
once  upon  Tasso,  wIk>  defended  himself  so  gallantly  that 
he  wounded  two  of  them,  and  kept  his  ground  against  the 
others,-  till  some  people  came  in  and  ,  separated  them. 
This  affair  made  a  great  noise  at  Ferrara  :  nothing  was 
talked  of  but  the  valour. of  Tasso;  and  it  became  a  sort  of 
proverb)  '^  That  Tasso  with  his  pen  and  his  sword  was  su* 
perior  to  all  men.**  The  duke,  being  informed  of  the 
quarrel,  expressed  great  resentment  against  the  four  bro- 
thers, banished  them  from  bis  domioiofis,  and  coo6scated 
their  estates ;  at  the  same  time  he  caused  Tasso  to'be  put 
under  arrest,  declaring  he  did  it  to  screen  him  from  any 
Mature  designs  of  his  enemies.  Tasso  was  extremity  mor- 
tified to  see  himself  thus  con&ned ;  he  imputed  his  deten- 
tion to  a  v^ry  diifevent  cause  from  what  was  pretended,  and 
feaced  an  ill  use  might  be  made  of  what  bad  passed,  to  ruin 
him  in  the  duke^s  opinion.  i  . 

Though  writers  have  left  us  very  much  in  the  dark  with 
regard  to  the  real  motives  that  induced  the  duke  to  keep 
Tasso  in  confinement,  yet,  every  thing  being  weighed,  it 
seems  highly  probable  that  the  affair  of  a  delicate  nature, 
said  to  have  bi|en  divulged  by  his  friend,  must  have  related 
to  the  princess  Leonorai,  the  duke's  sister  * :  and  indeed  it 
will  be  extremely. difficult,  from  any  other  considei^tioo, 
to  account  fw  the  harsh  treatment  he  reoeived  frem  a 
prince,  who  had  before  shown  him  such  peculiar  pnarks  of 
esteem  and  friendship.  However,  Tasso  himself  had  un* 
doubtedly  secret  apprehensions  that  increased  upon  him 
every  day,  while  the  continual  attacks  which  were  made 

^  ft  must  be  obserTed  that  bis  late  whom  the  reader  may  be  refbrr^d  for 

biographer,  Serassi,  denies  that  there  many  particulars  respecting  the  dis- 

was  ever  any  intrigue  between  Tasso  puiabie  events  of  Tasso's  life,  on  which 

and  the  princess  Leonora. — ^Tbe  ques-  it  would  be  impossible  to  entet  n^  • 

lion  is  ditcufsed  at*  great  length,  and  woik  like. the  present. 
#ith  much  acuteness^  by  Mr.  Black,  to 


118  T  A  8  S  O. 

Upon  bii  tfrcidit  A»  ati  author^  not  a  litUe  c<>Qtributad  tm 
b«igbten  bis  oiolancboly.  At  length  be  resolved  to  take 
the  first  opponunity  U>  fly  from  bis  prison,  for  so  be  es* 
teeesed  it,  which  after  about  a  year's  detention  be  effected, 
and  retired  to  Turin,  where  be  endeavoured  to  remain  con<» 
celled ;  but  notwithstanding  all  his  precautions,  he  was 
soon  known,  and  recofnaiended  to  the  duke  of  Savoy,  who 
received  him  into  his  palace,  and  showed  him  eVery  miirk 
of  esteem  and  affection.  But  Tasso's  apprehensions  still 
continued ;  he  thought  that  tbe  duke  of  Savoy  would  not 
refuse  to  give  him  up  to  the  duke  of  Ferrara^  or  sacrifice 
tbe  friendship  of  that  prince  to  the  safety  of  a  private  per- 
.son.  Full  of  these  imaginations  he  set  out  for  Rome,  alone 
and  unprovided  with  necessaries  for  such  a  journey.  At 
his  arrival  there  he  went  directly  to  his  old  friend  Mauritio 
Cataoeo,  who  received  him*  in  such  a  manner  as  entirely 
to  obliterate  for  some  time  the  remembrance  of  tbe  fatigue 
and  uneasiness  be  had  undergone.  He  was  not  only  weU 
corned  by  Cataoeo,  but  the  whole  city  of  Rome  seemed 
to  rejoice  at  tbe  presence  of  so  extraordinary  a  person. 
He  was  visited  by  princes,  cardinals,  prelates,  and  by  all 
tbe  learned  in  general.  But  tbe  desire  of  revisiting  bis 
native  country,  and  seeing  his  sister  Cornelia,  soon  made 
him  uneasy  in  this  situation.  He  left  his  friend  Mauritio 
Cataneo  one  evening,  without  giving  him  notice ;  and,  be- 
ginning his  journey  on  foot,  arrived  by  night  at  tbe  mottn<* 
tains  of  Veletri,  where  he  took  up  his  lodging  with  sous* 
shepherds :  tbe  next  morning,  diftgruising  himself  in  the^ 
\  habit  of  one  of  these  people,  he  continued  bis  way,  and  m 
four  days  time  reached  Gaieta,  almost  spent  with  jpatigoe : 
here  be  embarked  on  board  a  vessel  bound  for  Sorrento,  at 
MyiiUiU  p4ace  be  arrived  in  safety  tbe  next  day.  H^  entered 
tbe  city  and  went  directly  to  his  sister's  house ;  she  was  a 
widow^  and  tbe  two  soqs  she  had  by  her  husband  being  at 
that  titne  absent,  Tasso  found  her  with  only  some  of  her 
female  attendants.  He  advanced  towards  her,  without  dis« 
covering  himself,  and  pretending  be  came  with  news  from 
her  brother,  gave  her  a  letter  which  he  had  prepared  for 
tJiat  purpose^  This  letter  informed  her  that  ber  brother's 
life  was  in  great  danger,  and  that  he  begged  her  to  make 
use  of  all  tbe  interest  her  tenderness  might  suggest  to  her^ 
in  order  to  procure  letters  of  recommendation  from  some 
pQwerfi^i  person,  to  avert  the  threatened  misfortune.  For 
further  particulars  of  the  affair,  she  was  referred  to  the 


T  A  S  S  O.  rt9 

% 

mesienger  who  brought  her  this  intefiigence.  The  lady^ 
terrified  at  die  nevrs,  earnestly  entreated  him  to  give  her 
a  detail  of  her  brother's  misfortane.  The  feigned  mesw 
senger  then  gave  her  so  interesting  an  account  of  tbe '  pre*- 
tended  story,  tbat^  unable  to  contain  her  affliction,  she 
fainted  away.  Tasso  was  sensibly  touched  at  this  eonvin^ 
cing  proof  of  bis  sister's  affection,  and  repented  that  be  had 
gone  so  far :  he  began  to  oomfort  her,  and^  reitioving  her 
fears  by  little  and  iittle,  at  last  discovered  bioaseif  to  her. 
Her  joy  at  seeing  a  brother  whom  she  tenderly  loved,  was 
inoKpressible  :  s^ter  tbe  first  salutations  were  over,  she  was 
very  desirous  to  know  the  occasion  of  his  disguising  him^ 
self  in  that  manner.  Tasso  acquainted  her  with  his  rea- 
sons, and,  at  the  same  time^  gi^i^g  her  to  understand,  that 
be  would  willingly  remain  with  her  unknown  to  the  world, 
Cornelia^  who  desimd  nothing  further  than  to  acquiesce  in 
bis  pleasure,  sent  for  her  children  and  some  of  her  neareert 
relations,  whom  she  thought  might  be  entrusted  with  the 
secret.  They  agreed  that  Tasso  should  pass  for  a  relation 
of  theirs,  who  came  from  Bergamo  to  Naples  upon  his  pri- 
vate business,  and  from  thence  bad  come  to  Sorrento  to 
pay  them  a  visit.  After  this  precaution,  Tasso  took  up  his 
residence  at  bis  sister's  house,  where  he  lived  for  some 
time  in  tranquillity,  entertainiiig  himself  with  his.  two 
nephews  Antonio  and  Alessandro  Sersale,  children  of  great 
hopes.  Tbfe  princess  Leonora  of  Este,  however,  who  was 
aioquainted  with  tbe  place  of  his  retreat,  invited  bim  tb 
return  to  Ferra^-a,  which  he  did  in  company  with  Gualingo^ 
ambassador  from  the  duke  to  the  pope.  Concerning  the 
motive  of  Tasso's  return  to  Ferrara^  8om6  authors  think 
tbat,  weary  of  living  in  obscurity,  he  had  resolved  to  throw 
himself  upon  the  duke^s  generosity.  This  opinion  seems 
indeed  drawn  ftxMiA  Tasso's  own  words  in  a  letter  written  by 
him  to  the  duke  of  Urbino,  in  which  he  declares,  ^^  that, 
he  had  er^eavoured  to  make  his  pleace  with  the  duke,  and 
had  for  tbat  purpose' written  severally  to  htm,  tbe  ducbess 
of  Fermra,  the  duchess  of  Ui^inoy  and  tbe  princess  Leo^ 
nora ;  ye<  never  received  any  answer  hot-  from  the  last,  who 
assured  him  it  was  not  in  her  power  to  render  htm  any  fier«> 
vice."  We  see  here  that  TasSo  acknowledges  hims^f  the 
receipt  of  a  letter  from  the  princess ;  and  in  regard  to  wbat 
he  says  to  be  the  purport  of  it,  it  is  highly  reasonable  to 
suppose^'  that  be  would  be  very  cautious  of  divulging  the 
real^  con  tents- «o  the  duke  of  Urbino,  when  his  aflairswith 


140 


T  A  S  S  O. 


that  lady  i^ere  so  delicately  circumstanced.  This  apparent 
bare  to  conceal  the  nature  of  his  correspondence  with  her, 
seems  to  corroborate  the  former  suppositions  of  his  un- 
common attachment  to  her ;  and  when  all  circumstances  are 
considered,  it  seems  more  than  probable  that  be  returned 
to  Ferrara  at  the  particular  injunction  of  Leonora. 

The  duke  received  Tasso  with  great  seeming  satisfaction, 
and  gave  him  firesh  marks  of  his  esteem :  but  this  was  not 
all  that  Tasso  expected  ;  his  great  desire  was  to  be  master 
of  his  own  works,  and  he  was  very  earnest  that  his  writings 
might  be  restored  to  him,  which  were  in  the  duke's  pos- 
session ;  but  this  was  what  he  could  by  jio  means  obtain  : 
his  enemies  had  gained  such  an  ascendancy  over  the  mind 
of  Alphonso,  that  they  made  him  believe,  or  pretend  to 
believe,  that  the  poet  had  lost  all  his  6re,  and  that  in  his 
present  situation  he  was  incapable  of  producing  any  thing 
new,  or  of  correcting  his  poems  :  he,  therefore,  exhorte^ 
bim  to  think  only  of  leading  a  quiet  and  easy  life  for  the 
future :  but  Tasso  was  sensibly  vexed  at  this  proceeding, 
and  believed  the  duke  wanted  him  entirely  to  relinquish 
his  studies,  and  pass  the  remainder  of  his  days  in  idleness  - 
and  obscurity.  "He  would  endeavour,"  says  be,  in  hi^ 
letter  to  the  duke  of  Urbino,  "  to  make  me  a  shameful 
deserter  of  Parnassus  for  the  gardens  of  £picurus,  for  sceneis 
of  plea!sures  unknown  to  Virgil,  Catullus,  Horace,  and  even 
Lucretius  himself.'*  Tasso,  therefore,  reiterated  his ,  jen- 
treaties  to  have  his  writings  restored  to  him,  but  the  duke 
Continued  i'nflexible,  and,  to  complete  bur  poet's  vexation, 
all 'access  to  the  princesses  was  denied  him:  fatigued  a;t 
length  with  useless  remonstrances,  he  once  more  quitted 
Ferrara,  and  fled  (as  he  expresses  it  himself)  like  anothe.r 
Bias,  leaving  behind  him  even  his  books  ^hd  manuscripts. 

He  then  went  to  Mantua,  where  he  found  duke  GugU- 
elmo  in  a  decrepid  age,  and  little  disposed  to  protect  hiqi 
against  the  duke  of  Ferrara :  the  prince  Vincentio  Gonzaga 
received  him  indeed  with  great  oaresses,  but  was  too 
young  to  take  him  under  his  protection:  From  thence  he 
went  to  Padua  and  Venice,  but  carrying  with  him  in  every 
part  his  fears  of  the  duke  of  Ferrara,  he  at  last  had  recourse 
to  the  diike  of  Urbino,  who  shewed  him  great  kindness, 
but  perhaps  was  very  little  inclined  to  embroil  hitnself  with 
his  brother-in*law,  on  such  an  accouu^t:  he  advis,ed  Tassp 
rather  to  returfa  to  Ferrara,  which  counsel  he  tooS,  resolv^- 
iah  once  more  to  try  his  fortune  with  the  duke. 


T  A  S  S  O,  141 

Aiphbnso,  it  may  be,  exaspejrated  at  Tasso's  flight,  and! 
pretending  to  believe  that  application  to  study  bad  entirely 
disordered  bis  understanding,  and  that  a  sttict  regimen 
was  necessary  to  restore  him  to  his  former  state^  caused 
him  CO  be  strictly  conflned  in  the  hospital  of  St  Anne. 
Tasso  tried  every  method  to  soften  the  duke  and  obtain 
bis  liberty;  but  the  duke  coldly  answered  those  who  ap- 
plied to  him,  *^  that  instead  of  concerning  themselves  with 
the  complaints  of  a  person  in  his  condition,  who  was  very 
little  capable  of  judging  for  his  own  good,  they  ought 
rather  to  exhort  him  patiently  to  submit  to  such  remedies 
as  were  judged  proper  for  his  circumstances.''  This  con* 
finement  threw  Tasso  into  the  deepest  despair;  he  abau* 
done.d  himself  to  his  misfortunes,  and  the  methods  thai 
were  made  use  of  for  the  cure  of  his  pretended  madnesa 
had  nearly  thrown  him  into  an  absolute  delirium.  His 
imagination  was  so  disturbed  that  he  believed  the  cau^e  of 
his  distemper  was  not  natural ;  he  sometime^  fancied  him- 
self haunted  by  a  spirit,  that  continually  disordered  his 
books  and  papers ;  and  these  strange  notions  were  perhaps 
strengthened  by  the  tricks  that  were  played  him  by  his 
keeper.  This  second  confinement  of  Tasso  was  much 
longer  than  the  first ;  but  after  seven  years  confinement,  his 
release  was  procured  by  Vincentio  Gonzaga,  prince  ol 
Mantua^  who  took  him  wit|i  him  to  Mantua.  It  is  said  th^t 
the  young  prince,  who  was  naturally  gay,  being  desirous  to 
authorize  his  pleasures  by  the  example  of  a  philosopher, 
introduced  one  day  into  Tasso's  company  three  sisters,  to 
sing  and  play  upon  instruments :  these  ladies  were  all  very 
handsome,  but  uot  of  the  most  rigid  virtue.  After  some 
short  discourse,  he  told  Tasso,  that  he  should  take  two  of 
them  away,  and  wouM  leave  one  behind,  and  bade  bim 
take  his  choice.  Tasso  answered  '^  ibat  it  cost  Paris  very 
dear  to  give  the  preference  to  one  of  the  goddesses,  and, 
therefore,  with  bis  permission,  he  designed  to  retain  the 
three."  The  pV*ince  took  him  at  his  word,  and  departed ; 
when  Tasso,  after  a  little  conversation,  dismissed  them  all 
handsomely  with  presents. 

At  last,  weary  of  living  in  a  continual  state  of  depend- 
ence, he  resolved  to  retire  to  Naples,  and  endeavour  to 
recover  his  mother's  jointure,  which  had  been  seized 
upoa  by  her  relations  when  he  went  injtp  exile,  with  his 
father  Bernardo.  This  appeared  the  only  meaus.  tp  place 
him  in  the  condition  of  life  he  so  mucji  d^ired. .  He 
applied  to  his  friends,    and  having  procured  favourable 


14a  T  A  1^  s  a 

letters  to  tbe  vieeroyi  he  took  leave  of  the  dulse  of 
Mftcitua  and  repaired  to  Bergamo,  where  he  stayed  some 
time,  and  thence  went  to  Naples.  While  bere»  dividing 
bis  time  between  bis  studies  and  the  prosecution  of  bis 
law*Buit,  the  young  count  of  Palena,  by  whom  be  wa» 
highly  esteemedy  persuaded  him  to  take  up  his  resideo^^e 
with  him  for  some  time ;  but  in  this  affair  be  had  not  con- 
sulted .the  prince  of  Conca,  his  father^  who,  though  he  had 
a  value  fat  Tasso^  yet  could  not  approve  of  his  son^s  re^ 
ceiviag  into  bis  boose  tbe  only  person  that  remained  of  a 
family  once  devoted  to  the  prince  of  Salerno.  A  conten- 
tion being  likely  to  ensue,  on  this  account,  between  tbe 
father  and  son,  Tasso,  with  his  usual  goodness  of  dispo** 
sition,  to  remove  all  occasion  of  dispute,  withdrew  from 
Naples,  and  retired  to  Bisaccio  with  his  friend  Manso,  in 
whose  company  he  lived  some  time  with  great  tranquillity. 
In  this  place  Manso  had  an  opportunity  to  examine  the 
singular  effects  of  Tasso's  melancholy ;  and  often  dispsteci 
with  him  concerning  a  familiar  spirit,  which  he  pretended 
to  converse  with.  Manso  endeavoured^  in  vain,  tm  per* 
saade  his  friend  that  tbe  whole  was  the  illusion  of  a  disturbed 
imagination ;  but  tbe  latter  was  strenuous  in  maintaining 
tbe  reality  of  what  he  asserted ;  and,  to  convince  Manso, 
desired  him  to  be  present  at  one  ot  those  mysterious  con- 
.  versations.  Manso  had  the  complaisance  to  meet  him  the 
next  day,  and  while  they  were  engaged  in  discourse,  on  a 
sudden  be  observed  that  Tasso  kept  his  eyea  fixed  upon  a 
win^w,  and  remained  in  a  manner  immovable :  he  called 
him  by  bis  name,  several  tinges,  but  received  no  answer : 
at  last  Tasso  cried  out,  ^^  There  is  the  friendly  spirit  who 
is  come  to  converse  with  me :  look,  and  you  will  be  con- 
vinced of  the  truth  of  all  that  I  have  said.'*  Manso  beard 
him  with  surprize  :  be  looked,  but  saw  nothing  except  the 
sun-beams  darting  through  the  window:  he  cast  bis  eyes 
all  over  the  room,  but  could  perceive  nothing,  and  was 
just  going  to  ask  where  the  pretended  spirit  was,  when  be 
heard  Tasso  speak  with  great  earnestness,  sometimes  put- 
ting questions  to  the  spirit,  and  sometimes  giving  answers, 
delivering  the  whole  in  such  a  pleasing  manner,  and  with 
such  elevated  expressions,  that  be  listened  with  admiration, 
and  had  not  tbe  least  inclination  to  interrupt  bim.  At  last, 
this  uncommon  conversation  ended  with  the  departure  of 
tbe  spirit,  as  appeared  by  Tasso's  words;  who  turning  to* 
ward  MansOy  asked  him  if  his  doubts  were  removed.     Manso 


T  A  »  8  a  us 

wras  more  amaawd  than  enr ;  be  scarce  knew  what  to 
think  pf  bis  friend'&  situaticw,  and  wayed  any  furtber  con* 
versation  op  the  subject. 

At  the  approach  of  wiater  they  returned  toNaples,  wheq 
the  prince  of  Palena  again  pressed  Tasao  to  reside  with 
him;  but  Tas$o,  who  judged  it  highly  uoadvisaUe  to  com-' 
ply  with  his  request,  resolved  to  retire  to  Rome,  and  wait 
there  the  issue  of  bis  law-suit.  He  lived  in  that  city  about 
a  year  in  high  esteem  with  pope  Sixtus  V ;  when,  being 
invited  to  Florence  by  Ferdinando,  grand  duke  of  Tusicany, 
who  had  been  cardinal  at  Bx)me  when  Tasso  first  resided 
there^  and  who  now  employed  the  pope's  interest  to  pro- 
cure a  visit  from  him,  he  could  not  withstand  such  solicita- 
tions, but  went  to  Florencei  fthere  be  met  with  a  most 
gracious  reception.  Yet  not  all  the  caresses  be  received 
at  the  doke's  court,  nor  all  the  promises  of  that  prince^ 
eould  overcome  bis  love  for  bis  native  country,  or  lec&sett 
the  ardent  desire  be  had  to  lead  a  retired  and  independent 
life.  He  therefore  took  his  leave  of  the  grand  duke,  who 
would  have  loaded  him  with  presents;  but  Tas80,  as  uaiiaiy 
couid  be  prevailed  upon  to  accept  of  no  more  than  was  ne- 
cessary for  his  present  occasions.  He  returned  to  Naples 
by  the  way  of  Rome,  and  the  old  prince  of  Gonca  dying 
about  this  time,  the  young  count  of  Palena  prevailed  upon 
TassQ,  by  the  mediation  of  Manso,  to  accept  of  an  apart- 
ment in  his  palace.  Here  he  applied  himself  to  &  correc- 
tion of  his  Jerusalem,  or  rather  to  compose  a  new  work 
entitled  ^^  Jerusalem  Conquered,"  which  he  had  begun 
during  his  first  residence  at  Naples.  The  prince  of  Conea, 
being  jealous  lest  any  otie  should  deprive  him  of  the  poet 
and  poem,  caused  him  to  be  so  narrowly  watched  that 
Tasso  observed  it,  and  being  displeased  at  such  a  proceed- 
ing, left  the  prince's  palace,  and  retired  to  his  friend 
Manso' s,  where  be  lived  m^^ster  of  himself  and  bis  actions; 
yet  he  still  ccmtinued  upon  good  terms  with  the  prince  of 
Conca.  ^ 

In  a  short  time  after  he  published  his  ^^  Jerusalem  Con- 
quered," which  is  a  sufficient  proof  of  the  injustice  of  the 
criticisms  that  have  been  passed  upon  his  ^^  Jerusalem  De- 
livered ;"  since  the  ^^  Jerusalem  Conquered,'*  in  which  he 
endeavoured  to  conform  himself  to  the  taste  of  his  critics, 
was  not  received  with  the  same  approbation  as  the  form^^r 
poem,  where  he  had  entirely  given  himaelf  up  to  the  en- 
thusiasm of.  his  genius.     He  bad  likewise  designed  a  third 


144  T  A  a  S  O. 

correction  of  the  sume*poemf  wbicb,  as  we  are  informed^ 
was  to-have  been  partly  compounded  of  the  Jerusalem 
Delivered  and  Conquered ;  but  this  work  was  never  coai*^ 
pleted.  In  all  probability,  this  last  performanee  would  not 
have  equalled  the  first :  and  indeed  our  poet  seems  to  owe 
bis  fame  to  the  ^^  Jerusalem  Delivered/'  the  second  poem 
upon  tbat  subject  being  little  known. 

Manso^s  garden  commanded  a  full  prospa(6t  of  the  sea. 
Tasso  and  bis  friend  being  one  day  in  a  sumnier^hqu&tt 
with  Scipio  Belprato,  Manso's  brother-in-law,  observing 
the  waves  agitated  with  a  furious  storm,  Belprato  said, 
**  that  be  was  astonished  at  the  rashness  and  folly  of  men 
who  would  expose  themselves  to  the  rage  of  so  merciless 
an  element,  where  such  numbers  had  suffered  shipwreck.'* 
•*  And  yet,"  said  Tasso,  "  we  every  nigbt  go  without  fear 
to  bed,  where  so  many  die  every  hour.  BeKeve  me,  death 
will  find  us  in  all  parts,  and  those  places  that  appear  the 
least  exposed  are  not  always  the  most  secure  from  his  at- 
tacks." While  Tasso  lived  with  his  friend  Maoso,  cardinal 
Hippolito  Aldobrandini  succeeded  to  the  papacy  by  the 
name  of  Clement  VIII.  His  two  nephews,  Cyntbio  and 
Pietro  Aldobrandini,  were  created  cardinals :  the  first,  after- 
wards called  the  cardinal  of  St.  George,  was  the  eldest,  a 
great  patron  of  science,  and  a  favourer  of  learned  men  : 
he  had  known  Tasso  when  he  resided  last  at  Kome,  and 
had  the  greatest  esteem  for  him  ;  and  now  so  e£u*nestly  in- 
vited him  to  Rome,  tbat  he  could  not  refuse,  but  once 
more  abandoned,  his  peaceful  retreat  at  Naples.  As  in 
consequence  of  the  confines  of  the  ecclesiastical  state  being 
infested  with  banditti,  travellers,  for  security,  used  to  go 
together  in  large  companies,  Tasso  joined  himself  to  one 
of  these ;  but  when  they  came  within  sight  of  Mola,  a  lit- 
tle town  near  Gaieta,  they  received  intelligence  that 
Sciarra,  a  famous  captain  of  robbers^  was  near  at  band 
with  a  great  body  of  men.  Tas$o  was  of  opinion,  that  they 
should  continue  their  journey,  and  endeavour  to  defend 
themselves,  if  attacked  :  however,  this  advice  was  over- 
ruled, and  they  threw  themselves  for.  safety  into  Mola,  in 
which  place  they  remained  for  some  time  in  a  manner 
blocked  up  by  Sciarra.  But  this  outlaw,  hearing  that 
Tasso  was  one  of  the  company,  sent  a  message  to  assure 
him  that  he  might  pass  in  safety,  and  offered  himself  to 
conduct  him  wherever  he  pleased.  Tasso  returned  him 
thanks,  but  declined   acceptjn^  the  offer,  not  choosing. 


T  A  S  S  O.  145    , 

perhaps,  to  rely  oh  the.  word  of  a  person  of  such  character* 

Sciarra  upon  this  s^nt  a  second  message,  by  which  be  ia« 

formed  Tasso,  that,  upon  bis  account,  be  would  withdranr 

his  men,  and  leave  the  ways  open.     He  accordingly  did  i 

so,  and  Tasso,  continuing  bis  journey,  arrived  without  anjT 

accident  at  Rome,  where  be  was  most  graciously  welcomed 

by  the  two  cardinals  and  the  pope  himself^    .Tasso  applied 

himself  in  a  particular  manner  to  cardinal  Cynthio,  who 

had  been  the  means  of  bis  coming  to  Ilome ;  yet  be  n^- 

lected  not  to  make  his  court,  to  cardinal  Aldobrandini,  and 

be  very  frequently  <;onversed  with  both  of  them.    One  day 

the  two  cardinals  held  an  assembly  of  several  prelates,  to 

consult,  among  other  things,  of  some, method  to  put  a  stop 

to  the  license  of  the  pasquinades.     One  proposed  that  Pas* 

quints  statue  should  be  broken  to  pieces  and  cast  into  ibe 

river.     But.Tasso's  opinion   being  asked,    he  said, /' it 

would  be  much  more  prudent  to  let  it  remain  where  it  was; 

for  otherwise  from  the  fragments  of  the  statue  would  be 

bred  an  infinite  number  of  frogs  on  the  banks  of  the  Tyber, 

that  would  never  cease  to  croak  day  and  night."     The  pope|, 

to  whom  cardinal  Aldobrandini  related  what  bad  pasised, 

interrogated  Tasso  upon  the  subject.     "  It  is  true,  holy  i 

father,**  said  he,  *^  such  was  my  opinion ;  and  I  shall  add 

moreover,  that  if  your  holiness  would  silence  Pasquin,  the 

only  way  is  to  put  such  people  into  employments  as  may 

give  no  occasion  to  any  libels  or  disaffected  discourse.** 

At  last,  being  again  disgusted  with  the  life  of  a  courtier, 
he  obtained  permission  to  retire  to  Napl&  to  prosecute  bis 
law-suit.  At  his  arrival  there,  he  took  up  bis  lodging  in  the 
convent  of  St.  Severin,  with  the  fathers  of  St.  Benedict* 
Thus  was  Tasso  once  nK>re  in  a  state  of  tranquillity  and  re- 
tirement, so  highly  agreeable  to  his  disposition ;  when  car* 
dinal  Cynthio  again  found  means  to  recall  him,  by  prevail- 
ing on  the  pope  to  give  him  the  honour  of  being  solemnly 
crowned  with  laurel  in  the  fcapitol.  Though  Tasso  himself 
was  not  in  the  least  desirous  of  such  pomp,  yet  he  yielded 
to  the  persuasion  of  others,  particularly  of  bis  dear  friend 
Manso,  to  whom  he  protested  that  he  Went  merely  at  his 
earnest  desire,  not  with  any  expectation  of  the  promised 
triumph,  which  he  had  a  secret  presage  would  never  be.' 
He  was  greatly  affected  at  parting  from  Manso,  and  took 
his  leave  of  him  as  of  one  he  should  never  see  again.  la 
his  way  he  passed  by  Mount  Cassino,  to  pay  his  devotion 
to  the  relics  of  St.  Benedict,  for  whom  he  had  a  particuUr 

Vol.  XXIX.  L 


146  T  A  S  S  O. 

reneration.  He  spent  the  festival  of  Christmas  in  that  mo-* 
nasteryi  and  thence  repaired  to  Rome,  where  be  arrived  in 
the  beginning  of  1595.  He  was  met  at  the  entrance  of  that 
city  by  many,  prelates  and  persons  of  distinction,  and  was 
afterward  introduced,  by  the  two  cardinals,  Cynthio  and 
Pietro,  to  the  presence  of  the  pope,  who  was  pleased  to 
tell  him,  '^  that  his  merit  would  add  as  much  honour  to  the 
laurel  he  was  going  to  receive,  as  that  crown  had  formerly 
given  to  those  on  whom  it  had  hitherto  been  bestowed.*' 

Nothing  was  now  thought  of  but  the  approaching  so- 
lemnity :  orders  were  given  to  decorate  not  only  the  pope'» 
palace  and  the  capitol,  but  all  the  principal  streets  through 
which  the  procession  was  to  pass.  Yet  Tasso  appeared 
little  moved  with  th^se  preparations,  which  he  said  would 
be  in  vain  :  and  being  shewn  a  sonnet  composed  upon  the 
occasion  by  his  relation,  Hercole  Tasso,  he  answered  by 
the  following  verse  of  Seneca : 

Magnifica  verba  mors  prop^  admota  excutft. 

His  presages  were  but  too  true,  for,  while  they  waited 
for  fair  weather  to  celebrate  the  solemnity,  cardinal  Cyn* 
fhio  fell  ill,  and  continued  for  some  time  indisposed  :  and^ 
as  soon  as  the  cardinal  began  to  recover,  Tasso  himself  was 
seized  with  bis  last  sickness. 

Though  be  had  only  completed  his  fifty- first  year,  bi»^ 
studies  and  misfortunes  had  brot^ght  on  a  premature  old 
age.  Being  persuaded  that  his  end  was  approaching,  he 
resolved  to  spend  the  few  days  he  bad  yet  to  live  in  the 
monastery  of  St.  Onuphrius.'  He  was  carried  thither  in 
cardinal  Cynthio's  coach,  and  received  with  the  utmost 
tenderness  by  the  prior  and  brethren  of  that  order.  His 
distemper  was  now  so  far  increased,  and  his  strength  so 
exhausted,  that  all  kind  of  medicine  proved  ineflPectual. 
On  the  lOth  of  April  he  was  taken  with  a  violent  fever, 
occasioned  perhaps  by  having  eat  some  milk,  a  kind  of  ali- 
ment he  was  particularly  fond  of.  His  life  now  seemed  in 
imminent  danger :  the  most  famous  physicians  in  Rome 
tried  all  their  art,  but  in  vain,  to  relieve  him:  he  grew 
-worse  and  worse  every  day.  Rinaldini,  the  pope's  physi- 
cian, and  Tasso's  intimate  friend,  having  informed  him  that 
bis  last  hour  was  near  at  hand,  Tasso  embraced  him  ten- 
derly, and  with  a  composed  countenance  returned  him^ 
thanks  for  bis  tidings ;  then  looking  up  to  Heaven,  he  ^*  ac- 
knowledged the  goodness  of  God,  who  was  at  last  pleased 


T  A  S  S  O.  147 

to  bring  bim  safe  into  port  after  so  long  a  storm/'     From 
that  time  his   mind   $eemed   entirely  disentangled   from 
earthly  affairs  :  he  received  the  sacramerit  in  the  chapel  of 
the  monastery,  being  conducted  thither  by  the  brethren. 
When  he  was  brought  back  to  bis  chamber,  be  was  asked 
where  be  wished  to  be  interred ;  he  answered,  in  the  church 
of  St.  Onuphrius  :  and  being  desired  to  leave  some  memo- 
rial of  his  will  in  writing,  and  to  dictate  himself  the  epitaph 
that  should  be  engraven  on  his  tomb,  be  smiled  and  said, 
**  that  in  regard  to  the  first,  he  had  little  worldly  goods  to    . 
leave,  and  as  to  the  second,  a  plain  stone  would  suffice  to 
cover  him.*'     He  left  cardinal  Gynthio  his  heir,  and  desired 
that  his  own  picture  might  be  given  to  Giovanni  Baptista 
Manso,  which  had  been  drawn  by  his  direction.    At  length 
having  attained  the  fourteenth  day  of  his  illness,  he  received 
the  extreme  unction.     Cardinal  Cynthio  hearing  that  ha 
was  at  the  last  extremity,  came  to  visit  him,  and  brought 
him  the  pope's  benediction,  a  grace  never  conferred  in  this 
manner  but  on  cardinals  and  persons  of  the  first  distinction. 
Tasso  acknowledged  this  honour  with  great  devotion  and 
bumilityj  and  said,  ^*  that  this  was  the  crown  he  came  to  re- 
ceive at  Rome."     The  cardinal  having  asked  him  '^  if  he 
'  had  any  thing  further  to  desire,"  he  replied,  "  the  only  fa- 
vour he  had  now  to  beg  of  him,  was,  tliat  he  would  collect 
together  the  copies  of  all  his  works  (particularly  his  ^^  Je- 
rusalem Delivered,"  which  he  esteemed  most  imperfect) 
and  commit  them  to  the  flames :  this  task,  he  confessed, 
might  be  found  something  difficulty  as  those  pieces  were 
'   dispersed  abroad  in  so  many  different  places,  but  yet  he 
trusted  it  would  not  be  found  altogether  impracticable." 
'He  was  so  earnest  in  his  request,  that  the  cardinal,^  unwill- 
ing to  discompose  him  by  a  refusal,  gave  bim  such  a  doubt- 
ful answer  as  led  him  to  believe  that  bis  desire  would  be 
complied  with.    TasSo  then  requesting  to  be  left  alone,  the 
'cardinal  took  his  farewel  of  him  with  tears  in  his  eyes,  leav- 
ing with  him  his  confessor  and  some  of  the  brethren  of  the 
monastery.     In  this  condition  he  continued  all  night,  and 
till  the  middle  of  the  next  day,  the  25th  of  April,  being  the 
festival  of  St.  Mark ;  when,  finding  himself  fainting,  he  em- 
braced his  crucifix,  uttering  these  words :  In  manus  tuas^ 
.  Domine — but  expired  before  he  could  finish  the  sentence. 
Tasso  was  tall  and  well-shaped,  his  complexion  fair,  jbut 
rather  pale  through  sickness  and  study;  the  hair  of  bis 
head  was  of  a  che^nut  colour,  but  that  of  his  beard  some* 

L  2 


14$  T  A  S  SkO. 

what  lighter,  thick  and  bushy;  his  forehead  square  and 
high,  his  head  large,  and  the  fore  part  of  it,  towards  the 
end  of  his  life^  altogether  bald ;  bis  eye-brows  were  dark  '^ 
his  eyes  full,  piercing,  and  of  a  clear  blue ;  his  nose  large, 
bis  lipa  thin,  his  teeth  well  set  and  white ;  his  neck  well 
proportioned ;  bis  breast  full ;  his  shoulders  broad,  and 
all  bis  limbs  more  sinewy  than  fleshy.  His  voice  was  strong, 
clear,  and  solemn ;  he  spoke  with  delibera.tion,  and  gene- 
rally reiterated  his  last  words :  he  seldom  laughed,  and  ne- 
ver to  excess.  He  was  very  expert  in  the  exercises  of  the 
body.  In  his  oratory,  he  used  little^  action,  and  rather 
pleased  by  the  beauty  and  force  of  his  expressions,,  than 
by  the  graces  of  gesture  and  utterance,  that  compose  sq( 
great  a  part  of  elocution.  Such  was  the  exterior  of  Tasso: 
as  to  his  mental  qualities,  he  appears  to  have  been  a  great 
getiius,  and  a  soul  elevated  above  the  common. rank  of 
mankind*  It  is  said  of  him,  that  there  never  was  a  scholar 
more  humble,  a  wit  more  devout,  or  a  man  more  amiable 
in  society.  Never  satisfied  with  bis  works,  even  when  they- 
rendered  his  name  famous  throughout  the  world ;  always 
satisfied  with  bis  condition,  even  when  be  wanted  every  thing  ^ 
entirierly  relying  on  Providence  and  his  friepds;  without 
malevolence  towards  his  greatest  enemies;  only  wishing 
for  riches  that  be  might  be  serviceable  to  others,  and 
making  a  scruple  to  receive  or  keep  auy  thing  himself  that 
was  not  absolutely  necessary.  So  blameless  aqd  regular 
a  life  was  ended  by  a  peaceable  death,  which  carriedhim 
off  in  1595,  in  the  fifty-second  year  of  his  age. 

He  was,  buried  the  same  evening,  without  pomp,  ac-. 
cording  to  his  desire,  in  the  church  of  St.  Onuphrius,  and 
bis  body  was  covered  with  a  plain  stone.  Cardinal  Cyn« 
thio  had  purposed  to  erect  a  magnificent  monument  to  bis 
memory;  but  the  design  was  so  long  prevented  by  sickness 
a^nd  other  accidents,  that,  ten  years  after,  Manso  coming 
to  Rome,  went  to  visit  bis  friend's  remains,  and  would  bare 
taken  on  himself  the  care  of  building  a  tomb  to  him ;  but 
this  cardinal  Cynthio  would  by  no  means  permit,  having 
determined  himself  to  pay  that  dut;^  to  Tasso.  However^ 
Manso  prevailed  so  far  as  to  have  the  following  words  en- 
graven on  the  stone : 

HIC  lACET  TORQVATVS  TASSVS. 

Cardinal  Cynthio  dying  without  putting  his  design  in^ 
execution,  cardinal  Bonifacio  Bevilacqua,  of  an  illustrious 


T  A  S  S  0.  lit 

I 

fkmily  of  Ferrara,  caused  a  stately  sepulchre  to  be  erected, 
]«  the  church  of  St.  Onuphrius,  over  the  remains  of  a  fuan 
whose  works  had  made  all  other  monuments  superfluous. 

As  to  hi»  works,  we  have  mentioned  his  principal :  his 
**Rinaldo,'*  **Aminta/*  and  "  Gierusalemme  liberata,"  an 
epic  poem  in  twenty-four  books.     This  poem  had  been 
published  in  an  imperfect  state,  through  the  importunity 
and  authority  of  some,  of  his  noble  patrons,  but  the  first 
complete  edition   of  it  appeared  at  Ferrara  in  1581,  4 to^ 
The  critics  failing  upon  this  work,  he  proposed  to  give  a 
hev^  and  corrected  edition  of  it,  or,  more  properly  speak- 
ibg,  to  write  it  over  again,  which  be  did,  and  published  at 
Rome,  under  the  title  of  **  Gierusalemme  conquistata,"  in 
1593,  4to.    But  the  poem,  thus  accommodated  to  the  taste, 
and  ,butnour  of  bis  critics,  was  not  received  by  the  world  at 
large  with  the  same  applause  as  the  first  edition  had  been, 
which. is  the  only  one  now  read.     Many  writers,  especially 
among  the  Italians,  have  compared  Tasso  to  Virgil;  and 
their  partiality  has,  perhaps,  made  Boileau  criticize  him 
more  severely  than  he  would  otherwise  have  done :  he  calls 
Tasso^s  verges  tinsel,  when  compared  with  the  gold  of  Vir- 
gil; land  censures  the  simple  judgment  of  those,  who  pre- 
fer "  le  clinquant  du  Tasse  a  tout  Tor  de  Virgile."     In  the 
mean  time  some  virtuosi  of  Italy  have  made  it  a  question 
for  a  long  while,  whether  Ariosto  does  not  deserve  the  pre- 
cedency of  Tasso:  a  comparison  which  more  judicious  cri- 
tics think  r/ever  ought  to  have  been  instituted;  and  Tira- 
boschi  says  we  may  as  well  compare  Virgil's  £neid  with 
Qvid's  Metamorphoses.    Tasso's  "  Jerusalem  ".is  regularly 
epic  in  its  whole  construction,  and  ranks  deservedly  among 
t^e  few  of  that  species  of  composition,  ancient  or  modern, 
Which  all  a;ges  will  probably  acjmire.     A  little  too  much  of 
the  marvellous,  one  or  perhaps  two  of  the  episodes,  and 
part  of  his  machinery,  are  the  only  subjects  to  which  the 
,  ihost  rigid  criticism  has  ventured  to  object.     Where  some 
of  his  ifefectSy  some  of  his  conceits,  are  visible,  they  have 
been  referred  to  his  age,  but  these  are  not  frequent,  and 
it  seems^  generally  acknowledged  that  while  he  is  inferior 
to  Homer,  in  simplicity  and  fire,  to  Virgil,  in  tenderness, 
and  to  Milton,  in  daring  sublimity  of  genius,  he  yields  to 
no  other  in  any  poetical  talents. 

T,he  %irorks  of  Tassa  have  been  often  printed  separately, 
at  various  tunes  and  places.  The  abb6  Serassi  has  enu- 
merated 132  editions  of  the  <^  Jerusalem  Delivered,"  of 


150  T  A  S  S  O. 

which  be  thinks  the  best  was  that  printed  at  Mantua  by 
Francisco  Osanna,  in  1584,  4to.  The  '^  Jerosalem  Con- 
quered^* had  but  thirteen  editions,  of  which  the  last  is  in 
1642.  **  Rinaldo"  had  fifteen,  and  "Aminta"  fifty-eight, 
without  reckoning  those  which  appeared  -out  of  Italy.  Of 
the  translations  of  the  first  poem,  Serassi  mentions  eleven 
in  the  different  dialects  of  the  Italian,  and  twenty-threb  in 
the  other  languages  in  Europe,  but  he  has  omitted  some, 
particularly  the  French  translation  in  Alexandrian  verses, 
by  M.  Montenlas..  Tasso*s  whole  works,  together  with  hit 
life,  and  several  pieces  for  and  against  his  '^  Gierusalemme 
Liberata,**  were  published  at  Florence,  1724,  in  six  volumes, 
folio.  The  lijTe  was  written  by  his  friend  Battista  Manso, 
and  printed  at  Rome  in  1634 ;  of  which  that  by  the  abb6 
de  Charnes,  printed  at  Paris. in  1690,  12mo,  is  only  an 
abridgment.  But  the  best  edition  of  the  whole  works,  in 
Mr.  Black's  opinion^  is  that  of  Venice,  12  vols.  4to,  al- 
though it  does  not  bear  so  high  a  price.  His  "  Aminta,'* 
and  '*  Gierusalemme  liberata,''  have  been  translated  into 
English  ;  the  former  being  published  at  London  in  1628  ; 
the  latter  in  1713;  and  again,  with  the  true  Spirit  of  the 
Original,  by  Mr.  Hoole,  in  1762.  Within  these  few  yean 
English  literature  has  been  enriched  by  a  very  valuable 
and  elaborate  *^  Life  of  Torquato  Tasso ;  with  an  historical 
and  critical  account  of  his  writings,  by  John  Black,"  ISIO, 
2  vols.  4«to.  In  this  the  reader  will  receive  ample  ^atis-* 
faction  as  to  the  disputed  parts  of  Tasso's  eventful  history^ 
and  many  illustrations  of  the  times  in  which  he  lived,  and 
of  the  lives  of  his  contemporaries,  the  relative  state  of  li- 
terary history,  ai^d,  indeed,  will  find  an  asseihblage  of 
every  kind  of  evidence  that  can  now  be  expected  to  throw 
light  on  the  genius  of  this  truly  great  poet. " 

TASSONl  (Alessandro),  an  Italian  poet  of  great  fame, 
was  born  al  Modena,  in  1565.  He  was  early  left  an  or* 
phan,  and  exposed  to  many  difficulties,  yet  be  cultivated 
the  knowledge  of  the  learned  languages  with  great  assi- 
duity, and,  in  1597,  entered  into  the  service  of  cardinal 
Ascdnio  Colonna,  as  his  secretary.  With  him  he  went 
into  Spain  ;  and,  after  the  death  of  that  patron,  contrived 
to  be  introduced  into  the  court  of  Charles  Emanuel  duke 
of  Savoy.  Not  agreeing  with  the  prince  cardinal,  son  of 
the  duke,  he  retired^  after  a  time^  and  sought  an  asylum 

1  Life  by  Hool«,  prefixed  (o  hit  Translation.— Life,  as  above,  by  Mr.  Black. 


T  A  S  S  O  N  I.  tit 

witb  cardinal  LudovUio,  who  gave  him  a  pefnsion  of  iOfk 
Roman  crowns,  and  apartments  in  his  palace.  After  tbo 
death  of  this  cardinal,  he  had  recourse  at  length  to  hia 
natural  sovereign  Francis  I.  d'^ste,  duke  of  Modena,  from 
whom  he  received  an  honorary  salary.  He  died  in  1635^ 
and  was  buried  in  St.  Peter^s.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
academy  of  the  Umoristi.  His  character  was  lively  an4 
agreeable,  notwithstanding  his  turn  for  satire. 

His  works  are,  1.  his  ''  Secchia  rapita,^'  or  rape  of  the 
bucket,  which  the  Italians  in  general  consider  as  the  first 
liiodel  of  a  mock^beraic  poem  that  was  given  in  their  Ian* 
guage.  It  seems,  say  the  critics  of  that  nation,  that  the 
graces  clothed  this  poem  with  all  their  ornaments.  A  de^ 
licate  burlesque,  with  the  art  of  joining  great  things  te 
amall ;  an  unaffected  lightness,  and  consummate  elegance^ 
concurred  in  it  to  form  a  complete  Italian  model  of  an 
beroi-comtc  poem,  which  will  in  tinie  be  admired  by 
strangers.  Tb^  edition  most  valued  is  that  of  Ronciglione 
in  1624.  It  was  translated  into  French  by  Peter  Perrault^ 
1678,  in  two  vols.  12aiD;  and  again  by  M.  de  Cedars,  ia 
1759,  in  three  volumes.  2.  ^^  Considerazione  sopra  il  Pe* 
trarca."  He  thought  Petrarch,  great  as  be  was,  too  much 
imitated,  and  tried  in  this  publication  to  lessen  the  rag^ 
for  that  kind  of  imitation.  In  that  he  succeeded.  3.  He 
published  also  "  Pensieri  diversi,"  which  he  made,a  very 
amusing  book^  ^His  ^tack  upon  the  imitators  of  Petrarch 
occasioned  a  contest  between  him  and  Gius.  Aromatari ; 
and  that  produced  finally,  4.  *^  La  Tenda  rossa,  risposta 
di  Girolamo  Nomisenti  (Alessaudro  Tassoni)  ai  dialoghi  de 
Falcidio  Melampodio,''  (Giuseppe  de  gli  Aromatori,)  Franc* 
fort,  1613,  8vo.  His  will  is  also  cited  as  a  piece  of  hu« 
mour,  and  there  are  some  productions  by  him  still  remain-^ 
ing  in  manuscript ;  among  the  rest,  one  entitled  '<  Esequie 
della  monarchia  di  Spagna."  Many  interesting  particulars 
respecting  Tassoni,  accompanied  with  contemporary  liter 
rary  .history,  and  much  sound  criticism,  has  just  been  given 
in  ^^  Memoirs  of  Alessandro  Tassoni,  &c*  By  the  late  Jo- 
seph Cooper  Walker,  esq.  M.  R.  LA.'*  1815,  8vo,  edited 
by  his  brother,  Sam.  Walker,  esq.  No  other  reference 
can  hereafter  be  wanting.  * 

TATE  (Francis),  an  English  lawyer  and  antiquary,  the 
son  of  Bartholomew  Tate,  of  Delapre,  in  Northamptonshire^ 

1  Memoirs  by  Walker. 


IM  T  A  T  R 

was  born  in  that  couoly  in  15^0,  and  etrter^d  of  Magdalen 
college,  Oxford,  in  1577.  After  ^bitie  application  to  study 
he  left  the  university  without  taking  a  degree,  went  to  the* 
Middle  Temple,  and  after  bis  admission'  to  the  bar,  ac^v 
quired  great  reputation  as  a  coun^eUor,  not  only  learned  in' 
the  law,  but  as  a  good  antiquary,  and  Saxon  scholar.  He 
had  a  seat  in  parliament  aboat  the  end  of  quef^n  ElizabethV 
reign,  and  in  the  5th  James  I.  was  Lent-reader  of  the  Mid- 
dle Temple,  and  about  that  time  became  one  oF  the  justices 
itinerant  for  Wales.  He  dited  Nov.  16,  161^,  leaving  va-' 
rious  manuscripts  on  legal  antiquities,  the  Aite  of  whtch^ 
seems  unknown,  but  the  following  have  been  printed  in 
Gutch's  "  Collcetanea  CuriOsa  t'*  1.  •*  The  antiquity,  use, 
and  privileges  of  Cities,  Boroughs,  and  Towns.'*  2.^' The 
antiquity,  use,  and  ceremonies  of  lawful  Combats  in  Eng- 
land*" And  in  Hearne*s  "  Curious  Discourses'*  are,  3.  ^*  Of 
Knights  made  by  Abbots.  4.-^*  Questions  about  the  an- 
cient Britons."  5.  '<  Of  the  antiquity  of  Arms  in  England.*' 
6.  **  Of  the  antiquity,  variety  and  ceremonies  of  Funefais 
in  England  :"  and  7.  ^  The  antiquity,  authority,  and  suc- 
cession of  the  High  Steward  of  England."  ^ 

TATE  ^  (Nauum),  a  well  known  Psalmodist,  was  born 
in  Dublin  in  1^52.  His  father,  Dr;  Faithful  Tate,  was  also 
son  to  a  Dr.  Tate,  a  clergyman,  and  was  born  in  the  county 
of  Cavan,  and  educated  in  the  college  of  Dublin,  where 
he  took  the  degree  of  D.D.  In  1641,  being  then  minister 
of  Bally  hays,  in  that  county,  he  was  a  great  sufferer  by  the 
rebels,  against  whom  he  had  given  some  informatidn,  and 
in  his  way  to  Dublin  was  robbed  by  a  gang,  while  about 
the  same  time  his  house  at  Ballyhays  was  plundered,  and 
all  his  stock,  goods,  and  books,  burnt  or  otherwise  de- 
stroyed. His  wife  and  children  were  also^o  cruelly  treated^ 
that  three  of  the  latter  died  of  the  severities  inflicted  upon 
them.  After  this  he  lived  for  some  time  in  the  colles:e  of 
Dublin,  in  the  provost's  lodgings.  He  became  then  preacher 
of  East  Greenwich,  in  Kent,  and  lastly  minister  of  St. 
Werburgh's  church,  in  Dublin.  He  was  esteemed  a  man 
of  gi*eat  piety ;  but,    as   Harris  says,  was  thought  to  be 

*  He  was  matriculated  by  the  name  babiy,  when    he    came    fco   EogUndi^ 

of  Nahum  Teat,  which  Mr.   Malone  adopted  the  new  spelling  of  his  name.*' 

seems  to  think  was  his  real  ivame;  but  On  tbfs  we  haye  only  to  remark,  that 

'*  being  called  by  the  lets  polished  of  the  name  is  spelt  both  vays  in  Ib^  title* 

bis  countrymen,  7a/e,  according  to  the  pages  of  his  father's  works, 
ordinary  XrisTi  pronunciation,  he  t>ro- 

1  Ath.  Ox.  Tol.  I.  new  edit. — Archaeologia,  Vol.  !• 


TATE,  ISS 

puffitm)i<¥9lly  incUftedy  as  perhaps  may  be  stiriniscd  front 
his  own  and  bis  son's  Christian  oaoofes,  names  taken  from' 
the  Scriptures  being  very  common  with  a  certain  class  of  the- 
puritans.  He  was  living  in  1672,  but  the  time  of  his  death 
we  have  not  been  able  to  fix.  Besides  two  occasional  ser-^ 
iDpfiSy  be  publisbedi  1.  ^'  The  doctrine  of  the  three  sacred 
per$oas  of  the  Trinityy'*  Lond.  1669^  8vo  ;  and,  2.  ^*  Me- 
ditations/' Dublin,  1672)  8vo. 

His  son»  Nahum,  at  the  age  of  sixteen,  was  admitted  of 
Dublin  college,  but  does  not  appear  to  have  followed  any 
profession.     It  is  observed  by  Wacburtoo,  in  the  notes  to 
t)ie  Dunciad,  that  he  was  a  cold  writer,  of  no  invention, 
but  translated  tcderably  when  befriended  by  Dryden,  with 
whom  he  sometimes  wrote  in  conjunction.     He  succeeded 
Shadwell  as  poet«laureat,  and  continued  in  that  office  till 
hi^  death,  which  happened  Aug.  12,  1715,  in  the  Mint,- 
where  he  <  then  resided  as  a  place  of  refuge  from  the  debta 
which  he  had  contracted,  and  was  buried  in  St.  George*flf 
church.    The  earl  of  Dorset  was  his  patron  ;  but  the  chie^ 
use  be  made  of  him  was  to  screen  himself  from  the  per* 
secutions  of  his  creditors.     Giidon  speaks  of  him  as  a  man 
of  .great  honesty  and  modesty ;  but  he  seems  to  have  been 
ill  qualified  to  advance  hiijuself  in  the  world.     A  person 
who  died  in  1763,  at  the  age  of  ninety,  remembered  him 
well,  and  said  he  was  remarkable  for  a  down-cast  look,  and 
had  seldom  much  to  say  for  himself.     Oldys  also  describes^ 
him  as  a  free,  good-natured,  but  intemperate  companion. 
With  the^  qualities  it  will  not  appear  surprising  that  he 
was  poor  and  despised.     He  was  the  author  of  nine  dra- 
matic performances,  and  a  ]great  number  of  poems;  but' 
is  at  present  better  known  for  his  version  of  the  Psalms, 
in  which  he  joined  with  Dr.  Brady,  than  any  other  of  his 
works.     Bis  miscellaneous  poems  are  enumerated  in  Gib- 
ber's *^  Lives,''  and  by  Jacob,  who  says  Tate's  poem  on 
the  Death  of  queen  Anne,  which  was'one  ofithe  last,  is 
'^  one  of  the  best  poems  he  ever  wrote."     His  share  in 
the  *^  Second  Part  of  Absalom  and  Achitophel"  is  far  from 
inconsiderable ;  and  may  be  seen  in  the  English  Poets.    He 
published  also  *^  Memorials  for  the  Learned,  collected  out 
of  eminent  authors  in  history,"  &c.   1686,  8vo;  and  his 
''  Proposal  for  regulating  of  the  Stage  and  Stage  Flays," 
Feb.  6,  1698,  is  among  bishop  Gibson's  MSS.  in  the  Lam« 
beth  library.  * 

.  1  Gibber's  Lir^s.—Nichols'i  Poemt.— Jacob's  liTes.-— Harris'!  edition  of  Ware^ 
—Malone's  Drydeo,  toL  I«  p.  Ul. 


IS4  T  A  T  I  A  N, 

TATIANi  a  writer  of  the  primitive  church,  was  a  Sy«f 
riau  by  birth,  and  flourished  about  the  year  170.  He  wat 
a  sophist  by  profession,  very  profound  in  all  branches  o£ 
literature,  and  acquired  great  reputation  by  teaching  rhe* 
torie.  Being  converted  to  Christianity,  he  became  the 
scholar  of  Justin  Martyr,  ivhom  he  attended  to  Rome,  and 
partook.with  him  of  the  hatred  of  the  philosopher  Crescens : 
for  he  tells  us  himself,  that  Crescens  laid  wait  for  his  life, 
as  well  as  for.  Justin's.  While  Justin  lived  he  continued 
steady  in  the  orthodox  belief,  but  after  his  death  becamd 
the  author  of  a  new  set  of  fanciful  opinions,  which,  after 
propagating  them  for  some  time  at  Rome,  he  carried  into 
the  east,  and  opened  a  school  in  Mesopotamia,  and  otheff 
places*    Nothing  is  certainly  known  concerning  his  death. 

His  apology  for  Christianity,  entitled  ^^  Oratio  ad  Grae*^ 
cos,''  ^<  An  address  to  the  Greeks,"  the  only  genuine  work 
of  Tatian  which  remains,  every  where  breathes  the  spirit 
of  the  Oriental  philosophy.  He  teaches,  that  God,  after 
liavifig  from  eternity  remained  at  rest  in  the  plenitude  of 
his  own  light,  that  he  might  manifest  himself,  sent  forth 
from  his  simple  nature,  by  an  act  of  his  will,  the  Logos^ 
through  whom  he  gave  existence  to  the  universe,  the  es- 
sence of  which  had  eternally  subsisted  in  himself.  **  The 
Logos,"  he  says/  '^  through  the  will  of  God,  sprang  from 
his  simple  tiatiire."  This  first  emanation,  which,  after  the 
Alexandrian  Platonists,  he  calls  the  Logos,  and  which,  like 
the  Adam  Kadmon  of  the  Cabbalists,  is  the  first  medium 
through  which  all  things  flow  from  God,  he  represents  as 
proceeding,  without  being  separated  from  the  divine  na- 
ture. Matter  is  conceived  by  Tatian  to  have  been  the  pro- 
duction of  the  Logos,  sent  forth  from  his  bosom.  And  the 
mind  of  man  is,  according  to  him,  reason  produced  from 
a  rational  power,  or  an  essential  emanation  from  the  divine 
Logos.  He  distinguishes  between  the  rational  mind  and 
the  animal' soul,  as  the  Alexandrian  philosophers  between 
nig  and  -i^ix^,  and  the  Cabbalists  between  Zelem  and  Ne- 
phesh.  The  world  he  supposed  to  be  animated  by  a  sub- 
qrdinate  spirit,  of  which  all  the  parts  of  visible  nature 
partake :  and  he  taught  that  daemons,  clothed  in  material 
vehicles,  inhabit  the  aerial  regions ;  and  that  above  the 
stars,  aeons,  or  higher  emanations  from  the  divine  nature, 
dwell  in  eternal  light.  In  fine,  the  sentiments  and  lan- 
guage of  Tatian  upon  these  subjects  perfectly  agree  with 
those  of  the  ^Egyptian  and  the  Cabbalistic  philosophy. 


T  A  T  I  A  N.  US 

wbetice  it  may  be  presumed  that  hei  derived  tbemi  in  a 
great  measure,  fram  these  sources.  After  Plato,  this  Chris« 
ttan  father  maintained  the  imperfection  of  matter  as  tho 
cause  of  evil,  and  the  consequent  merit  of  rising  above  ail 
corporeal  appetites  and  passions ;  and  it  was,  probabljTf 
owing  to  this  notion,  that,  with  other  fathers,  he  heid  tha 
superior  merit  of  the  sute  of  celibacy  above  that  of  mar« 
riage;  and  that  he  adopted,  as  Jerooi  relates,  the  Gnostic 
opinion,  that  Christ  bad  no  real  body.  The  tenor  of 
Tatian's  Apology  concurs  with  what  is  known  of  his  his* 
tory,  to  prove,  that  he  was  a  Platonic  Christian.  His  *^  Ora« 
tio"  was  first  printed  at  Zurich  in  1546,  together  with  the 
Latin  version  of  Conradas  Gesner.  It  was  afterwards  sub* 
joined  to  Justin  Martyr^s  works,  printed  at  Paris  in  1615 
and  1636,  folio  ;  but  the  best  edition  of  it  is  that  of  Ox« 
ford,  1700,  in  i2mo. ' 

TATISICHEF  (Vassili),  a  modern  historian,  inr  1720 
began  to  collect  materials  for  a  complete  history  of  Russia ; 
and  continued  bis  researches  without  intermission  for  the 
space  of  thirtiy  years.  This  indefatigable  compiler  finished 
bis  account  to  the  reign  of  Feodor  Ivanovitch ;  and  was 
bringing  it  down  to  this  century,  when  death  put  a  period 
to  his  labours.  Part  of  this  great  work  was  consumed  in  a 
fire ;  and  the  remainder  was  published  after  the  author's 
death  by  Mr.  MuUer.  It  consists  of  three  large  volumes  in 
quarto.  The  first  contains  several  curious  dissertations  re«v 
lative  to  ihe  antiquity  of  the  Sclavonian  nation  ;  while  the 
second  and  third  comprise  the  history  of  the  Russian  empire, 
from  its  earliest  origin  to  1237. 

It  can  hardly  be  called  a  regular  history,  but  is  rathet  a 
connected  series  of  chronicles,  whose  antiquated  Sclavo* 
nian  dialects  are  only  changed  into  the  Russian  idiom  ;  anjl 
the  author  is  justly  censured  for  not  regularly  citing  tbe 
various  annalists  as  he  abridges  or,  new  models  them,  and 
for  not  assigning  the  reasons  which  induced  him  to  prefer 
the  writers  whose  relations  he  has  adopted,  to  those  which 
he  has  rejected. ' 
.  TATIUS  (Achilles),  an  ancient  Greek  writer  of  Alex- 
andria,  is  supposed  to  have  lived  in  the  third  century,  but 
this  is  uncertain.  According  to  Suidas,  who  calls  him 
8tatius,  be  embraced  Christianity  in  the  latter  part  of  his 
life,  and  became  a  bishop.     He  wrote  a  book  ^*  Upon  tbe 

1  Cave,  ro%  I.-*-F«bric.  BiM.  GrtBC^Bmciser.        ^  Coxe^  TnTelk  in  Ituiiim. 


iS6  T  A  T  I  U  S. 

Sphere,**  ^  which  seems  to  have  been  nothing  more  than  « 
commentary  upon  Aratus.  Part  of  it  is  extant,  and  has 
been  translated  into  Latin  by  father  Petavius,  tinder  the 
title  of  ^*  Isagoge  in  pheenomena  Arati."  He  wrote  alio  s 
romance,  probably  from  its  licentiousness  when  he  was  a 
beatben,  entitled,  ^*  Of  the  Loves  of  Clitopbon  and  Len^ 
cippe,*'  in  eight  books,  which  were  first  published  iky 
Latin  only,  at  Basil,  1554.  This  Latin  rersion,  made  by 
Annibal  Cruceius  of  Milan,  was  repubtisbed  by.  Comme-^ 
IiJius,  with  the  Greek,  at  Heidelberg,  1608,  8vo,  with  Lon-i' 
gm  and  Parthenigs,  writers  of  the  same  class :  aftet  whieh^ 
a  more  correct  edition  of  the  Greek  was  given  by  Salota* 
•fus  at  Leyden,  1640,  in  l2mo,  with  Cruceius's  version* 
The  best  edition  is  that  of  Boden,  Gr.  and  Lat.  Leipsic,"^ 
1776,  8vo.* 

TAUBMAN  (Frederic),  an  eminent  German  critic,  was 
bom  at  Wonscisch  in  Franconia,  about  1565.  His  father, 
who  was  a  tradesman  of  the  lower  order,  died  while  Taub«' 
man  was  a  child,  and  his  mother  married  a  taylor,' who, 
however,  had  sense  enough  to  discern  the  boy's  capacity, 
uid  resolved  to  bring  him  up  to  letters.  For  that  purpose 
besenthim  to/CnImbtfch,  a  town  of  Franconia,  to  school, 
where  he  remained  until  be  was  sixteen  years  of  age,  and ' 
snade  aq  uncommon  progress  in  literature.  The  circum* 
Btances  of  his  parents,  however,  were  so  very  indifferent, 
that  they  were  unable  to  funiish  him  with  much,  and  it  is 
aaid  that'he  was  frequently  constrained  to  beg  his  bread 
from  door  to  door.  While  he  was  ait  this  school  his  mothet* 
died,  and  his  father-in-law  married  another  wife,  who 
^  proved  very  kind  to  one  now  become  an  orphan  iu  every 
way. 

In  1582,  George- Frederic,  marquis  of  Brandenburg, 
baving  founded  a  college  at  Heilbrun,  a  town  of  Suabia, 
collected  the  promising  youth  out  of  all  his  states,  and 
Taubmao  among  the  rest,  whose  great  capacity  recom- 
ynended  him  to  public  notice ;  and  who,  besides  his  skill 
in  the  Xatin  and  Greek  authors,  had  acquired  much  fame 
by  bis  poetry.  After  staying  ten  years  at  Heilbrun,  he 
went  in  1592  to  Wittemberg,  whefe  he  soon  distinguished 
himself;  and  Frederic  William,  the  prince  of  Saxony,  con- 
caved so  high  an  esteem  for  him,  as  often  to  admit  him 
into  his  company.    The  professorship  of  poetry  and  the 

!  VotBiuf  de  Soieat.  Math.— rubric.  Bibl.  Qmc^Mo^n^m  HiA.  MaUi.    ' 


T  A  U  B  M  A  N.  i5T 

beiles  UUres  becoming  vacant  in  15^5^  the  university  asked 
it  of  the  court  for  Taubimn,  who  accordingly  took  pofr* 
session  of  it  in  October  that  year,  and  held  it,  with  great 
honour  to  himself,  and  advantage  to  the  public,  as  long  as 
he  lived.  He  died  of  a  fever  in  1613,  leaving  five  children 
ai^d  a  wife,  whom  he  had  married  in  1596.  He  was  ono 
of' those  few  happy  men  who  had  qualities  to  make  himself 
beloved  as  well  as  admired.  His  very  great  learning  pro« 
c^red  him  the  adoiiration  of  mankind  ;  and  the  liveliness 
of  bis  disposition,  and  many  private  virtues,  secured  to 
bki^  tbeir  esteejn  and  affection. 

. .  His  works  are,  I.  *^  Commentarius  in  Plautum,  Francof* 
1605  ;"  and  in  1612,  not  only  enlarged,  but  more  correct* 
A  third  edition,  with  additions,  by  Janus  Gruterus,  was 
published  after  his  death  in  1622.  In  these  editions,  which 
ace  all  in  quarto,  Taubman  has  greatly  contributed  towards 
the  restoration  of  the  tri^e  text  of  Plautus.  Joseph  Scaliger 
complimented  Taubman  upon  his  Commentary  on  Plauti^s ; 
and  tells  him,  that  it  has  all  the  marks  of  penetration, 
judgmi^ut,  and  industry.  The  learned  have  since  ever  con* 
sidered  it  in  tilis  light ;  and  many  consider  the  second  and 
third  editions,  not,withstanding  the  labours  of  any  later  cri* 
tic,  as  the  best  we  still  have  of  Plautus.  After  his  death 
was  published,  by  his  son,  bis  2.  '^  Commentarius  in  Vir* 
gilium  ;^'  which  Tanaquil  Faber  scruples  not,  in  one  of  his 
letters, .  to  call  the  best  commentary  we  have  upon  Virgil ; 
but  this  is  not  the  general  opinion.  3.  '^  De  lingu^  Latini 
dissert^tio,^'  published  by  biipself  at  Wittemburg  in  1602. 
He  ^Isp  published  other  small  pieces,  and  some  Latin 
poetry.  ,  Taubmanniana  came  out  at  Leipsic  in  1 703  : 
Taubman  had  a  great  turn  for  raillery,  but  whether  any  of 
bis  genuine  witticisms  can  be  found  in  this  collection  mjay 
reasonably  admit  of  a  doubt.  ^ 

TAULERUS  (John),  a  writer  famous  among  the  mysti* 
cal  devotees,  flourished  in  the  fourteenth  <?Qntury,     \y''e 
have  no  certain  account  of  the  year  or  place  of  his  birth*. 
He  was  born  in  Germany,  and  bepame  a  monk  of  the  Do^ 
minican  order,  and  acquired  great  skill  in  philospphy  ^nd « 
sqbooUdivinity ;  but  he  applied  himself  pvincipally  to  myisr^. 
tical  divinity ;  and  as  it  was  believed  that  h^  was ,  favoufed  . 
with  revelations  from  heaveo,  he  was  styled  the  illu,xniwiU4^c 
dMoinei     He  had  great  talents  for  preachings  and  there  %^, 


i$i  T  A  U  L  E  R  U  S. 

ibo  preacher  in  that  age  more  followed  than  he.  He  re- 
proved with  great  zeal  and  great  freedom  the.  faults  of 
every  body;  and  this  made  him  odious  to  some  monka^ 
whose  persecutions  of  him  he  bore  patiently.  He  sub* 
mitted  with  the  aame  resolution  to  other  trials,  and  it  was 
thought  that  he  was  thus  visited  by  God,  that  he  might 
not  grow  proud  of  the  extraordinary  gifts  which  he  bad 
received  from  heaven.  The  two  principal  cities  in  which 
he  preached,  were  Cologne  and  Strasburg.  He  died  in 
the  latter  after  a  long  sickness,  May  17,  1361,  and  , was 
honourably  interred  there  in  the  academical  college,  near 
the  winter-nuditory.  He  wrote  several  books ;  concerning 
which  different  judgments  have  been  formed;  somecatho* 
lies  have  censured  them,  and  some  protestants  have  com^ 
mended  them.  Among  the  latter,  we  may  mention  our 
Dr.  Henry  More,  who  exceedingly  admired  Taulerus^s 
work  entitled  <<  Tbeologia  Germanica,^*  which  Luther  also 
praises.  This  was  first  translated  from  the  German  into 
Latin  by  Surius,  and  then  by  Sebastian  Castalio,  and  went 
through  a  great  many  editions  from  1518  to  1700,  when  it 
was  printed  in  French  at  Amsterdam.  ^ 

TAURUS  (Calvisius),  of  Beryta,  who  flourished  under 
the  reign  of  Antoninus  Pius,  is  mentioned  as  a  Platonist  of 
some  note.  Among  his,  pupils  was  Aulus  Gellius,  who  has 
preserved  several  specimens  of  his  preceptor's  method  of 
philosophising.  He  examined  all  sects,  but  preferred  the 
Platonic  :  in  which  he  had  at  least  the  merit' of .  avoiding 
the  infection  of  that  spirit  of  confusion,  which  at  this  pe- 
riod seized  almost  the  whole  body  of  the  philosophers, 
especially  those  of  the  Platonic  school.  In  a  work  which 
he  wrote  concerning  the  differences  in  opinion  among  die 
Platonists,  Aristotelians,  and  Stoics,  he  strenuously  apposed 
the  attempts  of  the  Alexandrian  philosophers,  and  others, 
to  combine  the  tenets  of  these  sects  into  one  system.  He 
wrote  several  pieces,  chiefly  to  illustrate  the  Platonic  phi- 
losophy. He  lived  at  Athens,  and  taught,  not  in  the 
schools,  but  at  bis  table.  A.  Gellius,  who  was  frequently 
one  of  his  guests,  give^  the  following  account,  in  his  <<  Noc- 
.  tes  Atticse,"  of  the  manner  in  which  they  were  conducted: 
*^  Taurus,  the  philosopher,  commonly  invited  a  select  num^ 
her  of  his  friends  to  a  frugal  supper,  consisting  of  lentils, 
an4  a  gourd,  cut  into  small  pieces  upon  an  «arthen  dish; 

>  Gen,  Dict**Biof .  Brit,  art,  M9r6,«*JPfehcri  Thsatrvm; 


TAURUS,  IS9 

and  during  the  repast,  philosophical  conversation,  upon  ra** 
rious  topics,  was  introduced.  His  constant  disciples,  f^hom 
h6  called  his  family,  were  expected  to  contribute  their 
fthare  towards  the  small  expence  which  attended  these 
simple,  repasts,  in  which  interesting  conversation  supplied 
the  place  of  luxurious  provii^ion.  Every  one  came  fur^ 
nrshed  with  some  new  subject  of  inquiry,  which  he  was 
allowed  in  his  turn  to  propose,  and  which,  during  a  limited  . 
time,  was  debated.  The  subjects  of  discussion,  ifi  the^ 
conversations,  were  noft  of  the  more  serious  and  important 
kind,  but  such  elegant  questions  as  might  afford  an  agreed- 
able  exercise  of  the  faculties  in  the  moments  of  convivial 
enjoyment;  and  these  Taurus  afterwards  frequently  iltas* 
trated  more  at  large  with  sound  erudition.**  ^ 

TAVERNER  (Richard),  a  pious  layman  of  the  reigna 
of  Henry  VI IL  Edward,  Mary,  and  ElistiJ^eth,  descended 
from  an  ancient  faitiily  in  Norfolk,  and, was  the  eldest  son 
of  John  Taverner  of  Brisley,  where  he  was  born  in  "^1505. 
He  is  said  to  have  studied  logic  for  some  time  in  Oorpua 
Cbristi  college,  Cambridge,  and,  if  so,  must  have  been 
contemporary  with  archbishop  Parker.     He  afterwards  re«- 
moved  to  Oxford,  and  was  one  of  the  learned  scholars  in- 
vited by  cardinal  Wolsey  to  his  nev  college  there.     Wood 
informs  us  that  he  took  the  degree  of  A.B.  on  May  21, 
1527,  and  that  of  A.M.  in  1530,  having  been  made  oner  of 
the  junior  canons  the  yea¥  before.     Having  thus  acquired 
ii  competent  knowledge  in  the  sciences  and  learned  lan- 
guages, he  studied  law  in  the  Inner  Temple.     In  1534  he 
was  introduced  to  court,  and  being  taken  into  the  service 
©f  sir  Thomas  Cromwell,  principal  secretary  of  «tate,  he 
was  recommended  by  him  to  the  king  for  one  of  the  clerks 
of  the  signet  tn  1537,  which  place  he  held  until  the  reign 
of  queen  Mary,  notwithstanding  his  commitment  to  the 
Tower  about  four  years  after  for  **  slandering  the  ladic 
Anne  of  Cleve,"  or  rather  on  account  of  his  being  deemed 
one  of  the  gospellers^  as  they  were  termed,  of  his  college. 
He  certainly  was  a  friend  to  the  reformation,  and  in  order 
to  promote  it  undertook  a  new  translation  or  edition  of  the 
English  bible,  "  recognized  with  great  diligence  after  most 
faithful  examples,"  Lond.  1539,  fol.     It  was  dedicated  to 
the  king,  and  allowed  to  be  read  in  churches.   But  in  1543, 
his  patron^  lord  Cromwell,  being  then  dead,  the  popish 

1  A«in6eH»^Nl»ot.Atlic9.— BruGker. 


r    ' 


160  T  A  y  E  R  N  B  R. 

bishops  caused  the  priatefs  to  be  imprisonedl  and  punished  f 
and  the  edilor  hhtoself  also  was  oomaniited  to  the  Tower* 
Here  however  be  acqailled  himself  so  well^  that  he  was  not 
only  soon  after  released,  but  restored  again  to  the  king's 
iarour,  and  chosen  a  member  of  parKameat  in  1 545.     Bale 
calls  TaTeraer's  edition  of  the  Bible^  **  Saerornai  Bibliorom 
recognition  sen  pottos  versio  nora;"  bst  it  is  neither  »  bare 
revisal  of  the  preceding  editions,  nor  a  new  version,  but 
between  both.     It  is  a  correction  of  what  is  called  Mat« 
thewe's  Bible ;  many  of  vi4»ose  marginal  notes  are  adqptedy 
and  many  omitted,  and  others  inserted  by  the  editor.  Arch-* 
bishop  Newcome  thinks  it  probable  that  Tavenier's  patron^ 
Cromwell,  encouraged  him  to  undertake  this  work,  on  ao^ 
count  of  his  skill  in  tiie  Greek  toi^e ;  bot  it  is  miwe  pro*^ 
bable  that  he  was  principally  induced  to  it  by  the  printers, 
as  we  learn  frcnn  a  passage  in  the  dedication,  in  which,  aftev^ 
telling  the  king  that  a  correct  or  faultless  translation  of  the 
Bible  must  be  the  production  of  many  learned  men,  and  of 
much  tio>e  and  leisure,  he  adds ;  **  but  forasmuch  a$  the 
printers  Were  very  desirous  to  have  the  Bible  rome  forth  as  * 
faultless  and  emendately  as  the  shortness  of  the  time  iwt 
the  recognising  .of  the  same  would  require,  tbey  desirsd 
him,  for  default  of  a  better  learned,  diligently  to  overlook  - 
and  peruse  the  whole  copy,  and,  in  case  be  should  find  any 
notable  default  that  needed  correction,    to    amend  the 
saaae,  &c" 

/  On  the  accession  of  king  Edward,  Taverner,  although  a 
layman,  had  a  special  licence  in  1 552  to  preach  through* 
out  the  king's  dominions.  Good  preaching  was  at  that 
time  ao  rery  scarce,  that  not  only  the  king's  chaplains  were 
obliged  to  make  circuits  round  the  country  to  instruct  the 
peoploy  aad  to  fortify  them  agiiinst  popery,  but  even  lay^ 
men,  who  waKT  scholars,  were  employed  for  that  purpose. 
From  this  however  he  was  obliged  to  desist  when  queen 
Mary  came  to  the\brone,  and  therefore  retired  to  Norbiton 
hall,  near  Kingston  in  Surry,  where  he  lived  quietly  du« 
ring  the  whole  of  her  reign.     As  soon  as  Elisabeth  became 

Jueeog  to  whom  he  presented  a  congratulatory  epistle  in 
■akin  upoa  that  happy  occasion,  he  resumed  his  preaching 
in  Oxford  and  elsewhere.  Her  majesty  had  a  high  respect 
for  him,  and  besides  ofiering  him  knighthood  (which  Tan« 
ner  jthioks  he  aeeepted),  put  him  into  the  commissioa  oi 
the  peace  for  the  county  of  Oxford.  Here  numerous  con* 
cams  were  intrusted  to  biai|  and  in  1569^  he  was  made  bigii 


•f 


T  A  V  E  R  N  E  K.  i^i. 


\ 


•iveriff  of  A^comtty.  Hm  »m1  was  mHI  nmrn  agftiiiU  fio*- 
pery,  profattUy  «MriD);r  to  tfae  frtghtfitl  «ifc<cts  of  popish  bi** 
Ig^ty  wbicfa  fa^  bad  witnetaed  in  Mary^s  rekgfi,  a^id  not- 
witbstaiMliiDg  fais  tiew  office,  be  contkitied  his  preachirig. 
Ev^m  white  bigb  dieriff,  iie  afsfieaied  in  St.  Mary's  piiipit, 
wirb  ills  goU  cfaata  about  bis  mcckf  and  bis  aanoixl  by  bis 
tidti,  and  is  AAid  ta  have'  b^«»  oine  of  bis  seraions  w  tbe 
Mii^wing  saardfi :  *^  ^jrivHig  aut  tfae  b»04Mi4  ef  St«  Mary's,  it 
the  fet«M»y  stage  *  wbefie  I  now  aland,  I  have  brought  yoa 
'9mae  ^ne  biakaiis,  ibakod  in  the  ai^n  of  eiiarity,  ai^d  oare^ 
fiiHy  coajKuved  fit  tiie  chockens  of  thefobureb,  tke  sparroifB 
of  4be  apim,  and  die  sweet  swaliows  of  aalvailion.*'  This 
atyle  was  nraab  ^adaaired  in  4iis  daya  aveii  <by  the  generaiky 
of  the  aeboiam,  and  indeed  soch  alUtertttion  wtm  long  after- 
wards a  favonriDe  both  with  speakers  rand  bearers,  lie  also 
eodeavottned  io  promote  tbe  reforoMitioQ  by  bis  wrttiaga 
aod  translatioos ;  of  which,  besides  bis  BiUe,  we  *hai^e  the 
follow4f»g  iist :  1.  *<  The  saan  and  ptdi  lof  cc  PsttlaiS  of  Da^ 
Tid,  reduced  into  a  form  of  fnrayers  and  mediiatiiNHiSy  wMn 
certain  other  godly  orisons,'*  Lond.  IM^,  ^q.  g.  ^  Tbb- 
£f»stles  BiaA  Goapek,  with  a  brief  pcatiU  apsm  ibe«aaie, 
froas-  Adi^m  to  Low  'Suti'day ;  and  from  £aster«o  Adrent," 
Lo^d.  1 540,  two  parts,  4to.  3«  ^<  Fmtit  lof  Faiife,  con*ain>» 
ing  all  the  prayers  of  the  pa^riarchs^  he,  iii.  the  Old -and 
New  Tesianent,"  ibid,  1562,  12nio.  4.  ^<  Tbe  Garden  ef 
Wysdoflie,  &c.  containing  the  sayings  of  prinoea^  pbdoso* 
pbera,  4ic.''  XS^j  2  books.  5.  ^*  F4ores  aliqwot  sentential 
ruoi  ex  vartis  aeriptoril>tts,"  transited  foots  Srasmtis.  S, 
<*  CtttoOis  Diistieha  MomliSi,"  Lond.  15&a,.d9o,  1555»  4fto. 
7.  «<io  MhiMikn  F^btianum  lib.  1,"  li^.  6.  ''  €ateei|t»* 
mud  6dei."  9.  ^*  Provei4>s  «r  adagies  gatheaad  'Oai  of  the 
Chitiadcs  of  Crasaaus,''  \54S.  Uis  tfwisbtie«8.  wese, 
^  Gresteie's  Pra3/«i«  on  thefsalim ;"  ^vCkiiiiesston  el -the 
Gerpaaos,  with  the  apology  of  Melaoethon^'*  ukil^  aosiM 
tracts  from  Erasroiak  ^ 

In  tbe  latter  part  of  his  life,  Taaerner  lived  at  a  seaH  bo 
bad  built  at  Woodeatoa  in  OKfordsfdre,  snbeace  he  daaes  a 
letter  to  itrchbishop  Parker  in  J46£«  excuainghianseif  ^tn 
lending  the  queen  100/.,  from  inability. «t  that  time*  He 
died  lit  tbta  piace^  July  14^  IS76,  in  the  seventieth  yetar 
of  his  age,  »nd  was  boried  in  tbe  cbeiioal  of  thieoiiitrch 
with  great  solemnity.     He  married  two  wiYes^  Margaret 

•  St.  Mary'g  puTpft  wM  tht  n  ^t  tC^tfe. 

Vol.  XXIX.  M 


16«  TAVERNER. 

the  daughter  of  Walter  Laonbert,  esq. ;  aoil  after  her  de« 
cease,  Mary,  the  daogbter  of  nr  John  Harcpurt,  and  bad 
issue  by  both.  Ward  gives  some  account  of  bis  fomily  and 
descendants  in  bis  ^*  Lives  of  the  Gresbam  Professora.*'  ^ 

TAVERNIER  (John  Baptist),  a  Frenchman,  fan^otis 
for  his  travels,  was  born  at  Pads  in  1605.  His  father,. who 
was  a  native  of  Antwerp,  settled  at  Paris^  and  traded  very 
largely  in  geographical  maps,  so  that  the  natural  incltna^ 
lion  which  Tavern ier  had  for  travelling  was  greatly  in» 
creased,  by  the  conversations  which  daily  passed  in  hia  fa- 
th^r^s  house,  concerning  foreign  countries.  He  began  to 
gratify  bis  passion  so  early,  that,  at  the  age  of  two  and 
twenty  years,  he  had  seen  the  finest  countries  of  Europe^ 
France,  England,  the  Low  Countries,  Germany,  Switaech 
land,  Poland,  Hungary,  and  Italy.  During  tlh^  space  of 
fwrty  years  he  travelled  six  times  into  Turkey,  Persia,  and 
the  East  Indies,  and  by  all  the  different  routes  he  codd 
take.  In  the  course  of  these  peregrinations,  he  gained  a 
great  estate  by  trading  in  jewels ;  and,  being  ennobled  by 
Louis  XIV.  purchased  the  barony  of  Aubonine,  near  the 
lake  of  Geneva,  in  1668.  He  bad  collected  a  great  uuaDM> 
ber  of  observations,  but  be  had  nut  learned  either  to  speak 
or  write  well  in  French ;  for  which  reason  he  was  forced 
to  employ  others  in  drawing  up  his  relations.  M.  Chap* 
paseau,  with  whom  he  lodged  at  Geneva,  lent  htm  bis  pen 
for  the  two  first  volumes  of  his  travels ;  and  M.  Cbspeile 
for  the  third.  They  have  frequently  been  printed,  an4 
eontain  several  curious  particulars;  yet  not  without  some 
fables,  which  were  told  him  purely  to  impose  upon  hts 
simplicity.  .  He  is  charged  also  with  stealing  fromothc^rs 
to  fill,  up  bis  own  accounts  :  thus  Dr.  Hyde,  having  cited  » 
irery  long  passage  from  Tavernier,  tells  us  thai)  <^he  bad 
taken  it  like  a  downright  plagiary  from  a  book  printed  at 
Lyons,  1671,  in  8vo,  and  written  by  father  Gabriel  de  Chftt 
Aon,  who  had  lived  in  Persia  thirty  years." 
■»  Tasemier's  aflairs  became  embarrassed  at  theJatteriBiid 
of  'bis  life;  by  reason  of  the  miamanageinent  and  ill  con4 
dwct  Jof^a  nephew,  who  had  in  the  Levant  the  direeuoU'Ol^ 
a  cargo  purchased  in  France  for  222,000  livpes,  stnd.  wbjob 
should- have  pmdaced  above  a- milK^n.  Tavevniervjtbeyii^ 
fiDre  under«cM>k  a  seventh  jouruey  lalo  the  Eaat,  to  reet^/ 

»  Ath  Oxvol.  I.-— Ma  ters'sHisl.of  C.G.C.C.— W«rd'8Grash»niFrof€sior».  . 
--N«wcombe'f  English  Biblical  TrgmUtionJk 


taver;N1|:k.  les 

ibis  disorder ;  for  wbic^  purp<^e  he  saki^bis  \fm^fmyjd.^*f 
bonne  in  1687  to  the  otar^^uis  Dn  Que«ne,  bu^bn^i^^oa 
bis  mjr^  at  Moscovir^io  Juiy  16^^  aged^igbty-foufj  eafiSi. 
He  was  of  tbe  Protestaiiit  religfOR^  Several  pariie^^  acoxirog 
wbicb  %vere  tbe  JDutcb  and  tW.Jct^i^its,  were  ofFeiKkid  at 
oertaun  things  ins^erted  in,  his  travel^i,  and  be  has  basin 
abii$ed  in  .  print  oa.tbat  accotuit.  He  has  one  chapiar 
wfaere  he  cofisiclers  tbe  conduatfof  tbe  Hollanders  inAa^a; 
and  is.  very  severe  upon  tbe  directors  of  their  East  India 
company^  by  wbooi  he  represents  bimself  to  have  sMflFeeed : 
but  iie  declares  at  tbe  beginning  that  be  does  nut  blame 
tbe  conduct  of  tbe.Dutcb  in  general.  The  firj^t  editioaof 
tiia^*  Travels"  was  printed  at  Pari*,  1$76 — 79,  3  vols.  4to» 
That  fnostcoaunon  is  in  6  vols.  42mo.  ^ 

TAYLOR  (Brook),  a  celebrated  philosopher. and  ma* 
tbematician,  was  born^  at  Edmonton  in  Middlesex,  Aug. 
2Bf  1685.  His  grandfatberi  Nathaniel  Taylor*  was  one-of 
Cfae  Puritans  whom .  Cromwell  elected  by  letter,  June  l^^ 
1653^  to  represent  tbe  county  of  Bedford  in*. parliament. 
His  father^  John  Taylor,  .esq.  of  Bifron^i  in  Kent,  U  said  to 
have  stiH  retained  some  of  the  austerity  of  tbe  puritanic 
eharacter,  but  was  sensible  of  the  power  of  rnQsic  ;  in  con* 
sequence  of  which,  bis  son  Brook  studied  that  science 
early,  and  became  a  proficient  in  it,  as  he  did  also  in  draw* 
ing.  He  studied  the  classics  and  mathematics  with  a  prif» 
vate  tuibr  at  home,  and  made  so  successful  a  progress,  that 
At  fifteen  be  was  thought  to  be  qualified  for  the  miiversity. 
in  1701  be  went  to  St.  John's  college,  Cambridge,,  in  tbe 
rank:of  a  fellow-commoner,  and  immediately  appHed  him* 
telf  ^itfa  z^eal  to  the  study  of  mathematical  science,  which 
alone  could  gain  distinction  there.  *It  was  not  long, before 
be  became/an  author  in  that  science,  for,  in  17ds^be  wrote 
bis  i*  Treatise  on  the  Centre  of  Oscillation/'  though  it:;was 
not  published  till  it  appeared  some  ye^rs  after  jn  tt^et  Phi^ 
losopbical  Transactions.  In  1709,,  he  took  thi^dc^^eaif 
baefaeior  of  :kwB ;;.  aiid  about  tim  same  time  ^ommeafied  a 
eorcespondence  with  professor  I^eil,  ou^M^jepifs  gjEiltJieinbdm 
ld)!>ti^se  mathematical  dii^qnisition.  An  i74Sih]ei\wsie>leel]ed 
into  the  Royal  Society,  to  which. i«)  tbsit  {yeaiiibfi.«pre$,eRted 
tbree  papers,,  one,  ^f  On  the.  Ascent  of:  Wiater,  be44f\reea  tmo 
Qiass  Planes.''  2..  '*  Oa  -the  C^»tve  of  OsiclMation.!'  *• 
**  On  tbe  Motion  of  a  stretched  String."     He  presented 

»  Mor<fl^f.M&ifct  Hist.'  '  .■''*-■' 


■*/  *  '><- 


M  2 


IM  *r  A  Y  L  O  lU 

«bo,  in  If 'll|  A  ^ftp^r  on  hti  fiiiioiirlte  science  of  tmittt^ 
hnt  thhj  though  mentioned  in  fak  correspondettce  with 
Kei),  does  not  appear  in  the  Transa<:tion8. 

His  distinguished  abilities  as  a  mathematician  bad  notr 
reoomiftiended  him  particularly  to  the  esteem  of  the  Royal 
Society,  who,  in  1714,  elected  tiiin  to  the  office  of  secre- 
taty*  In  the  tame  year,  he  took  the  degree  of  doctor  of 
iaw9)  at  Cambridge.  In  iliS,  he  published  his  *<  Methoo 
ivm  incrementorufn/'  and  a  curious  essay  in  the  Philoso* 
(ihtcid  Transactions,  entitled,  **  An  Account  of  an  Experi^ 
«ient  for  the  Discovery  of  the  Laws  of  Magnetic  Attract 
-  tiot)  ;^*  and,  besides  these,  his  celebrated  work  ou  perspec- 
tive, entitled  **  New  Principles  of  Linear  Perspective  :  or 
the  art  of  designing,  on  a  plane,  the  representations  of  all 
sorts  of  objects,  in  a  more  general  and  simple  method  than 
has  hitherto  been  done.^^  This  work  has  gone  through  se- 
veral editions,  and  received  some  improvements  f^om  Mi*. 
Colson,  Lucasilin  professor  ftt  Cambridge.  In  the  same 
year  Taylor  conducted  a  controversy,  in  a  coi^respondence 
with  Raymond  count  de  Montmort,  respecting  the  tenets 
of  Malbranche,  which  occasioned  him  to  be  noticed  aftet*- 
wards  in  the  eulogium  pronounced  t)n  thftt  celebrated  ltn(^<- 
tapbysiciimv  In  1716,  by  invitation  frott  several  learned 
fAen,  to  whom  his  merits  were  well  known,  t>r,  Taylor 
i^sited  Paris,  >her^  he  was  received  with  every  tiaark  of 
inspect  and  distinction.  Early  in  1 7 17,  he  returned  to  Lou- 
don, «t}d  composed  three  treatises,  which  are  in  the  tbir- 
tietb  volume  of  the.  Philosophical  Transactions.  Bui:  bis 
Jiealth  having  been  impaired  hy  intense  application,  he  w?i8 
now  advised  to  go  to  AiX'-la-chapelle,  and  resigned  his 
office  of  secretary  to  the  Royal  Society.  After  his  return 
1o  £figl«Bd  in  1719,  it  appears  that  be  applied  bis  mind  to 
iHidiesof  a  religious  nature,  the  result  of  which  were  found 
tnsome  dlssersaftions  preserved  among  his  papers^  '^On 
Ibe  Jewish  Sacrifices,"  t&c.  He  did  not,  howevet,  neglect 
hiaifbrmer  pursuits,  but  amused  himself  with  drawings  im«- 
proiFed  his  treatise  on  linear  perspective,  and  wrote  a  de- 
Csmeeof  it  against  the  attacks  of  J.  Bernouilli,  in  a  paper 
HfHkk  appears  in  the  thirtieth  vohime  of  the  Philosophical 
Transactional^  Bernouilli  objected  to  the  work  as  too  ab**- 
a^rusej  and  denied  the  author  the  merit  of  inventing liis  syn- 
tern*  It  is  indeed  acknowledged,  that  though  Dr.  B.  'f'ay- 
-rior  I'discov^red  it  for  himself,  he  was  not  the  ficst  who  ha4 
-moiitim^sme  path,  as  it  had  been.4we,^x.G!wi^  ybaJ^'t 


I  / 


TAYLOR.  l$f 

I 

in  %  beok  ^n  peiff^aeliTt,  published  at  P^s^ra  i^  16Q0«  Tini 
abftvusi^ness  of  his  wofk  has  been  pbviatec}  by  atu>tber  an^ 
^hof,  in  a  work  #ntHi#4>  ^*  Dr«  Brook  Taylor's  inethod  of 
f^npwnver  made  eaay,  bpib  in  iheory  and  practice,  {^c/ 
by  Joshua  Kirby,  painter  '^  and  this  publication  ha«  c^aa* 
.tinged  to  be  the  roaniia)  both  of  artists  and  dilettanti.  To^. 
ward)  the  end  of  17^0,  I>r,  Taylor  visited  lord  Bolingbroke, 
naar  Orleans,  bul  retqrnpd  the  next  year,  and  published 
bis  last  paper  in  the  Pbilosopbical  Transactions,  which  d^ 
scribed,  '^  An  Evperim^u  Q>ade  to  ascertain  the  Proport 
%iw  of  Estpansion  in  tb0  TberoKkaieter,  with  regard  to  thff 
l>egree  of  Heat." 

Dr.  Brook  Taylor  was  twief  married,  and  both  tinses  s0 
unfortanate  as  to  losa  bi^  wife  after  a  very  short  period. 
The  first  lady  was  a  Miss  fridges,  of  Walliogtw  in  Surry, 
to  whom  he  was  united  in  1 72 1.  Aa  this  lady,  though  ef  a 
good  family,  bad  little  fortune,  bis  marriage  with  bev 
eecasioned  a  rupi;ure  with  his  father,  whi^b  lasted  till  aftet 
the  birth  of  a  son,  who  unhappily  did  not  long  surmt. 
'Be  became  a  widower  in  1723.  The  two  following^  yean 
he  resided  with  his  father  at  ^ifront ;  and,  in  1795^  formed 
a  new  marriage  with  the  daughter  of  John  Sawbridge,  esqi^ 
ofOlantigbtn  Kent.  In  1799,  he  succeeded  to  his  £a-r 
tber*s  estate  at  Bifrons^  but  in  the  following  year  had  ibe 
misfortune  to  lose  hia  second  wife  in  ebtld*bed;  ablevv 
which,  in  the  impained  state  of  his  bealtb,  he  was  unable  te 
sustain*  His  remaining  days  were  days  of  imbecUity  an4 
sorrow,  and  be  anrvived  little  meve  than  a  year-  On  ib« 
'*29th  of  December,  1731,  he  died  of  a  dediBe,  in  the 
ferty-siatb  year  of  hia  ajge,  and  waa  buried  at  ^/Anne'Sj 

in  the  interval  between  1721  a^d  bi$  deaiib,  be  ibppeiil . 
te^  haw  been  in  part  disabled  by  ill  healthy  and  in  pari  49^ 
verted  by  otber  objects  from  severe  piudy.  **  A  Treatiat 
on  Ldgaittfonbs,"  addreaaed  to  bi#  friend  lerd  Pauley,  ajSieck 
aterda  lord  Abercom,  ii  almoat  tlie  only  frui^  of  ibi«  labni^r 
Which  has  been  Scfmi  to  beiof^g  to  that  period  )  And  tbia 
baa  never  been  publiabed.  Aftei  ^e  Idsa  ^^f  bil^  nwim^ 
We,  he aeema  tobave  endeavcKnred  to  diver|.bis,eij^4  by 
study^;  and  an  essay,  entitled  ^*  Conlemptatio  Pbilosopbiiais'' 
pkinted^  but  net  publmbed,  by  bb  grandaaiiiy  air  WillMMi 
Voung,  in  11»%9  wajs  pirobaWy  wfiweft  m^tifnt^f  and  lor 
this  piit-pose.  It  was  the  effort  of  a  strong  mind,  and  affords 
a  most  remarkaMe^  escampte  of  tb^  close  t^eel^heilaaalMh^ 


U6  T  A  Y  L  O  H. 

tnati«iatiy  applied  to  metaphysics.  ^  Tbe^€fibrty'  h<»rrref,  wts 
Tain,  and  equally  vain  were  tb^  eartiest  endeavourt  of  bis 
friendsi  to  amtise  and  comfort  him  by  sdcial  gratificatioiib. 
Dr*  Taylor  is  proved,  by  his  writings  to  have  bean  afinisblMl 
scholar,  and  a  profound  mathematteian  :  h^  is  recorded  to 
have  been  no  less  a  polished  gentlemaD,  and  a' sound  and 
serious  Christian.  It  is  sald'of  him,  that  *^  he  inspired  pitT- 
tiality  on  his  first  address ;  be  gained'itnpercepcibljrcm  ae- 
quaintance ;  and  the  favourable  impressions  whitb  be^ma4e 
from  genius  and  accomplishments^  be  fixed  in  farther  in- 
timacy, by  the  fundamental  qualities  of  benevolence  Md 
integrity.**  His  skill  in  drawing  is  also  commended  in ^le 
highest  terms.  **  He  drew  figures,*'  says  his  biographiM'y 
^^  with  extraordinary  precision  and  beauty  of  pencil;  band- 
scape  was  yet  his  favourite  branch  of  design.  His  origiflial 
landsc^apes  are  mostly  painted  in  water-colours,  but  wkb'dl 
<tbe  richness  and  strength-  of  oils.  They  have  a  force  of 
colour,  a  freedom  of  touch,  a  varied  dispbsitten  of  planes 
of  distance,  and  a  learned  use  of  aerial  as  welt  as  linear 
perspective,  which  all  professional  men  who  have  seen  these 
paintings  have  admired*.  Some  pieces  are  compositioiitf; 
some  are  drawn  from  nature  :  and  the  general  cbaracteris- 
tic  of  their  effect  may  be  exemplified,  by  sopposii^  -  tBe 
bold  fore-grounds  of  Sal vator  Rosa  to  be  bached  by  the 
succession' of  distances,  and  mellowed  by*  the  saber  bar- 
mony  which  distinguishes  the  productions  of  Gaspar  Pouii^ 
sin.  The  small  figures,  interspersed  in  the  tatidscapes, 
wpuld  not  have  disgraced  the  pencil  of  the  correct  ^and  dstf* 
•sic  Nicolas.*'  •      ^-  :.  * 

•  The  daughter  of  Dr.  Brook  Taylor,  by  bis  second  wife, 
survived  him  ;  and  it  is  to  her  son,  sir  William  Yoivng, 
that  the  public  is  indebted  for  the  account  of  that  emi« 
nent  man,  from  which  the  present  narrative  bas  been  drawn 
up.  *  «  L  t    ,       : 

*  TAYLOR  (Jeremy),  a  very  learned  and  celebrated  pre- 
late, the  son  of  Nathaniel  and  Mary  Taylor,  was  bom:(ti 
t*H^  pttrtA  of  the  Holy  Trinity  in  Cambridge,  where  bis 
father  was  in  the  humble  station  of  a  barber  :  and  was  bnp^ 
iise**Ail^r  P5,-  1613:  He  was  educated'  from  the  age  of' 
•tb^^ee'^tb  that  of  thirteeti  at  Perseus  free^scheo}^  in  Caitf- 
bi^d'gei  aiidihen  entered  a  sizer  of^Oaius-eollegCv^n  Ai^^- 
gUbt  1^26;  tinder  Mr/  Bacbcrofl. '  In  tbis  society  be  took 


:.ii»^n>     iij^  pf^e4,M»*^  ^'Jf^^f!V^^J^^^l^^i&    -^-^  -^-r- 


Taylor:  i«7 

bis  degree  of  feaiehelor  in  1631,  ani)  bi«hap  JUisl:  »«)?%  ib^t 

^as  soon  eg  be  wa»  graduate,  be  wa&  chosen  fellow.     Tbe 

improvement  which  be  made  in  bis  infancy  was  now  foi^. 

lowed  lip  wilb  increasing  assiduity  ;  and  to  sucb  an  extent 

bad  be- carried  his  theological  studies,  as  to  be  tbougfat 

worthy  of  admission,  like  Usbel*,  into  holy  orders  befoiie 

be  bad  attained  the  age  of  twenty-one.     About  tbe  same 

iime  be  took  bis  degree  of  master  of  arts,  and  removed  to 

^Xondon,  where,  being  requested  by  bis  obamber-feUow, 

Mr.  Rbden,  to  supply  his  turn,  for  a  short  time^,  at  the 

Jectnrein  8u  FmuVs  cathedral,  bis  talents  attracted. tbe  at- 

.  tention  of  arebbisbop  Laud,  wbo  prefeired  bim  to  a  fellow* 

,«bip  at  All  Souls  college,  Oxford,  <^  where  be  might  ban^ 

tiflie>  books,  and  company,  to  complete  himself  in  those 

aeveral  parts  of  learning  into*  which  be  bad  made  so  fair 

nn  entrance."     Into  this  fellowship  be  was  admitted  in 

.January  1636  ;  but,  as  Wood  remarks,  k  was  an  arbitral^ 

ao^  contrary  to  tbe  statutes. 

^  About  this  time  also  be  was  appointed  chaplain  in  ordi- 
nary to  tbe^  king)  having  already  been  made  chaplain  to 
archbishop  Laud ;  and  in  March  16S8,  be  was  instituted  to 
tboi  rectory  of  Uppingham,  in  the  county  of  Rutland,  by 
Francis  Dee,  bbhop  of  Pet^borougb,  on  tbe  presentation 
of  William  Juicon,  bishop  of  London.  He  bad  no  soon^ 
yeoei^v«d  institution  into  this  preferment  than  be  commenoed 
Usohai^  over  it,  and  continued  to  reside  at  Uppingham 
.until  1642.  In  May  1639  be  was  married  in  tbe  church  of 
iJiat  town  to  Pbosbe  Landisdale,  or  Langsdale,  a  lady  of 
whose  family  little  is  known,  unless  that  she  had  a  brothejT 
of  tbe  medioal  professimi,  a  Dr.  Langsdale  of  Gainsbo* 
fOugU  By  her  Mr.  Taylor  bad  four  sons  and  three  daugb^ 
ters.  Of  the  exemplary  manner  in  which  be  administered 
tbe  spiritual  oooeerns  of  his  parish,  a  fair  ^oncluision  may 
be  drawn,  both  from  his  ardent  piety,  and  from  the  way 
iD  which  be  himself  speaks  of  bis  expert^ce-  in  the  conduct 
of  souls.  He  was  Ao  less  attentive  and.  useful  in  n^anaging 
theaecular  affairs  of  bis  parish,  of  which  many  proofs  e«ist 
in  its  records.  *  •  >     •  -    .  .  ^ 

The  tranquillity  )of  bia  life  here  wassobn  disturbed  bjr 
4be  progress  of  that  commotion  ^,bieh  finally  aiif^ompUahfd 
tbe  destruotlon  of  tbe  monarchical  and  episcopal  govern- 
ments.  As  yet  he  bad  appeared  as  an  author  ^oKdyiiiia 
'^  Sermon  on  the  anniversary  of  the  Gunpowder  Treason,^* 
{irinted  at  Osfift'd'  id  i  639^  but  had  ti^w  inore.  urgent 


f9  T  A  Y  L  O  B. 

fMasioii  to  ttnploy  bb  peii»  wbile  airg«Mpl<aeiM4  to  p«^ 
mise  any  etfect,  in  defence  of  tbe  cbnrch.  Wkb  thta  view 
be  proiittceti  in  1642,  bis  <' £pis«op8cy  aticrted,"  wbicb' 
WM  {Hiblisbed  at  Oxford  by  the  king't  (ioiiioi»nd|  and  ran 
in  course  wiib  tbe  vrorka  of  bishop  Hall  and  otbera  on  .tbe 
•aiBe  subject.  This  ia  dedicated  to  bis  friend  and  petroo, 
sir  (^briiitopber  Hattoo,  afterwards  lord  Hatton  of  Kirby^ 
whose  son  be  afterwards  assisted  io  preparing  am  editioii 
of  tbe  Psalms,  according  to  tbe  authorized  version*  This 
appeared  in  1 644,  aitd  was  entitled  ^'  Tbe  Psalter  of  Da* 
vid,  with  Titles  and  Collecu  according  to  the  matter  of 
each  P&alm,  by  tbe  r^t  beo.  Christopher  HaAton."  His 
biographer  says,  that  ^^  all  that  ia  new  in  tbia  publicalioo 
was  the  production  of  Taylor.  The  preface,  wbtoh  bearp 
hit  neoie,  and  the  titles  and  collects  adapted  to  each  pseUiSy 
were  tbe  efforts  of  his  oiind.^'  This  was  a  very  popular 
w«rk  daring  tbe  whole  of  the  seicenteenth  century  ^  but  in 
tbe  tenth  edition,  now  before  u%  Lond.  168S,  botii  Het* 
ton^s  and  Taylor's  names  are  omitted  from  tbe  title  and 
preface,  yet  it  appears  even  then  to  have  been  sold  by  the 
eame  c^  ^^  Hatton's  Psalms,''  as  tbe  Uader  has  so  titled  it 
lHQ  tho  back. 

Jn  August  1 642,  wbea  tbe  king  went  to  Oxford,  Taylor 
was  ealled  upon  to  attend  him.  in  bis  capacity  of  cbaplaiot 
Md  was  there  honoured  with  a  doctor's  degree^  but  pro* 
bably  lost  bis  living,  as  after  tbis  time  there  is  no  trace  of 
tiiaa  9^  Uppingham ;  yet  though  it  was  sequestered^  it  doet 
iM>t  appear  that  be  relinquid^  bis  olaMa  to  it,  oer,  in 
l^int  of  fact,  does  any  rector  occur  between  his  departim 
and  tbe  year  t66l,  when  John  Allingtoo  aigos  himself  as 
such.  Being  one  of  tbe  king's  retinue.  Dr.  Taylor  probe* 
biy  aeeoaapanied  tbe  arasy,  but  there  are  no  distinct  par«> 
tieulars  of  his  progress  at  this  unfortunate  period,  and  it  ia 
prebaMe  that  be  vetircxl  into  Wales,  cstben  in  the  semmer 
of  1645,  or  the  spring  of  the  following  yeiar.  We  ca% 
however,  more  certainly  trace  his  pen  in  the  controvec^ies 
jof  tbetimeis.  When  the  asseaably  of  divines  at  WeaifBtn<- 
ster  published  their  ^<  Directory,"  which  abolished  the 
wsual  forms  of  prayer,  Dr«  Taylor  published  *^  A  Discourse 
eeneermng  Prayer  eitca»pQ(re,  or  by  prelenoe  of  tbe  Spirit^ 
in  justification  of  authorbed  and  set  forms  of  iJtiirgie^^^ 
This  was  {NEioted.  in  1646,  bwt  without  the  place  beseg 
fpeeafted«  it 'bad  b^en  preceded,  probably  about  1644, 
t|{ith*^^Akrep6Jbgy  for  attthouaed  and  setfoBoa  of  Liturgy.^ 


T=A"Y  Lt>  R.  Aft 

agptinst  the.  {>n0tM0e  of  tbe  Spirit/*    Tbeyr  iWm;«  '9e^y 

able  defence  of  liturgy. 

While  in  Wales^  be  was  obliged  to  maintain  huMelf  #nd 
family  by  keepings  school,  at  Newtani  in  Caraiartbett9btf^ 
wbere  be  was  assisted  by  Mr.  Williaoi  Wyatt  of  Sl«  Jobo*<i 
(^oHege,  Oxfcud,  and  tbey  jointly  produced,  in  1647,  ^^A 
i^ew  and  easie  instimtioa  of  Grammar/'  London,  l2m(H 
This  seance  little  Kolame  has  two- dedieattons,  one  in  Latin 
to  lord  Hatton  by  Wyatt,  the  other  in  English,  by  Taylor, 
addressed  to  lord  Hatcon's  son*  The  eminenoe  of  On 
Taylor's  learning,  and  the  integrity  of  bis  principles  pro-* 
fiured  him  sebolars,  who^  as  bisbiopapber  says,  ^<  baving^ 
as  it  were,  received  instsuction  from  this  prophet  in. the 
wilderness,  were  transplanted  to  tbe  universities.**  He 
loiiAd  also  a  generous  patron  in  Richard  Vaugbafti,  .ea#I  o^ 
Carbery,  who  resided  at  Golden  Grove^  the  seat  'of  his 
ancestors,  in  the  parish  of  Lianfibangel  Abefbythiek,  Mar 
LbtfdiilQ  Ifawr,  in  Carmarthenshire.  Into  this  faospitabte 
faj»ily  be  was  received  as  chaplain,  iaad  had  a  stipend 
allotted  bim,  as  he  himself  intimates  in  bis  dedication  to 
lord  Carbery,  prefixed  to  bis  '^  Course  of  Sermons.*'  It 
would  appear  that  persecution  bad  followed  him  iQt4^ 
Wales,  before  he  obtained  bis  present  comfortable  asyKim, 
but  in  what  manner  or  to  what  extent  is  not  koown^ 

The  i|rst  production  of  the  quiet  be  now  enjoyed,  was 
bis  ^^  Liberty  of  Propbecying,*'  1647,  4to,  lyritten  in  be* 
half  of  the  clergy  of  tbe  church  of  England,  wbo  were  aoiw 
genei«lly  excluded  from  their  benefices,  and  f<Mrbidden  to 
minister  according  to  her  liturgy.  This  was  republished 
in  1650,  along  with  his  preceding  works,  and  with  the  ad^- 
dition  of  the  '<  Life  of  Christ/'  in  2  vols.  8vo.  Of  his 
^  liibeny  of  Propheoyrng,'*  bis  biographer  nemarks  that 
tl^re  are  few  writings  in  which  learning  and  sBodestyy 
charity  and  argument,  are  more  happily  blendec)  *.     His 

*  Tl)t8  work,  however,  did  DOt  escape  transcribed.     ^Mn  tbe  wrttisg  of  tb% 

insure.     In  it  he  was  supposed  to  lay  book,  Or.  Taylor  made  use  of  a  like 

«lswtt  socAi  principles,  as  struck  at  the  atratagem  as  Hales  did  th  writing  his 

faundatioii  of  att  hitrarehy ;  and  or  book  ^f  Sohisn,  to  break  the  Presby^ 

Ihat  account  gave  offence  to  several  terian  power,  and  so  countenance  (JU* 

aMisbers  ef  the  church  of  England^ "  visions  between  the  factions,    whick 

Willie  nsany  of  its  adTenmries  thought  were  tod  much  VBitei  afaiast'theloyll 

themselves  cooAtenanced  by  these  prin-  dieigy.    For  in  the  said  book  he  insisti 

ei|)lef,  and  even  jn^t^fipd  in  thnr  ho9-  on   the  same  topics  of   schism  and 

^iKtteaagaiMiit.    Woodbasdestfanted  bereay,  of  tne  incompetency  of  couti«- 


ttpon  this  work ;  and  what  he  says  is     cits  and  fathers,  td  defermme  our  eodc^ 

"     "  ,ri 

V  .1 


so  ewriooSj  that  it  well  deservat  to  b«     siasiical  cootrarerates,  aod  of  .Mropv- 


170  T  A  Y  L  O  ft. 

next  production  was  "  The  Gfeat  Exemplar,'*  the  purpose 
of  which  he  states  to  be,  ^^  to  advance  the  necessity,  and 
to  declare  the  manner  and  parts  of  a  good  life  ;  to  invite 
some  persons  to  ibe  consideration  of  all  the  branches  of  it, 
by  intermixing  something  of  pleasure  with  the  use ;  and 
others  by  such  portions,  as  would  better  etitertain  them 
than  a  romance."  In  1650  be  published  one  of  bis  most 
popular  and  standard  works,  <^  The  Hule  and  Exercises  of 
Holy  Living,*'  of  which  the  twenty- eighth  edition  was 
published  in  1810.  In  Oct.  1650,  be  lost  his  valuable  pa- 
troness the  countess  of  Carbery,  and  delivered  a  funeral 
sermon  on  that  melancholy  occasion,  which  was  published 
the  same  year. 

Previous  to  the  death  of  the  countess  of  Carbery,  Tay* 
lor  bad  been  occupied  in  writing  his  **  Rule  and  Exercises 
of  Holy  Dying,"  and  that  part  of  his  volume  of  *^  Sermons^" 
wbieh  was  preached  at  Golden  Grove,  in  the  summer  half- 
year.  These,  with  the  addition  of  the  funeral  sermon 
lately  delivered,  and  a  **  Discourse  of  the  Divine  institn* 
tion,  necessity,  and  saiiredness  of  the  office  Ministerial," 
be  published  in  1651.  His  **  Holy  Living"  and  *<  Holy 
Dying"  have  been  supposed  by  tbeir  late  editor,  the  rev. 
Thomas  Thirwall>  to  have  been  Dr.  Taylor's  favourite 
works,  and  tbey  are  certainly  elaborated  with  more  than 
bis  usual  care;  and  the  latter,  a^  being  occasioned  by  the 
eouniess  of  Carbery *s  illness,  comes  more  from  the  heart. 
His  *'  Sermons"  bave  been  ably  analysed  by  his  biographer, 
and  are  indeed  to  be  recommended  to  the  attention  of  the 
present  age,  rather  in  ^he.form  of  extracts  or  selections, 
than  as  oYiginally  published. 

In  1652  Dr.  Taylor  published  *^  A  short  Cateofoism, 
composed  for  the  use  of  the  schools  in  South  Wales^'* 
which  be  afterwards  reprinted  under  the  head  *^  Credenda^* 

lous  conscience9  ;  and  urgetb  far  more  denomioating  the  action,  I  see  no  caoj^ 

cogent  argool^ents  than  Mr.  Hales  did,  why  our  author,  whose  ends  w«re  for 

but  slill  had  prepared  hb  Sc^oir  ^ap*  the  restoring  of  peace,  seeing  he  t^ 

i0MtM,  or  Antidote  to  prevent  any  dan*  presented  the  caMsea  of  the  var.so  hi- 

gerous  effect  of  bis  discourse:  for  the  volous  and  i  neons  id  erabie,  ought  to  be 

judicious  reader  may  perceive  such  a  represented  as  a  criminal  or  adver!i« 

preserve,  though  it  lie  in  ambuscada,  sary."    If  Mi«  fuel  be  aigh^y  aUedgMb 

and  is  compacted  in  a  narrow  compass,  the  excuse  certainly,  is  not  v^iUd.     la 

as   may    easily   rouse    those  troops,  the  mean  time,  Dr.  Taylor's  book. has 

which  began  too  soon  to  cry  victoria,  ever  been  admired  i   hod  those,  mko 

and  thought  of  nothing  else  but  divid>  bave  not  approved  pf  mapj^  thiAgs,.^^ 

ing  the  spoil.     And  if  the  learned  au-  vanced  in  it,  bave  allowed  it  to  abound, 

thor  (Hales)  did  this  and  was  blameless,  as  indeed  all  his  works  do,  with  ^nse, 

the  goodness  of  the  end  jn  such  ^ases  wit,  «|id  ^pf^hvf^^S^epfmPt**  ■  ..I 


TAYLOR.  11^1 

in  his  ^<*  6old«n  Grove*^'  In  the  same  year  he  consented 
to  the  publication  of  a  **  Discourse  on  Baptism,  it»  tnsti- 
"tntion,  and  efficacy  upon  all  believers/'  which  was  only 
part  of  a  projected  work  of  a  larger  description.  This  wns 
followed,  in  1653,  by  another  collection  of  "Twenty-five 
Sermons"  for  the  winter  season^  making,  together  iirtth  vhe 
former,  a  course  of  sermons  for  the  whole  year.  Thetie, 
with  ten  additional,  preached  after  the  restoration,  were 
ipepublished  in  one  volume  folio,  and  before  1678  had  gone 
through  five  editions.  In  1654,  he  published  ^^  The  Real 
Pi%&ence  and  Spiritual  of  Christ  in  the  blessed  sacrament 
Tproved  against  the  doctrine  of  Transubstantialion."  .  Thff 
he  dedicated  to  Warner,  bishop  of  Rochester,  with  whom  be 
afterwards  engaged  in  controversy.  In  1655,  thei  short 
^eatechism  he  had  published  for  the  youth  of  Wales,  conf- 
siderably  enlarged,  was  republished  under  the  title  of 
"  The  Guide  of  Infant  Devotion,  or  the  Golden  Grove,  a 
manual  of  daily  prayers  and  litanies  fitted  to  the  days  of 
the  week :  containing  a  short  summary  of  what  is  to  be  be- 
.lieved,  practised,  and  desired.  Also  festival  by ni as,  ac* 
cording  to  the  manner  of  thp  ancient  church." 

In  the  same  year  appeared  his  "  Unum  necessarium,  or 
the  Doctrine  and  Practice  of  Repentance."  This,  says  his 
iHOgrapher,  led  him  into  the  consideration  of  original  sin, 
and  its  effects ;  points  which  were  at  that  time  much  con- 
troverted between  the  Arminian  and  Calvinistic  parties, 
and  he  adopted  the  opinion  of  the  former,  carrying  it  to  a 
degree  that  -the  latter  utterly  condemned,  and  which  the 
ehurch  of  England  does  not  approve.  His  sentiments  with 
.regard  to  the  doctrine  of  original  sin  were  then,  and  Bth 
tftjMresent,  generally  considered  heterodox ;  and  are  irre-^ 
conei table  to  the  tenets  of  our  church,  as  laid  down  iti 
her  liturgy,  articles,  and  homilies.  It  was  this,  therefore, 
which  drew  him  into  controversy.  His  friend,  the  bishop 
of ^  Rbchester,  Dr.  Warner,  shewed  his  disapprobation  of 
tbe  chapter  of  original  sin,  in  a  letter  addressed  to  Dr. 
Taylor,  dated  July  28,  1656.  It  was  also  censured  by  Dr. 
Sanderson,  afterwards  bishop  of  Lincoln,  and  others,  to 
#faoni  be  endeavoured  to  reply  in  two  tracts,  the  one 
**  Deus  justiiicatus,  bra  Vindication  of  the  Glory  of  the 
dM^ine  attributes,^  &c."  and  the  other  <^  A  further  explica- 
tion of  the  d^dtrioe  of  original  sin,  &c." 

During  some  part  of  this  controversy,  he  was  in  con* 
finement  ifi  €kepMm  ^^vstle,  froin  a  suspicion  tbttt  he^al 


ua  TAYLOR 

f^POcerned  in  th#  insurrection  of  th^  royalusu  9X  Salitbtiry» 
btti  appears  to  have  beea  released  after  the  autumn  of  16  ji$« 
when  he  was  at  home^  and  lost  two  of  his  sons  by  tbe  small 
poK.  After  this,  in  tbe  beginning  of  1 657,  be  went  to 
I^ndoo,  baving  determined  to  relinquisb  altogetber  bii 
aituatioii  in  W Jes ;  and  oflSciated  to  a  private  congrega- 
tion of  loyalists,  but  not  witbout  gre»t  danger  from  tbe 
prevailing  party.  During  tbe  preceding  year,  a  treatise 
appeared  whicb  bis  biographer  says  is  attributed  to  Du 
Taylor  by  Anthony  Wood,  and  still  occupies  a  place  in  the 
list  of  bis  writings,  entitled  '*A  Discourse  of  auiciliary. 
Beauty,  or  artificial  bandsomenesse*  In  point  of  con- 
acieikce  betweei^  two  ladies  f*  but  this  appears  to  be  aa 
eversigbt,  for  Anthony  Wood  attributes  this  little  volume 
to  Dr.  Gauden,  and  not  to  Dr.  Taylor,  and  gives  166(2 
aa  the  date,  and  not  I6£^6. 

lo  1657  Dr.  Taylor  collected  several  of  bis  smaller  pieces, 
with  ivUaUrnl  improvements,  into  a  folio  volume,  and  pub- 
lisbed  them  under  the  title  of  **  A  collection  of  Polemical 
and  Moral  Discourses  ;^*  adding  two  hitherto  unpubli$bed^ 
a  "  Discourse  on  Friendship,'*  and  ^'  Two  letters  to  per- 
aons  changed  in  their  Religion.'*  Tbe  former  was  ad- 
dressed to  Mrs.  Katberine  Philips,  and  is  in  point  of  style 
and  sentiment  one  of  tfie  best  of  Taylor's  pieqes,  who  ia 
never  more  excellent  than  when  on  subjects  qf  moraU. 
This  volume  reached  a  third  edition  in  1674,  but  consists 
of  sosaewbat  diff<erent  materials,  and 'has  a  different  title» 
being  now  called  ^*  Symbolum  Theologicum,  &c.*' 

lo  this  year,  1647,  Dr.  Taylor  was  induced  by  a  nefv 
friend  and  patron,  lord  Conway,  to  go, over  to  Ireland, 
and  reside  at  Portmore,  the  mansion  of*  that  nobleman  in 
^he  county  of  Antrim*  Thia  situation  being  adapted  to 
ftiidy  and  contemplation,  was  to  him  a  delightful  retreat ; 
a^d  bere  be  employed  his  time  in  arranging  tbe  treasure* 
with  which  bis  mind  was  ttored,  and  in  correspondency 
with  m^  of  literature*  Here  be  accomplished  the  largeat 
and  i|K>st  laborious  of  bis  works,  tbe  '*  Ductor  Dubitantium, 
or  the  Kule  of  Conscience  in  all  her  general  measures; 
lerving  as  a  greai  instrument  for  tbe  determination  of 
(^9pes  of  conscience,"  l£60,  fol.  Of  this  work  it  has  been 
saidf  witbout  exaggeration,  that  it  is  the  produ^ioo  of  re.« 
tentive  memory  and  laborious  research,  of  learning  variotis 
and  proGound,  and  of  reaaoniog  closa  and  dispiissionatel 
Tbe  ikaiaiid  Son  tbis  vork  bas  lat<^  rieeo  f  exy  coimcler-* 


T  A  T  L  O  It  ,      Its 

aWy;  and  what  we  can  remember  holding  a  very  ttiferior, 
If  any  place,  in  sale  catalogues,  is  noir  a  prominent  article 
with  a  handsome  price.  ,It  is  undoubtedly  a  very  interest- 
ing work  to  men  that  delight  in  the  exercise  of  tlie  reason- 
ing power,  but  its  real  utility  in  satisfying  scruples  of  con- 
science is,  we  think,  not  quite  so  apparent. 

This  work  was  dedicated  to  Charles  II.  the  restoration 
having  taken  place.  Dr.  Taylor  appears  to  have  left  Ire- 
land early  in  the  spring  of  1660,  and  arriving  at  London, 
subscribed  the  declaration  of  the  nobility  and  gentry  that 
adhered  to  the  late  king  in  and  about  that  city,  and  when 
the  vacant  sees  came  to  be  filled  up,  bishop  Lesley  was 
proipoted  to  that  of  Meath^  and  Dr.  Taylor  succeeded  him 
in  that  of  Down  and  Connor.  While  yet  bishop*elect,  and 
liefore  he  left  London,  he  published  his  book  on  the  sacra- 
ment, entitled  "  The  Worthy  Communicant,  &t.'*  Hte 
then  went  over  to  Ireland^  and  was  consecrated,  and  abot^ 
the  same  time  he  was  chosen  vice-chancellor  o(  the  uuk 
terity  of  Dublin,  an  office  which  he  held  until  his  death. 
On  opening  the  parliament  in  May  t661,  he  preached  be- 
fore the  members  of  both  houses  at  St.  Patrick's,  and  hili 
sermon  was  printed  at  London  in  4to.  Thi^  same  year,  06 
the  translation  of  Dr.  Robert  Lesley  to  th^  see  of  Raphotf, 
the  king,  by  grant  of  June  21,  committed  to  the  bishop  of 
Down  and  Connor,  the  administration  of  the  see  of  Dro- 
more  ;  which  he  held  till  his  death.  But  it  was  no  desire 
of  enriching  himself  that  induced  the  bishop  to  accept  of 
this  new  charge.  The  dilapidated  state  of  the  church  and 
ecclesiastical  property  at  this  juncture  clearly  evince  his 
conduct  to  have  been  grounded  upon  a  higher  principle; 
frnd  finding  not  only  the  spiritual  affairs  of  this  diocese  ih 
disorder,  but  the  choir  of  the  cathedral  of  Dromore  jo 
rqins,  he  undertook  to  rebuild  it,  and  on  this  otcasion^is 
daughter  Joanna  preserited  the  plate  for  the  communion. 
JTn  the  same  year  he  held  a  visitation  at  Lisnegarvy  ;  at 
which  he  issued  "  Rules  and  advices  to  the  clergy  of  his 
diobese  for  their  deportment  in  their  personal  and  publio 
capacities,"  These  form  a  very  useful  compendium  of 
ministerial  duty^  and  have  been  often  recommended  by 
subsequent  prelates. 

,  Tn  th0  ;iutumn  of  1661,  bishop  Taylor,  foreseeing  a  va- 
cancy in  the  deinery^ of  Connor,  wrote  to  Cambridge  for 
fome  able  person,  who  might  fill  that  dighity,  aric|  the  pr6- 
po$ition,bein|;  made  to  Dr.  George  Rust,  he  was  preferrcil 


IM  T  A  Y  L  O  H. 

«8  sooo  at  Uie  ^aeaticy  took  place  (See  Rcrsr) ;  and  thus  a 
friendship  commenced  between  these  two  great  men, 
which  continued  with  mutual  warmth  and  admiration  till  it 
was  interrupted  by  death.  Dr.  Rust  was  the  survivor,  and 
succeeded  bishop  Taylor  in  the  see  of  Dromore,  and 
preached  his  funeral  sermon.  In  1662*3,  bishop  Taylor 
published  '^  Three  Sermons"  which  he  had  preac^hed  at 
Christ^s  church,  Dublin ;  **  Eleven  Sermons,"  preached 
since  the  restoration ;  and  his  '^  Discourse  on  Confirma*? 
tion."  In  July  1663,  he  preached  the  funeral  sermon  of 
Dr.  John  Bramhall,  archbishop  of  Armagh,  from  whose^ 
hands  he  had  received  confirmation.  This  was  published, 
and  contains  a  well-drawn  character  of  the  primate*  .  In 
the  same  year,  at  the  request  of  the  bishops  of  Ireland,  he 
published  **  A  Dissuasive  from  Popery,  addressed  to  the 
people  of  Ireland."  This  work  went  through  several  edi« 
lions,  and  some  answers  being  published  by  the  popish 
party,  he  wrote  a  second  part  of  his  *^  Dissuasive,"  which 
however,  did  not  appear  until  after  his  death.  He  bad 
also  began  a  discourse  on  the  beatitudes,  wheniie  was  at* 
tacked  by  a  fever,  which  proved  fatal  in  ten  days^  He 
died  at  Lisbum^  August  13,  1667,  and  was  interred  in  the 
choir  of  the  cathedral'  of  Dromore.  Dr.  Rust,  as  we  have 
already  observed,  preached  his  funeral  sermon,  and  en<» 
tered  largely  into  his  character.  He  was  indisputably,  as 
,Dr.  Rust  represents  him,  a  man  of  the  acutest  penetration 
and  sagacity,  the  richest  and  most  lively  imagination,  the 
ioiidest judgment,  and  the  profoundest  learning.  He  was. 
perfectly  versed  in  all  the  Greek  and  Roman  writers^  and 
was  not  unacquainted  with  the  refined  wits  of  later  ages, 
whether  French  or  Italian.  His  skill  was  great,  both  in 
civil  and  canon  law,  in  casuistical  divinity,  in  fathers,  and 
ecclesiastical  writers  ancient  and  modern.  He  was  a  man 
of  the  greatest  humility  and  piety :  it  is  believed,  says  Dr;. 
Rust,  that  he  spent  the  greatest  part  of  his  time  in  heaven, 
and  that  his  solemn  hours  of  prayer  took  up  a  considerable 
portion  of  his  life.  He  was  indeed  a  great  devotee,  and 
had  in  him  much  of  natural  enthusiasm.  Dr.  Rust,  con^ 
eludes  his  character  with  observing,  that  "  he  had  the  good-« 
humour  of  a  gentleman^  the  eloquence  of  an  orator,  the 
fancy  of  a  poet,  the  acuteness  of  a  schoolman,  the  pro-, 
foundneiis  of  a  philosopher,  the  wisdom  of  a  chancellor, 
the  sagacity  of  a  prophet,  the  reason  of  an  angel,  and  the 
piety  of  a  saint.     He  had  devotion  enough  for  a  cloister, 


T  A  ¥  Ii  O  m  IT* 

iearauig  enough  for  an  university^  and  wit  enough  for  n 
college  of  virtuosi;*  and  bad  his  parts  and  endowmenti 
been  parcelled  out  among  bis.  clergy  that  be  left  behind 
biniy  it  would,  perhaps,  have  made  one  of  the  best  dio« 
ceses  in  the  ivorld/'  Yet  amidst  the  blaze  of  this  pane* 
gyric,  we  must  not  forget  that  dispassionate  criticism  will 
assign  as  bishop  Taylor's  highest  excellence,  his  powers  of 
moral  suasion.  He  is  always  seen  to  most  advantage  ag 
a  moral  writer,  and  his  genius  is  every  where,  inspired  and 
invigorated  by  a  love  of  what  is  good.  Nor  roust  it^be  for- 
got that  he  was  one  of  the  reBners  of  our  language.  His 
biographer  bas  justly  said  that  ^<  English  prose  was  in  his 
time  in  a  progressive  state.  It  bad  been  advanced  very  far 
by  the  genius  of  Sidney  and  the  wisdom  of  Hooker ;  but 
the  pedantry  of  the  reign  of  James  bad  done  much  to 
eclipse  its  lustre.  In  Taylor  it  broke  out  from  its  obscu-* 
rity  with  energy  and  brightness.  His  polemical  discourses 
exhibit  a  specimen  of  English  composition  superior  to  any 
ibat  bad  gone  before.^' 

It  is  not  ascertained  whether  bis  wife  survived  him  ;  but 
it  'is  well  known  that  he  left  three  daughters,  Pfaoabe^ 
Joanna,  and  Mary.  The  eldest  died  single ;  the  second 
married  Mr.  Harrison,  a  barrister  in  Ireland,  and  the 
youngest  became  the  wife  of  Dr.  Francis  Marsh,  afterwards 
archbishop  of  Dublin.  In  this  sketch  of  bishop  Taylor's 
life,  we  have  principally  followed  a  recent  valuable  public 
cation,  "  Tbe  Life  of  the  Rt.  Rev.  Jeremy  Taylor,  D.  D# 
&c.  By  the  rev.  Henry  Kaye  Bonney,  M.A.  of  Christ's 
college^  Cambridge,  prebendary  of  Lincoln,  and  rector  of 
King's  Cliffe,  in  the  county  of  Northampton,"  1815,  8vo.^ 

TAYLOR  (John),  usually  called  the  Water- Poet,  from 
bis  being  a  waterman  as  well  as  a  poet,  and  certainly  more 
of  the  former  than  the  latter,  was  born  in  Gloucestershire 
about  1580.  Wood  says  he  was  born  in  the  city  of  Glou^ 
.cester,  a^id  went  to  school  there,  but  he  does  not  appearto 
have  learned  more  than  his  accidence,  as  appears,  by  some 
lines  pf  bis  own.  From  this  school  he  was  brought  to  Lon« 
don,  and  bound  apprentice  to  a  waterman,  -Mrbenoe  be  WaiT 
either  pressed  or  went  voluntarily  into  the  naval  service, 
fcr  he  was  at  the  takiftg  of  Cadiz  unrier  the  earl  of  Essex,; 
in  1^596,  when  only  sixteen  years  old,  and  was  afterwartls 
in  Ger^nany,  Bohemia,  Scotland,  as  may  be  collected  from 

>  Life  as  ab«Te. 


/  ; 

IW  f  A  V  L  O  «. 

^amiii  pttfMftges  in  iii«  wtnrkt.  At  bom6  lie  was  «Aftfiy  ym^ 
eollectof,  for  tile  lietitenant  of  the  Tower,  of  the  wine^ 
w'bicfa  were  hn  fee  from  all  ships  which  'brought  them  trp 
the  Thames ;  hot  was  at  last  dbtbarged  beeause  he  wouM 
not  purchase  the  place  at  more  than  it  was  worth.  H6 
calls  bi09self  the  <*  King's  Water  Poet/'  and  the  *<Queen*8 
Waterman,*'  and  wore  ^e  badge  of  the  royal  arms.  White 
a  waterman,  he  very  natural iy  had  a  great  hatred  to  coaches, 
and  besides  writing  a  satire  agstnst  thetn,  he  fancied  that 
the  watermen  were  starring  for  want  of  employment,  and 
presented' a  petition  to  James  I.  which  was  i^erred  to  cer-^ 
tain  commissioners,  of  whom  sir  Francis  Bacon  was  one,  to 
obtain  aprohfibttion  of  all  phiy^houses  except  those  on  the! 
Bank-aide,  that  the  gt^ater  pattof  the  inhabitants  of  Ion- 
don,  who  were  desirous  of  seeing  plays,  might  be  com- 
pelled to  go  by  water.  Taylor  himself  is  said  to  have  un- 
dertaken to  support  this  singular  petition,  and  was  pre- 
pared to  oppose  before  the  commissionets  the  arguments  of 
the  players,  but  the  commission  was  dissolved  before  it 
came  to  a  hearing. 

When  the  rehellion  oOmmenced  in  1642,  Taylor  left 
London,  and  retired  to  Oxford,  where  he  was  much  no- 
ticed, and  esteemed  for  his  facetious  turn.  He  kept  a 
eommon  victuaHtng  house  there,  and  wrote  pasquiis  against 
the  roend-heads;  by  which  he  thought,  and  Wood  too^ 
aeems  to  think,  that  he  did  great  service  to  die  royal  Cause. 
After  the  garrison  at  Oxford  had  surrendered,  he  Vetired 
to  Westminster,  i&ept  a  public-house  iti  Phoenix-alley,  near 
Long-acre,  and  continued  constant  in  his  loyalty  to  the 
king;  after  whose  death,  he  set  up  a  sign  over  his  doOr  of 
a  mourning  crown  ;  but  that  proving  oflfensive,  he  pulled 
it  down,  and  hung  ep  his  own  picture,  with  tbeae  versitk 
under  it : 

*'  There's  many  a  heaci  stands  for  a  sign. 
Then,  geutte  i^eader,  why  not  mine  V* 

And  on  the  other  side, 

"Tho*  I  deserve  not,  I  desire 
The  laurel  wreath,  the  poet's  hire/* 

He  died  in  1654^  i^ged  seventy- low»  as  Wood  w«i  isK 
formed  by  his  nepheW|  a  painter  of  O^iford,  who  gave  i^ 
portrait  to  the  picture-gallery  there  in  1655.  This  ni- 
phew'9  own  portrait,  also  by  himself,  is  on  the  staircase. 
His  works  were  published  under  the  title  of  <<  All  th^ 


TA^rLOa  177 

Wol:kes  of  Jobn  Taylor  tbe  watofwpoet)  betn^  sixty  and 
three  in  nuoaber)  coHeeCed  toto  one  voludie  by  the  author^ 
with  sundry  nev  additions  ;  corrected^  revised,  and  newly 
imprinted/'  1630^  folio.  Tbe^  pieces,  which  are  not  des^ 
titute  of,  natural  humour,  aboondi  with  low  jingling  wit, 
which  pleased  and  prevailed  in  the  reign  of  James  I.  and 
which  too  often  bordered  upon  bombast  and  nonsense.  He 
was  countenanced  by  a  few  persons  c^rank  and  ingenuity  ; 
but  was  the  darling  and  admiration  of  nmaiibers  of  the  rabble. 
He  was  himself  the  father  of  some  cant  words,  and  he  has 
adopted  others  which  were  only  in  the  mouths  of  the  lowest 
vulgar.  From  the  date  of  this  volume  it  is  evident  that  it 
does  not  contain  those  '^  pasquils*'  and  satires  which  Wood 
says  he  wrote  at  Oxford,  and  which  perhaps  it  might  have 
been  unsafe  to  avow,  or  re^publisb,  ^as  be  did  not  survive 
the  times  of  the  usurpation.  Five  articles,  however",  whose 
titles  may  be  seen  in  the '^  Bibliotbeca  Anglo-Poetica,^' 
were  published  between  1637  and  1641.  One  of  them  iff 
the  life  of  old  Par,  printed  in  1635,  when  Par  is  said  to 
have  been  living  at  the  age  of  one  hundred  and  fifty*two.^ 

TAYLOR  (John),  a  learned  dissenting  teacher,  was  born 
near  Lancaster  in  1694,  and  educated  at  Whitehaven.  He 
settled  first  at  Kirkstead  in  Lincolnshire,  Where  he  preached 
to  a  Very  small  congregation,  and  taught  a  grammar  school 
for  the  support  of.  bis  family,  near  twenty  years^butin- 
1733,  his  merit  in  this  obscure  situation  being  known,  be 
was  unanimously  chosen  by  a  presbyterian  coog^gation  at 
Norwich,  where  he  preached  many  years,  and  avowed  his 
sentiments  to  be  hostile  to  the  Trinitarian  doctrine.  From 
this  city  he  was, 'in  1757,  invited  to  Warrington  in  Lan- 
cashire,, to  superintend  an  academy  formed  thene ;  being 
judged  tbe  fittest  person  to  give  this  new  institution  a  pro* 
per  dignity  and  reputation  in  the  world.  With  this  invita* 
tion,  which  was  warmly  and  importunately  enforced,  he 
complied ;  but  some  differeuces  about  precedency  and  au- 
thority, as  well  as  some  disputes  about  the  principles  of 
morals,  soon  involved,  and  almost  endangered,  the  very 
being  of  the  academy,  and  subjected  him  to  such  treatment 
as  he  often  said,  *^  would  shorten  his  days :"  and  so  it 
prored.  '  He  Irad  a  vtfry  good  constitution,  which  he  had  , 
prayer yed  by  temperance,  but  it  was  now  undermined  by  a 

<  ALb.  Of.  FoK  lI.--.HarleiaB   Cat.  No.  3517,  vol.  III.--Cibber'«  .Lives  — 
^IriDger.  .  ,-»      ;i      '         % 

Vol.  XXIX.  N 


178  TAYLOR. 

oompHcaiion  of  disorders.  '^The  last  time'I  taw- inoi^'' 
'  says  Dr.  Harwood^  ^^  he  bitteriy  lamented  bia  unhappy  si« 
tuacion^  and  hiii  being  rendered  (all  proper  autfaoritjr,  aar 
a  tutor^  being  taken  from  bim)  utterly  intapahie  of  beinfg 
any  longer  useful,  said  his  life  waanot  any  object  of  desim 
to  hinii  wheii  his  public  usefulness  was  do  mure ;  and  re* 
peated  with  great  eaiotion  some  celebrated  lines  to  tbit 
purpose  out  of  Sophocles/' 

He  di«d  March  5»  176 !»  'tiaving  gone  to  bed  as  well  a^ 

usual  the  night  before^  only  complaining  a  little  of  a  pres^ 

sure  on  his  stomach.     Of  his  writings,  the  first  be  puMish<!d- 

was  '^  A  prefatory  Discourse  to  a  Narrative  of  Mr.  Joseph 

Rawson's  Case  ;**  who  was  excluded  from  communion  with 

the  congregational  ^church  at  Nottingbai^,  for  asserting  the 

unity  and  supremacy  of  God  the  Father.     In  1740,  ^  Tb0 

Scripture  doctrine  of  Original  Sin,"  in  which  thai  ^doetrilie^ 

is  denied.     This  has  gone  through  three  editbns.    In  1745^ 

*^  A  Paraphrase  on  the  Romans-/'  republished  by  bishop 

Watson  in  bis  <^  Tracts/'  and  recommended  by  Dr:  Ben^ 

tham  in  his  ^^Reflections  on  the  study  of  Divinity;"  and 

the  same  year,  ^^  A  Scripture  Catechism  with  Pix>t)fs."     Iti' 

1750,  ^^A  Collection  of  Tunes  in   various  Airs/ /with   *: 

Scheme  for  supporting  the  spirit  and  practioe  of  Psalmody^ 

in  oongriegations;"     In  1751,  '^  The  Imporlmtice  ^  Cbil»' 

dren  \  <ix^  Motives  to  the  good  Education  of  Cblldseii:'^    In^ 

1753,  "  The  Scripture  Doctrine  of  Atonement."     In  1754, 

bis  great  work^  the  labour  of  his  whole  life,  ^^  An^Aebr^w 

English  Concordance,"  in  2  vols,  folio,  whtoh' wiilKretnain 

a  lasting  monument  of  his  indefatigable  industry'ai>d^criei^' 

cal  «kili«     The  same  year,  ^^  The  Lord's  SupfRer.explaini&d' 

upon  Scripture  principles."     In  1755,  ^*T4ia  Covenant 4)f 

Graoe  in  defence  of  infant  bapttsaa."     Itv  1757,  ^<  A  Obiai;gi0' 

delivered  at  the  ordination  o£^Mr«  Smiiifafon.!' i  .la  ii^dfi,- 

*<tA  Sermon,"  preached  at- the  openingof  idie  new^<d}a)8lel>' 

iR^Norwicb^i  la  i.759,  ^' An  Examioatipaof  \^k>>  UotoheKinW' 

Scbeitie  oiMoratity."    His  last  pecGormailcttv  Bi>i?6Ay/^i^'' 

^^  km^xxk  of  Mol»lPhiio5ophy;'^1rin0h'ibe,tklel«>upi1fcn(> 

thotus«e  jof  his^wo  ^pupils,  andjaai  intruduc^ay  to^rfi^Wol^-' 

laMdnVHeligion' of  Nature^"  <    -, :?  o:   f-^  •-   flfii?:ai>. 

.Sx4^  hi^jfirstaetitiitigat.  Wardngtonos  talJor,7bb  spbim' 

alLhisjJtfistiffe)  hours- ift  ceviewia^  lue  ^ft(!MiiHlneknicB$^.'Qo|>4i : 

latir^vjifuisage&in  aaalpfaabeticai'oqddr^^aad'Xtinreotiitg  theorr 

English  translation.      He  had  made  a  considerable  advance 

\n  this  ^sefof  ^work,  when  d>ath  sdt*df  WM:'*  D^.T^ylor 


-  f- 


T  AY  LOR.  179 

tomposed^  and  fairly  iratiseribed,  a  nofnber  o£  tUsooursctf 
on  oaorai^  •  crilical,  and  practicai  subjects,  sufficient  to 
make  four  volumes  in  dvo,  wbidi  be  designed  for  the  press, 
and  intended  to  be  published  after  his  death  :  aiKt  accord -^ 
ingiyhis  ^^Sebeoieof  Scripture. Divinity''  was  afterwards 
published  by  his  son*  .Dr.  Taylor  deviated  very  early  from 
theortbodoG^  systeiA,  at  first  adopting  the  sentroients  of 
Dr.*  Clarke  on  the  subject  of  the  Trinity,  but  became  at  last 
a.Sboidian^  which  Dr.  Clarice  waii  not  Gilbert  Wakefield 
givesia.  aiaguiar  character  of  Dr.Tayfat:  "  The  reader,'* 
sl^ya  Wakefield,  ^^  who  is  acquainted  with  the  writings  of 
tbis.v^ry  I^aroed^  lifa^ral,  and  rational  divine,  cannot  fail 
to  be  iiK^pressed  wittieentiments^  bighiy  favourable  to  the 
genil^ness  and  forbearance  of  their  author :  for  even  tbd 
meekness  of  Cbristianrty  itself  is  exhibited  in  his  prefaces 
aad  ocoa^pnal  addresses,  to  the  reader.  But  he  was,  iir 
reality,  al  very  peevish  ahd  angry  disputant  in  conversation^ 
atidjtJidtatorial  even  to  intolerance.  So  imperfect  a  judg- 
ment piay  be  formed  of  the  mildness  or  asperity  of  any 
author  from  tbe.  correspondent  quality  of  his  writings*.'* 
But  an  authority^  equally  valid  with  that  of  Mr.  Wakefield, 
praises  Dn  Taylor's  ^^  agreeable  deportment  in  society,  free 
frein  pedatitry  and  superciliousness^  and  marked  by  ktnd^ 
ness  and  a&foiHty  ;"  yet  Mr.  Wakefield's  character  of  him  x 
is  a  curious  document^  as  affording  a  perfect  cont?rast  to  his 
own.^ . 

.TAYLOR  (JoilN),.^a  learned  critic  and  philologist,  wa^ 
boru  at  Sbrew^ury,  and  baptised  at  St:  Alkmund's  choreh 
June  2ii,  1704.  His  father  followed  the  humble  occu]:»M;ion 
of  a  barber,  an^' his  son  was  designed  for  the  same  business; 
bkt  a  strong  passion  for  letters,  which  early  displayed  it^ 
s^i,  being  providentially  fostered  by  the  generous  patron- 
age. 06  ft) neighbouring  gentkman,  enabled  young  Taylof 
t(lt£jl;a  far  higher  station  in  society  than  that  to  whictSi  he 
iii^si.efitiiled  by  his  birth..  The  steps  which  led  to  this 
happy  ch&Dgfe  iB  hiasitaaupn  are  worthy  ofnoticei  Tay« 
Iofvitk|3jfailier,'beingiaccustomed  to  attend  £dwaM  Owen, 
oflQMdover,  'esq.  in  his  capacity  of  a  barber,  that  gen^^ 
ileman  used  to  inquire  occsisionally  into  th&  state* of  bis 
fainitj^  fiir.what  ^ade  he  designed* bis  son,-  dtci*  The^ 
iD^oirieaneictrfiEdled  to  produce  a  lamentation  firem  t1ieold'< 
inanj  f^^this>«itD^«rdx&position  of  Jiis  son  Jadev  ^^wfaoonj*'* 

,,  }  Harvroi^d's  Foiwri)  fteraiQ^.for  J?r.  Xaylpx.-^Wakf field'*  >IeWQi:^s.    .^ .  , .  ^ 

If  2 


180  TAYLOR. 

said  be,  ^f  I  cannot  get  to  dress  a  wig  or  shave  a  beardi  so 
perpetually  is  be  poring  overbooks/'  Sach  coroplaints^ 
often  repeated,  at  length  awakened  the  attention  of  Mr. 
Owen,  who  determined  to  send  bina  to  the  university, 
chiefly  at  his  own  expence<  St.  John's  in  Cambridge, 
which  has  an  intimate  connection  with  the  free-school  of 
Shrewsbury,  naturally  presented  itself  as  the  place  of  his 
academical  education;  and  Mr.  Taylor  was  doubtless  *  as- 
sisted by  one  of  the  exhibitions  founded  in  the  college  for 
the  youth  of  that  school.  Under  this  patronage  he  pursued 
his  studies  in  the  university*,  and  regularly  took  bis  de- 
grees, that  of  B.  A.  in  1727,  andofM.  A.  in  1731,  and  in 
the  preceding  year  was  chosen  fellow.  Thus  employed  in 
his  favourite  occupations,  the  periods  of  his  return  into  his 
native  country  were  the  only  times  which  threw  a  transient 
cloud  over  the  happy  tenor  of  his  life.  On  such  occasions 
be  was  expected  to  visit  his  patron,  and  to  partake  of  the 
noisy  scenes  of  riotous  jollity  exhibited  in  the  hospitable 
mansion  of  a  country  gentleman  of  those  days.  The  gpra- 
titude  of  young  Taylor  taught  him  the  propriety  of  making 
these  sacrifices  of  his  own  comfort ;  but  it  could  not  pre- 
vent him  from  sometimes  whispering  his  complaints  into 
the  ears  of  his  intimate  friends.  A  difference  of  political 
opinion  afforded  a  more  serious  ground  of  difference*  A 
great  majority  of  the  gentry  of  Shropshire  vva»  at  that  pe- 
riod strenuous  in  their  good  wishes  for  the  abdicated  family* 
Though  educated  at  Cambridge,  Taylor  retained  his  at- 
tachment to  toryism,  but  did  not  adopt  all  its  excesses ;  and 
he  at  length  forfeited  the  favour  of  his  patron,  without  the 
hc^es  of  reconciliation,  by  refusing  to  drink  a  Jacobite 
toast  on  his  bare  knees,  as  was  then  the  custom.  This  re- 
fusal effectually  precluded  him  from  all  hopes  of  sharing  in 
the  great  ecclesiastical  patronage  at  that  time  enjoyed  by 
the  Condover  family,  and  inclined  him,  perhaps,  to  aban- 
don the  clerical  profession  for  the  practice  of  a  -civilian. 
But.however  painful  to  his  feelings  this  qnarrel  with  jbis 
benefactor  might  prove,  he  had  the  consolation,  to  reBect 
that  it  could  not  now  dieprive  him  of  the  prospec^t  of  an  e^sy 
^KMnpeteoce.  His  character  asr  a  scholar  was  established  in 
•  the  uhiversity ;  he  was  become.-  a  fellow  and  tiutor  of  his 
college;  and  on  the  30th  of  Jan.  1730,  he  was  appointed  ,  i 

"i^  I«  the  Gent.  Mag.  1719,  p.  250,     ^'  in»d«  by  a  prettjr  oiode«t  lad  one  ' 

is  a  copy  of  Latin  vcr^ei  od  the  deatli     Taylor,  a  junior  $%pbii"  | 

(»f  a  Mr«£ylet>  ale^low  of'St.Joho's,  


TAYLOR. 


181 


to  deliver  the  Latin  oration  then  annually  pronounced  in 
St, 'Mary's  before  the  university  on  that  solemn  anniversary; 
and  at  the  following  comn^encement  he  viras  selected  to 
speak  the  music  speech,  both  of  which  were  printed.    This 
last  performance,    of  which  but  two  instances  occur  in 
the  last  century,    viz.  1714  and  1730,    was   supposed   to 
require  an  equal  share  of  learning  and  genius:  for,  besides 
la  short  compliment  in  Latin  to  the  heads  of  the  university, 
the  org,tor  was  expected  to  produce  a  humourous  copy  of 
£nglish  verses  on  the  fashionable  topics  of  the  day,  for  the 
entertainn^iant  of  the  female  part  of  his  audience ;  and  in 
the  execution  of  this  office  (derived  like  the  Terras  filius  of 
Oxford,  from  the  coarse  festivities  of  a  grosser  age)  some-^ 
times  indulged  a  licentiousness  which  surprises  one  on  per- 
usal.    The  music  speech  of  Mr.  Taylor  is  sufficiently  free ; 
and,  though  it  does  some  credit  to  his  poetical  talents,  is 
not  very  civil  to  his  contemporaries  of  Oxford,  (whom  he 
openly  4^xes  with  retaining  their  fellowships  and  wives  at 
the  expence  of  their  oaths)  or  to  the  members  of  Trinity 
college,  in  his  own  university,  whom  he  ironically  repre- 
sents as  the  only  members  of  Cambridge  wh\>  could  wipe  off 
the  stigma  of  impoliteness  imputed  to  them  by  the  sister 
university.    This  speech  was  printed  by  his  young  friend 
^nd  fellow  collegian  Mr.  Bovvyer,  and  the  publication  con-* 
eludes,  with  an  ,ode  designed  to  have  been  set  to  music. 
These  were  not  the  only  effusions  of  Mr.  Taylor^s  muse, 
for  in  the  Gent.  Mag.  l779,  p.  365,  are  some  verses  by  him 
on  the  marriage  of  Lady  Margaret  Harley  to  the  duke  of 
Portlaivd,  and  others  reprinted  by  Mr.  Nichols. 

In  March  1732,  he  was  appointed  librarian,  which  office 

he  held  but  a  short  time,  being  in  1734  appointed  registrar 

'of  the  university.     From  this  time  Cambridge  became  his 

principal  residence,    but  he  was  in  London  in   1739,  at 

which  time  his  celebrated  edition  of  *^  Lysias''  appieared^. 


*  On  this  subject  Mr,  Clarke  writes 
thus  to  Mr.  Bowyet :  ^*  T  am  glad  Mr. 
Taylor  is  got  into  your  press :  it  will 
make  his  Lysias  more  correct.  I  hope 
yott  will  not  let  hita  prim  too  great 
a  number  of  copies,  It  will  encourage 
a  young  editor,  to  have  his  first  at- 
tempt rise  upon  his  hands.  I  fancy 
yon  have  got  him  in  the  press  for  life, 
if  ha  has  any  tolerable  success  there; 
he  is  too  busy  a  man  to  be  idle."  It 
was  published  under  the  titia  Of  <*  Ly- 


shb  Orationes  &  Fragmenta,  Gitec^  ke 
h%imh.  Ad  fldem  Oodd.  Manoacrip- 
torum  receosuit,  Notts  criticis,  Intor- 
pretatione  nora,  cseteroque  apparata 
necessaritt  dooavit  Joannas  Taylor^ 
A.  M.  Coll.  O.  Joan.  CanUb.  Soe, 
Academiac  olim  a  Bibliothects.  hodio 
a  Commentariis/  Accedont  €1.  Jen 
Marklandi,  Col.  D.  Pet.  Soc.  Conjee-* 
tnrae.  Londini,  ex  Officioi^  Qnlielmi 
Bowyer,  in  ssdibos  olim  Carmeiitacis^ 
1739."    Of  Uiiti  arvr^i  which  u  no«r 


1S2.  TAYLOR. 

This  edition,  which  evinces  his  intimate  knowledge  of  the 
Greek  language  and  of  Attic  law,  is  executed,  as  to  the  ex-> 
ternal  enDbellishments  of  type  and  paper,  in  a  manner  which 
reflects  great  credit  on  the  press  of  Mr.  Bowyer,  from  which 
it  proceeded.  Mr.  Taylor's  subsequent  publications  issujed 
from  the  university  press  of  Cambridge.  In  1740  he  took 
his  degree  of  LL.  D.  The  subject  which  he  chose  for  his 
act,  is  curious,  and  worthy  of  our  author.  A.  Geilius  had 
related,  on  ihe  authority  of  the  ancient  jurists,  that  by  the 
laws  of  die  ten  tables  the  body  of  the  insolvent  debtor  was 
cut  in  pieces  and  distributed  among  his  creditors.  JDr. 
Taylor  undertook  to  set  this  in  a  new  light,  and  to  shew 
that  it  was  the  property  and  not  person  of  the  debtor,  that 
was  liable  to  this  division;  and  if  he  did  not  succeed  in 
producing  complete  conviction,  his  treatise  was  at  (east 
calculated  to  increase  the  opinion  already  entertained  of 
his  erudition  and  ingenuity*  It  was  published  in  1742, 
under  the  title  of  '*  Commentarius  ad  legem  decemvira-r 
lem  de  inope  debitore  in  partes  dissecaudo,''  with  an  ap« 
pendix  of  curious  papers.  Although  he  was  admitted  of 
Doctors  Commons  in  this  year  1742^  it  does  not  appear  ^hat 
be  practised  as  a  civilian,  but  about  this  time  tber^  was  9, 
desigu  to  employ  his  talents  in  a  civil  station,  as  under^sevi 
cretary  of  state  to  lord  Granville. 

,  In  the  following  year  the  learning  and  critical  abilities 
pf  Dr.  Taylor  were  again  called  forth.  The  late  earl  of 
Sandwich,  on  his  return  from  a  voyage  \o  the  Greek  islands^ 
of  which  his  own  account  has  been  published  since  his  death, 
and  which  shews  him  to  have  been  a  nobleman  of  consider* 

* 

able  learning,  brought  with  him  a  marble  frpm  Delc^.  That 
island,  ^^  which  lay  in  the  very  centra  of  the  then  trading 
world,'*  (to  use  the  words  of  our  learned  cpuntrymin,  Mr. 
Clarke,)  ^^  was  soon  seized  by  the  Atheaia^s  and  applied  to 
the  purposes  of  a  commercial  repository :  and  this  subtle 

become  scarce,  no  more  flian  500  co-  were  ad^eHii»t;  M  jitit  jptubHiiied, 
pte$  were  pridtfd  on  demy  paper,  75  '' i^roponldi  ^rpfiDtiDg'by;fu|)fQrip« 
frnro^al  paper,  and  *25  on /H  fine  writ-  tioo,  f  new  an4  correct  edition  of  Do- 
ing royal.  The  doctor  always  enter-  mosthenes  and  JE^chines,  by'  Joha 
taioed  a  fond  hope  of  reprinting  it,  like  Taylor,  A.  M.  fellow  of  St.  Jobo/s  col- 
bia-Deniostheiie«»  with  an  equal  quan*  lege,  and  registrar  of  thj^.uoifefAity  of 
tity  of  note*  to  both  p^g%%,  U  was  in  Cambridge.**— N.  B,  Ou  or  before  the 
part  republished  at  Cambridge,  1740,  S4th  day  of  December  neict, 'lyjil  b^ 
in  8tOy  under  the  titl«  of  **  Lysiae  Athe-»  published,  (and^ . deliverefl.  t;o/,i sub^ 
^  aifiitis  Oratiooes  G|ra9c6  &I<atin^,.ex  scribers  if  desired)  '  Oratio  contra  Lep- 
luterprelatione  &  cum  brevibus  Notis  tiuem,'  which  begins  the  third  Vuliliq)Q 
Joaonis  Taylori  |u  ustim  stt^diofie  #u-  of  the  above*>ineuifO]ieUM:^rkJf .  ^' 
veutulis."    At  the  end  of  this  volume 


TAYLOR.  183 

...  .    , 

and  entc^rprizing  people,  to  encrease  tb^  sacreduess  and 
inviolability  of  its  character,  celebrated  a  solemn  festival 
there  once  in  every  olympiad."  The  marble  in  question 
contained  a  particulac  of  all  the  revenues  and  appointments 
set  apart  for  that  purpose.  From  the  known  skill  of  Dr. 
Taylor  on  all  points  of  Grecian  antiquity  it  was  submitted 
to  his  inspection,  and  was  published  by  him  in  1743,  under 
the  title  .of  *'Marmor  Sandvicense  cum  commentario  et  no- 
tis  ;*'  and  never  probably  was  an  ancient  inscription  more 
ably  or  satisfactorily  elucidated.  In  the  same  year  he  ^Iso 
published  the  only  remaining  oration  of  Lycurgus,  and  one 
of  Demosthenes,  in  a  small  octavo  volume,  with  an  inscrip- 
tion to  his  friend  Mr.  Charles  Yorke. 

This  volume  i$  printed  on  the  same  type  with,  an.d  was 
intended  as  a  specimen  of,  his  projected  edition  of  all  the 
works  of  that  great  orator;  a  task  which  ^*  either  the  course 
of  bis  studies,  or  the  general  consent  of  the  public,  had," 
he  says,  "imposed  upon  him."     While  he  was  engaged  in 
this  laborious  undertaking  he  received  an  accession  of  dig- 
nity and  emolument ;  being  in  the  beginning  of  174-4  ap-. 
pointed  by  the  bishop  of  Lincoln,  Dr,  John  Thomas,  to  the 
office  of  chancellor  of  that  extensive  diocese,  in  the  room 
of  Mr.  Reynolds.     For  his  introduction  to- thiis  prelate  he 
was  indebted  to  the  kindness  of  his  great  patron  lord  Gran- 
yille,  as  we  learn  from  the  dedication  of  the  third  volume 
of  his  Demosthenes,  which  came  out  in  the  spring  of  1748, 
the  publicatioi)  of  the  first  volume  being  postponed,  that 
^  the  fife  of  the  great  orator  and  the  other  prolegomena  might 
appear  \yith  more  correctness. 
.In  April  1751,   Dr.  Taylor  succeeded  the  rev.  Christo- 
/  pber  Anstey,  D.  D.  in  the  rectory  of  Lawford  in  Essex,  a 
living  belonging  to  St.  John's  college,  and  the  only  paro- 
'*  <?hial  -cure  he  ever  enjoyed ;  and  in  Jan.  1753,  he  became 
j  archdeacon  of  Buckingham.     After  he  took  orders  he  wa^ 
''  esteemed  a  very  eminent  and  successful  preacher;  but  he 
'  <h^  i^Mf^  two  occasional  sermons  in  print.     When  the  late 
^'ni^m[uisof  Bath  and  his  brother  were  sent  to  St.  John's, 
,%)^fiej?  were  placed  under  the  care  of  our  author  by  bis  pa- 
■'  iron.  lord  Granville^  maternal  grandfather  of  these  two  young 
•  no^li^men.     This  charge  led  to  his  work  on  the  "  Elem^ts 
.1  o^l[JivU  Law,"  1755,  in  4to,!  and  which  was  forhned  from 
[  the  papers  drawn  up  by  him  to  instruct  bis  noble  pupils  in 
{  the  origin  of  Natural  law,  the  rudiments  of  civil  life,  and  of 
social  <iutie».    If  the  work,  as  published,  partalces  soipe- 


184 


TAYLOR. 


whBt  too  much  of  the  desultory  character  of  6ucb  loose  pa-v 
pers;  if  its  reasoning  is  oqcasionally  confased,  aod  ir^  dit 
gressions  soonetimes  irrelevant,  it  is  impossible  to  deny  it 
the  praise  of  vast  reading  and  extensive  information  oa  vo-r 
lious  subjects  of  pqlite  learning  and  recondite  antiquity*  It 
quickly  came  to  a  sepond  edition,  aod  has  also  been  pub-* 
lished  in  an  abridged  form,  It  did  not  however  escape 
without  some  severe  animadversions* 

The  learned  world  at  Cambridge  was  at  that  tiqi^.divided 
into  two  pi^rties :  the  polite  scholars  and  the  pbilologi$ts. 
The  former^  at  the  head  of  which  were  Gray,  Mason,  ^c* 
superciliously  confined  all  merit  to  their  own  circle,  and. 
looked  down  with  Yasttdious  contempt  on  the  rest  of  tbei 
world.  It  is  needless  to  observe  th^it  Dr.  Taylor  belonge4 
to  the  latter  class*  Dr.  Hurd,  a  member  of  the  former,  ^ 
writer  of  celebrity,  and  eminent  for  his  attachment  to  War- 
burton,  of  whose  ^^schooP'  he  was  a  distinguished  disciple, 
in  a  most  unjustifiable  pamphlet,  published  the  same  year, 
1755,  and  directed  against  the  amiable  and  modest  Jortin  ^j 
steps  out  pf  his  way  to  express  his  contempt  of  Taylor, 
whi(^h  was  but  the  prelude  to  a  more  severe  attack  froni 
Warburtoq  himself.  Our  author  f  in  his  Elements  had  ex** 
pressed  his  opinion  ths^t  the  persecutions  which  the  fir^( 
Christians  experienced  from  the  Roman  emperors  prOf> 
ceeded  not  from  any  peculiar  disapprobation  of  their  te- 
nets, but  from  a  jealousy  entertained  of  their  nocturnal  ast 
semblies.  In  expressing  this  opinion,  Taylor  did  not  men* 
tion,  and  perhaps  did  not  even  think  of  Warburton  ;  but  as 
the  latter  in  his  Divine  Legation  had  derived  these  persecur 
tions  from  another  source,  the  absurdities  of  Pagan  religion 
and  the  iniquities  of  Pagan  politics  \  the  holding,  and  much ' 
more  the  publishing,  of  a  contrary  notion  by  any  contem- 
porary was  too  great  an  offence  for  that  haughty  dogmatist 
to  pass  with  impunity.  His  prefaces  and  notes  were,  a$ 
was  wittily  observed  of  him,  the  established  places  of  exe- 
cution for  the  punishment  of  dll  who  did  not  implicitly 


*  The  offence  of  Jortin  was  similar 
to  that  of  Taylor.  He  had  dared  tp 
dissent  from  Warbarton's  strange,  and 
now  exploded  hypothesis  on  the  de- 
scent of  lEneBS  in  tlie  6th  JEnetd. 

f  The  real  offence  said  to  have  been 
given  by  Taylor  was  an  opinion  which 
|ke  h94  t^foifB  opt  in  company  dero- 
gatory to  tlie  chaficter  of  ArYarbutton 


as  a  scholar :  this  reached  the  ears  ot 
the  other,  who  with  a  frankness  peco- 
liar  to  himseif,  interrogated  oar  critic 
on  \he  subject.  Dr.  Taylor  is  report* 
ed  to  have  replied  that  he  did  not  re- 
collect ever  saying  that  l!>r.  Warburton 
was  no  scholar,  but  that  indQ6d  he  had 
^ways  ikpught  so. 


/ 


TAYLOR,  18S 

adopt  bis  sentiments,  and  having  occasion  soon  after  (in 
1758)  to  pubikh  a  new  edition  of  that  celebrated  \vork|  he 
seized  that  opportunity  to  chastise  Taybr,  with  all  the 
vhruience,  wit^  and  tngenuity  of  distortion,  which  he  could 
command. 

An  attack  so  insolent  and  unprovoked  could  not  injure 
ibe  established  character  of  Dr.  Taylor,  or  ruffle  bis  tem^ 
per,  and  he  wisely  abstained  from  taking  any  notice  of  it. 
There  appeared  however  in  1758  a  pamphlet,  entitled 
^^  Impartial  Remarks  upon  the  preface  of  Dr.  Warburton, 
in  which  he  has  taken  uncommon  liberties  with  the  cha* 
racter  of  Dr.  Taylor;"  but  it  is  said  to  be  a  poor  perform- 
ance, the  only  information  which  it  contains  being  the 
anecdote  in  the  preceding  note  as  to  the  real  origin'^  the 
dispute.  Taylor  seems  at  this  time  to  have  been  better 
employed  than  in  controversy,  as  the  second  volume  of  bit 
**  Demosthenes"  appeared  in  May  1757,  and  in  the  fol- 
lowing July  he  was  made  a  canon  residentiary  of  St.  Pauro. 
For  this  appointment,  which  was  the  summit  of  his  prefer- 
ment, he  was  indebted  to  his  steady  and  active  patron  lord 
Granville,  who  was  now  a  member  of  administration.  In 
consequence  of  this  dignity,  he  resigned  the  office  of  regis- 
trar, in  1758,  and  quitted  Cambridge  to  reside  in  London* 
|iere  he  still  proceeded  to  collect  and  arrange  the  mate« 
rials  for  the  first  volume  of  his  Demosthenes*,  but  the  ex- 
pectations of  the  learned  were  frustrated  by  his  death,  which 
took  place  on  the  14th  day  of  April,  1766,  at  his  house  in 
Amen  Corner,  Paternoster  Row.  He  was  buried  in  the 
vault  under  St.  Paul's,  under  the  litat^y  desk,  where  is  an 
epitaph. 

Dr/  Taylor  used  to  spend  part  of  his  summers  in  bis  na- 
tive county,  taking  for  that  purpose  a  ready-furnished 
house,  in  which  he  might  enjoy  the  society  of  bis  friendtf. 
For  several  years  he  rented  the  curate's  house  at  Edge^ 
mond,  his  equipage  in  the  mean  time  standing  at  livery  in 
the  neighbouring  town  of  Newport. 

As  Dr.  Taylor  had  been  for  many  years  in  the  receipt  of 
an  ample^  and  even  splendid  income,  it  might  have  been 
expected  that  he  should  die  in  affluent  circumstances.  But 
this  was  by  no  means  the  case.  He  Uved  in  a  handsome 
«tyle»  and  expended  a  large  sum  of  money  in  books.     His 

*  The  two  volamcis  of  Demoithenet     title  pages,  and  conTerted  tb#  thtitt 
arenowiold  as  the  first  and  second,     volame  into  the  first. 
The  booksellers    have  sspplied  »tw 


188  TAYLOR. 

library  ftt  the  time  of  bis  death  was  large  an4  vftliiable* 
This,  with  die  residue  of  bis  fortuae,  for  the  sppport  of 
an  exhibition  at  St.  John's,  be  bequbealhed  to  the  school 
where  be  had  received  his  education;  reserving;  boiv^v^r^ 
to  his  friend  and  physician  Dr.  Askew  all  his  M$§*  *  Mi 
»i3ic*h  of  his  printed  books  as  eontained  bis  insHrgioal  ^ooo- 
taiions.  1'he  u»e  which  Askew  made  of  this  bequest  has 
been  severely  censured.  The  latter  clause  was  enforced 
with  the  utmost  rigour,  so  as  to  include  a  vast  number  of 
books,  which  the  testator  intended  to  form  part  of  .bis  do- 
nation to  the  schools ;  and  Dr.  Askew  is  thought  to  haveb^n 
still  more  reprehensible  in  putting  into  Reiska's  hatnls  the 
indigested  and  unfinished  mass  of  papers  belonging) to 
Taylor's  proposed  first  vol  ume,  who  printed  them  JMstas 
\fe  had  received  them,  and  then  attacked  the  critical  sJiill 
of  t'jeir  author. 

.  In  private  life,  Dr.  .Taylor's  character  was.  Extremely 
amiable:  his  temper  remarkably  social,  and  his  talents 
fitted  to  adorn  and  gladden  society.  The  eveo,tenour.of 
bis  employments  furnished  him  with  an  uninterrupted  «fipw 
of  spirits.  Though  be  was  so  studiously  devoted  to  letters, 
I — though  as  an  intimate  friend  and  fello^^•'Collegian  of  his 
informs  us,  **  if  you  called  on  him  in  college. after  dinft^r,^ 
you  were  «ure  to  find  him  sitting  at  an  oid  oval  w^^^ut 
xable,-  covered  with  books, — ^yet  when  you  beg^  to.Jins^e 
apologies  for  disturbing  a  person  so  well  etAploy/?4>  ^be 
imme^diately  told  you  to  advance,  and  called  out,.  /^  Jo^n, 
John,  bring  pipes,  and  glasses,'*  and  iostantly  ^pp^ai'^d^^as 
cheerful  and  gopd-bumoured  as  if  he  had  not  h?e^:M.all 
eiigaged  or  interrupted.  Suppose  now  you  h$^d  il^i4i:$s^s 
long  a«  yqu  would,  and  been  eniert^ained  by  bifl).  ^iM^st 
agreeabfy,  you  took  your  leave  and  got  balf-wiyj./ij^ojffp.^be 
^taifis,  but  recollecting  somewhat  tlut  y:ou  ba^.tlp.  s^,fto 
bioi,  yott.goiii  again  ;^  the  bottles  and  glasses  jvi^re^^pde, 
ibe  books  had  expanded  themselves  so  as  to  re^oQ^up^^^e 
whole  tabic,  and  he  was  just  as  much  bturied  ,in.:i^e)9a(Tas 
wi)ea  ypo 'first  came  in.''  >   »  ^A 

'   He  iored  a  game  at  cards,  and  we  are  told  t^^i^e 
.     i    '    '-      '  '  .  •'-■'■■;* 

*  Tho^e  oo    pbilolo^^ical  subjects  him,  oF  modern  customs  derived  from 

vere  sold  to  tKe  university  of  Cam-  Grecian  and  Roman  ant^uiiyr^deitne 

>d%<S' Ml  ^Dr.' Askf^v^i  deatfau     Be-  smgulji^r   ing^aces  o^    nki^}pifjiie\^\ist4 

sides  these,  our  author  had  many  pa-  there   adduced.      Various   particulars 

?t^r$  4)11 /^^t>j^t»,Al^f  English  anUjiiQity;  respecting  his  .MSSj.  are  in  Mr.  ^i- 

n  his  Civil  Uw,  p.  ^7,  be  mention*  chols's  "  AnecdotesJ^'     '    ^ 

*  plentiful  collection  whidi  he  had  by  '  '         '"   ^^'  '^  ^""'  ^'^  ""• 


T  A  Y  L  O  R.  187 

l^tajred  welL    fie  ^^^  ako  an  excellent  relator  of  a  .story; 

>of  which  he  had' a  lapge  and  entertaining  collection  ;  but 

like  most  •  ^torj'^'teliers  was  somewhat  too   apt  to  repeat 

^jtbetil>  'His  friend,  the  facetious  atid  good-bumoured  Henry 

-i^uBbard  of  E^ifiannely  with  whom  he  greatly  associated, 

"^vonid  sometitneif,  in  the  evenings  which  they  used  to  past 

-alolie  together,  use  the  freedom  of  jocosely  remonstrating 

^  ^tti  himti^oH  the  subject,  and  when  the  Doctor  began  one 

^  of  his' anecdotes, 'woulrf  cry  oat,  *'Ah,  dear  Dociior,  pray 

"  <io  not  let  US  have  that  story  any  more,  I  have  be0rd  it  S9 

'^  <^feen  ;'*•    to   which   Taylor    often    humouroasiy    replied, 

7<<  (3om<^  Harry,  let  me  tell  it  this  once  more,"  and  would 

'  then  gb  on  ^itb  hit  narration.     Many  other  curious  anec*^ 

^  dotes,  otf  Dr.  Tay>or,  with  much  of  his  correspondence, 

may- be  seen  \\\  Mr.  Niclvok^s  third  volume  along  with  the 

Jives  of  many  of  his  learned  contemporaries.' 

V  *    TAYLOR  (Silas),  an  able  English  antiquary,  who  is.  in-r 

traduced  by  Anthony  Wood  with  an  alias  DoMViLLfi  or 

-D'OMviLLE,  we  know  not  why,  was  the  son  of  Sylvanus 

'  Taylor,  one  of  the  commissioners  for  ejecting  those  of  the 

clergy,  who  were  called  **  scandalous  and  insufficient  mi* 

lii^lers,^'  and  one  of  the  pretended  high  court  of  justice 

fop  the  trial' of  Charles  I,     Silas  wa«  born  at  Hariey  near 

M<idi#enlock  in   Shropshire,   July   16,  lf»24,  and   after 

**otfje  'ecfecation  at  Shrewsbury  and  Westminster-schools, 

'^'becat^e  a-  commoner  of  New-Inn^hall,  Oxford,  in  1641. 

'-He  had  given  proof  of  talents  fit  to  compose  a. distinguished 

^^scbolar,  both  fn  the  classics  and  matbeoifiiftica,  -when   bis 

faAer- tcfok  him  from  the  university,  and  made  him  join 

the  parliamentary  army,  in  which  he  bore  a  captaAin's  con)- 

'  ^^ission.     When  the  war  was  over^  his  father  procured  him 

tb  be  made  a  sequestrator  of  the  royalists  in  Herefordshire, 

btit  althbugb  he  enriched  himself »  comideraWjr  in   this 

•  oflfce,  afnd  had  a  moiety  of  the  bialjop's  palace  at  Here* 

'ford*  settled  on  him,'  be  conducted  himself  jwith  snob  kind* 

^pe^af  and  moderation  as  to  be  beloved  of.  the  Jtim^'spdrty: 

At  the  restoration,  he  of  course  lost  ali  he  had  gaiocdas 

'  the'^ager^t'of  usurpation,  but  his  mild  behaviour  in  that 

ungracious  office  was  not  forgot,  ,and  by  the  interest  of 

.fi^om^  .w.hqm  he  had  obliged,  he  was  appointecj  commissary, 

pf  amnnunition,  &c.  at  Dunkirk,  and  about  166/5  was  made 

^   1  NicMsV  Bowyer.— History  of  vShrewsbiiry,  1810,"  12mo,  «  ^ery  *«n  «rifc. 
itn  article,  wbicti  we  have  generaliy  fotlo^ea  xtk^  prtcettng^  a<Jc«int    ' 


188  T  A  r  L  O  R. 

1 

keeper  of  the  king's  stores  and  storehouses  for  shippings 
&c.  at  Harwich,  The  profits  of  this  situation  were  proba^ 
biy  not  great,  for  he  was  much  in  debt  at  the  time  of*  his 
death,  w^hich  occasioned  his  valuable  collections  and  MSS. 
to  be  seized  by  his  creditors,  and  dispersed  as  of  no  value. 
He  died  Nov«  4,  1678,  and  was  buried  iii  the  chancel  of 
the  church  of  Harwich. 

He  appears  to  have  been  an  early  inquirer  into  the  an- 
tiquities of  his  countr}',  and  while  in  power  ransacked  the 
libraries  of  the  cathedrs^ls  of  Hereford  and  Worcester  for 
valuable  MSS.,  among  which  was  the^original  grant  of  king 
Edgar,  whence  the  kings  of  England  derive  their  sove- 
reignty of  the  seas.     This  was  printed  in  Selden's  "  IVUre 
clausum.*'     He  left  large  materials  for  a  history  of  Here«- 
fordsbire,  which  Dr.  Rawlinson  understood  to  have  been 
deposited  in  lord  O:xford'$  library ;    but  in  the  Harleian 
catalogue  we  find  only  part  of  bis  history  of  Herefordshire^ 
at  the  end  ,of  MS.  6766,  and   extracts  f^om  Doomsday, 
No.  6856.     Mr.  Dale,  who  published  a  *^  History  gf  Har- 
wich" from  Taylor's  papers,  in  1730,  speaks  of  these  col- 
lections as  being  lately^  if  not  noWi  in  the  hands  of  sir  Ed- 
ward Harley  of  Brompton-Brian,  grandfather  of  the  first 
carl  of  Oxford.     The  only  work  Taylor  published,  wj^s  the 
'^  History  of  Gavelkind,  with  the  etymology  thereof;  conr 
taining  also  an  assertion,  that  our  English  laws  are,  for  the 
most  part,  those  that  were  used  by  the  ancient  Brytains^ 
notwithstanding  the  several  conquests  of  the-  Romans,  Sax- 
ons, Danes,  and  Norn^ans.     With  some  observations  and 
remarks  upon  many  especial  occurrences  of  British  and 
English  history.     To  which  is   added,  a  short  history  of 
William  the  conqueror,  written  in  Latin  by  an  anonymous 
author  in  the  time  of  Henry  I."   Lond.  1663,  4to.     In  this 
work  he  carries  both  the  name  and  custom  of  Gavelkin4 
further  back  than  was  done  by  his  predecessor  on  the  same 
fsubject,  Somner.     In  all  material  points  he  confirms  the 
opinion  of  Somner,  who  answers  bis  objections  in  marr 
ginal  notes  on  a  copy  of  bis  book,  which,  with  a  correct 
copy  of  his  own,  is  in  Canterbury  library.    Tayloir's  work 
we  should  suppose  oi  great  rarity,  as  no  copy  occurs  in 
Mr.  Cough's  collection  given  to  Oxford,  or  in  that  sold  in 
London.     Wood  says,  that  Taylor  wrote  mauy  pamphlets 
before  the  riestoration,  but  as  they  were  without  his  name, 
he  did  not  think  proper  to  acknowledge  them.  .  He  speak$ 
ajso  of  Taylor's  abilities  not  only  in  tbe  theory^  but  pirac-' 


Taylor;  i8§ 

lice  of  music,  and  as  a  composer  of  anthems,  and  the  editor 
of  "  Court  Ayres,  &c.'*  1655,  8vo,  printed  by  John  PJay* 
ford.  His  name,  however,  seems  to  have  escaped  the  at« 
tention  of  our  musical  historians. ' 

TAYLOR  (Thomas),  one,  of  the  tnost  eminent  and 
learned  of  the  puritan  divines,  was  bom  at  Richmond  in 
Yorkshire,  in  1576,  and  was  educated  at  Christ's-coilege, 
Cambridge,  of  which  he  became  a  fellow,  and  acquired 
great  fame  for  his  literary  accomplishments.  He  was 
chosen  Hebrew  lecturer  of  bis  college.  At  what  time  he 
took  holy  orders  is  .not  mentioned,  but  he  appears  to  have 
incurred  censure  for  non-conformity  in  one  or  two  instan-  , 
ces.  On  leaving  the  university,  he  settled  first  at  Watford 
in  Hertfordshire,  then  at  Reading  in  Beckshire,  and  after* 
wards,  in  1625,  he  obtained  the  living  of  St  Mary  Alder- 
inanbury,  London,  which  he  retained  for  the  remainder  of 
his  life.  Id  bis  early  days  he  had  preached  at  Paul's  cross 
before  queen  Elizabeth,  and  afterwards  before  king  James,* 
and  was  every  where  admired  and  followed  for  the  plain- 
ness, perspicuity,  and  soundness  of  his  doctrines,  and  the 
great  zeal  and  earnestness  with  which  he  laboured  in  the* 
pastoral  office  for  the  space  of  thirty  years.  While  he  par-^ 
took  of  the  zeal,  common  to  all  his  brethren,  against 
popery,  he  was  also  an  avowed  enemy  to  Arminianism  and 
Antinomianism.  He  died  in  the  beginning  of  1632,  in  the 
fifty*fifth  year  of  his  age,  and  was  interred  in  St.  Mary'tf 
church.  Leigh,  Fuller,  Wood,  and  all  his  contemporarie* 
unite  in  giving  him  a  high  character  for  learning,  piety, 
and  usefulness.  He  was  likewise  a  voluminous  writer ;  hif 
works,  most  of  them  printed  separately,  were  collected  iit 
3  vols.  fol.  165*9.  They  consist  of  commentaries,  which 
were  generally  the  substance  of  what  he  had  preached  on 
particular  parts  of  scripture;  and  single  sermons,  or  trea- 
tises. He  and  Dr.  Thomas  Beard  of  Huntingdon,  were 
joint  compilers  of  that  singular  and  once  very  popular  coU 
lection  of  stories,  entitled  ^*  The  Theatre  of  God'^s  Judg-* 
ments,"   1648,  &c.  fol.* 

TEDESCHL     See  TUDESCHL 

TEISSIER  (Anthony),  a  learned  and  laborious  French 
writer,  was  born  at  Montpelliet  Jan.  28,  1632.  He  stddietl 
at  Lunel,  Orange,  and  other  places,  and  having  acquired 

'^  Ath.  Ox.  tqI.  n.**«GoHg;fa*ff  Topography. 

«  Life  prefixed  to  his  Works.— Clark  V  Uvea  at  Uieeiid  of  bit  Martyrolofy.-r. 
9\in»rH  Worthies.— AUi.  Ox,  to).  I. 


ISO  T  E  I  S  S  IE  R. 

a  knowledge  of  Greek,  Hebrew,  and  theolo^^  he  went  to 
Paris,  where  be  fortnecl  an  acquaintance  wiib  some  emi** 
sent  men  of  the  day,  Pelisson,  Conrart,  Meimgef  and 
others,  and  on  his  return  received  the  degree  oC  doctoi*  of 
laws  at  Bourges.  He  then  went  to  Nismes,  ami  practised 
at  the  bar,  became  a  counsettor  of  the  city,  and  a  member 
of  the  Protestant  consistory,  and  a  member  also  of  th^ 
tiewly-founded  academy.  In  1685,  on  the  revocation  of 
the  edict  of  Nantz,  he  found  it  necessary  to  retire  to  Swit* 
^erland,  and  finally  to  Berlin,  where  the  elector  of  Bran- 
denburgh  gave  htm^  the  title  of  counsellor  of  embassy,  and . 
historiographer,  with  an  annual  pension  of  300  crowns^ 
which  was  afterwards  increased.  He  died  at  Berlin,  Sept.:: 
7,  17]  5,  in  the  eighty-fourth  year  of  his  age.  He  piib-^ 
lisbed  sevetal  translations,  from  the  works  of  St.  Cbry-^ 
sostom;  the  lives  of  Caiviaand  Beza,  from  the  Latin  of 
Gakacius  Carraccioli,  and  of  Francis  Spira ;  the  eloges  of 
eminent  men,  from  Tbuanus,  of  which  there  have  been  four 
editions,  tlie  best  that  of  Leyden,  1715,  4  vols.  ISaio;: 
the  epistle  of  St.  Clement  to  the  Corinthiaos,  from  the 
Greek ;  a  treatise  on  martyrdom,  from  the  Latin  of  Heideg* 
ger,  &c.  &c.  This  most  useful  work  is  entitled  *'  Gate*' 
logos  auctorum  qui  librorum  catalogos,  indices,  bibliothew 
Caa^  viromm  iiteratorum  elogia,  vitas,  aut  oratibnes  ftme*- 
bres  scriptis  consignarunt,"  Geneva,  1686,  4to,  with  a. 
fuppleioent,  in  170)5..  This  is  a  greatly  improved  editien  . 
of  Labbe's  ^*  Bibliotbeca  Bibliotbecarom.'*  *  * 

TELESi US  (Bernard),  a  modern  philosopher,  vms  bon>^ . 
at  Naples  in  1.508,  and  received  the  first  part  of  his  edu-M 
cation  .at  Milan,  where  he  acquired  a  perfect  knowledge 
of  the  Latin  and  Greek  languages.     After  futssing  twd^  ! 
years  at  Rome,  where  he  made  great  proficiency  in  j^oiitO' *x 
learntfkg,    he  refmoved  to  Padua,  and  appliedf^^ritb  inden"  ^ 
fati^able  assiduity  tx)  the  study  of  mathematics  and  pbHo^'J 
sophy.    He  very  judiciously  employed  mathematical  learo-r^ 
ing.iia  explaining  and  establishing  tbeJawsofpbysics^  and  % 
was  particularly  successful  in  investigating  traUiSf  beforer:  ^ 
unknown  in  the  doctrine  of  optics.    Accustomed  to  ma^beh  ,'' 
mauoal  accuracy,  he  grew  disflati»fie{bMfHb  the  admject^i'A 
explanation :of  natural  aptpearano^^gucetiby, Afisftotile^  4$uiro« 
ex|2fessed  great  surprise  that  thia^  pbiJoso^bisefshoiri^  baW(/^ 
been,  for  so  many  ages,  followed  in  oiaiQutnerQiafi!  erfOfadt 

*  NicerOD,  v©l.  V. — Moren,  ,  f.  .•  * 


TELES  rUiS.  isi 

by:  sxrifKiiiy  learned  itien^  by  wfaoie  nations^  and  almost  by 
the  whole-  human  racse.  He  pursued  his:  researehes  widi 
great  ingenuity  a5  well  as  freedotjiy  and  wrote  two  books 
**  Ort 'Natiire,"  iu  which  he  attempted  to  overturn  thepby- 
sieal  doctrine  of  the  Peripatetic  school,  and  to  explain  the^ 
phenottiena  of  the  material  world  upon  new  principles; 
When  this-  treatise  was  first  published  at  Rome,  it  obtained 
great .aiiid  unexpected  applause,  and  Telesius  was  prevailed 
uponHby  tbe  importunity  of  his  friends  at  Naples,  to  open 
a  aclidol  of  philosophy  in  that  city.  The  Telesian  school 
soon  became  famous,  not  only  for  the  number  of  its  pupiU, 
but  for  the' abilities  of  hs  professors,  who  distinguitihefi 
themselves  by  their  bold  opposition  to  the  doctrines  of 
Ari^tle^  and  by  the  judicious  manner  in  which  they  dis- 
tributed their  labours,  in  order  to  enlarge  the  bouttdanen 
of  natural  knowledge.  The  founder  of  the  school  was  highly 
esteemed  by  all  who  were  desirous  of  ^studying  nature* 
rather  than  dialectics;  aud  he. was  patrohi^edby  several 
great  nieu,  particularly  by  Ferdinand  duke  of  Nuceri.  But 
his  popularity  soon  awakened  the  jealousy  and  envy  of  the 
monks,  who  leaded  him  and  his  schoql  with  oahtmny,  for 
no  joihet  oHence  than  that  he  ventured  to  call  in  question* 
the  aotbority  of  Aristotle.  The  vexationsr  which  he  suf- 
fered from  this  quarter  brought  on  a  bilious  disorder,  whicb^ 
in  1588,  terminated  in  his  death. 

Although,  during  the  life  of  Telesius,  his  innovations 
were  patiently  borne,  both  in  Rome  and  Naples,  after  his  • 
death  bis  wrjA;iAgs  were  proscribed  iri  the  Index  Eicpurga- 
torijUs^of'the  inquisition.     Notwithstanding  whichi  his  phi-  - 
loso^by  corytinued  to  have  many  a<>mirers^  and  his  works>^ 
were  republished  at  Venice  in  1590,  by  his  friend  An()o< 
nios  Persitis,  who  also: wrote  a  compendium  of  his  philosoMt 
pby  in  tbeveirnaaaiar  tongue.     Besides^his  prinuipal  work(> 
De  Natura  Reram,  «**  On  the  Nature -of  Things,"  he  wriite 
on  the  airy  tbe^sea^  comets,  the  milky  way,  the  ria^ubow, 
cotoiiirsy  resfpiraei^M^  sleep,  and  otlier  subjects.     Lord  Bav 
couiokai^  given  a  brief  explanation  of  the  philosophy;  fd 
TetesfQS;    '    ••       *'*'.;•,  ■,,'....  ^. 

The  physical  systetui,  wbieh  Tetesius  attempted  to  'sub^ 
jkitute  m  the  room  of  tte  sabtleties  ami  fictions  of  tha^  S«a^ 
gyttM}  wasibunrdfed  upoti  ^he  Parmetiidean  doetiiile,<  timt 
the^fitue  principlei  iimature,  by  means  of  whieta  aU  tiaturBl^ 
phenomena  are  produced,  are  cold  and  heat.  The  sum  of 
his  theory  is  this :  m&tter,  which  is  in  itself  incapable  of 


192  T  E  L  £  S  t  U  S. 

action,  and  Admits  neither  of  increase  nor  dimination,  i^ 
acted  upon  by  two  contrary  incorporeal  principles,  beat 
and  cold.  From  the  perpetual  opposition  of  these,  arises 
the  several  forma  in  nature ;  the  prevalence  of  cold  in  the 
lower  regions  producing  the  earth  and  terrestrial  bodies  ; 
and  that  of  beat  in  the  superior,  the  heavens  and  celestial 
bodies.  All  the  changes  of  natural  bodies  are  owing  to 
this  conflict ;  and  according  to  the  degree  in  which  each 
principle  prevails,  are  the  different  degrees  of  density^ 
resistance,  opacity,  moisture,  dryness,  &c.  which  are  found 
in  different  substances.  In  the  heavens  heat  has  its  fixed 
residence,  without  any  opposition  from  the  contrary  prin^ 
ciple  :  and  within  the  earth,  and  in  the  abyss  of  the  sea, 
cold  remains  undisturbed,  heat  not  being  able  to  penetrate 
thither.  At  the  borders  of  each  of  these  regions,  that  con-* 
test  between  the  opposite  principles  begins,  which  is  car^ 
ried  on  through  all  the  intermediate  space.  All  animal  and 
vegetable  life  is  from  God.  This  system,  which  Telesiua 
evidently  borrowed  from  Parmenides,  is  but  a  baseless  fa- 
brie  raised  upon  a  fanciful  conversion  of  mere  attributes 
and  properties  into  substantial  principles,  and  did  not  long 
survive  its  author,  who  would  have  deserved  credit  for  the 
boldness  of  bis  attack  upon  the  principles  of  Aristotle,  bad 
be  avoided  constructing  a  new  system  of  tiatural  philosophy, 
liable  to  the  same  objection  which  he  had  brought  against 
that  of  Aristotle, ' 

TELL  (William),  one  of  the  heroes  of  Swiss  liberty,  in 
the  beginning  of  the  fourteenth  century,  a  tnan  of  pro-^ 
perty,  and  of  good,  though  not  distinguished  family,  was 
an  inhabitant  of  the  village  of  Burgeln  in  the  country  of 
*Uri.  In  1307  he  was  one  of  the  persons  engaged  in  the 
eoospiracy  against  the  Austrian  governmentr  The  bailiff, 
or  governor,  Herman  Gesler,  either  6rom  a'  suspioious  dis-' 
position,  or  having  received  some  intimation  of  an  impend^ 
ing  insurrection,  resolved  to  ascertain  who  would  most  pa* 
tiently  submit  to  bis  dominion.  For  this  purpose  he  is  said 
to  have  raised  a  hat  upon  a  pole^  as  an  emblem  of  liberty, 
and  commanded  Tell,  among  others,  to  pay  obeisance  to 
it.  <<  The  youth  Tell,"  says  Mailer^  <<  a  friend  to  freedom, 
disdained  to  honour  in  a  servile  masiaer,  and  on  an  arbitrary 
command,  eVen  its  emblem."  Then  it  was  that,  according 
to  the  current  story,  Tell  was  conunaoded  by  Gtifer  t# 

I  Brocker. — ^Tirabofehu—Nioeroo^  Tol.  "XX^ 


\ 


TELL.  l»i 

sboot  an  a^rrow  at  an  apple  placed  on  the  bead  of  his  own 
son  ;  andy  though  reluctant,  compelled  to  do  it,  by  the 
menace  of  immediate  death,  .both  to  him  aiid  the  infant  if 
be  should  refuse.  Tell  cleft  the  apple  without  hurting  the 
child  ; .  but  could  not  refrain  from  informing  the  tyrant  that; 
bad  his  aim. proved  less  fortunate,  he  bad  another  arrow  in 
reserve, .  wbicb  be  should  have  directed  to  the  heart  of  bis 
oppressor.  .  By  this  manifestation  of  bis  courage  and  sen- 
timents, be  induced  thebailiflP  to  confine  him  ;  who,  after- 
wards,, mistrusting  the  friends  and  relations  of  Tell,  re- 
solved to  carry  him.  opt  of  tb^  country  of  Uri,  across  the 
lake  of  Lucern ;  thoiagh  contrary  to  the  acknowledged  pri- 
vileges of  bis  countrymen.  On  the  lake,  as  they  were 
crossing,  a  violent  storm  arose ;  aud  Gesler,  who  knew 
Tell  to  be  very  $kilful  in  the  management  of  a  boat,  or-* 
dered  bis  fetters  to.be  taken  off,  and  the  helm  committed 
to  bim.  Taking  advantage  of  this  circumstance.  Tell 
steered  the  boat  close  to  a  rock,  leaped  upon  a -flat  part  of 
it,  scrambled  up  the  precipice,  and  escaped.  •  Gesler  also 
escaped  the  danger  of  the  water,  but,  landing  near  Kus- 
nacht,  fell  by  an  arrow  from  the  bow  of  Tell,  whose  skill 
be  thus  proved  a  second  time,  to  his  cost.  Gesler  tfauk 
perished  by  the  indignation  of  a  private  man,  without  any 
participation  of  the  peoplci  and  before  the  day  appointed 
for  their  insurrection.  Tell  retired  to  Staoffacher,  in  the 
canton  of  Schwitz^  and  on  the  new  yearns  day  ensuing,  all 
the  Austrian  governors-  were  seized  and  sent  out  of  the 
country.  .  In- 1354,  forty-seven  years  after  this  event,  TeH 
is  supposed  to  have  lost  hi»life  in  an  inundation  at  Burgeln. 

A  ichapel  has  been  erected  by  bis  countryman  on  the 
spot  where  hp  resided,  and  another  on  the  rock  where  he 
landed  :  but,  from  the  simplicity  o\^ the  people,  and  of  the 
times  ip  which  be  lived,  no  particular  honours  or  emolu- 
ments were  assigned  to  his  progeny,  who  appear  to  have 
lived  in  obscurity.  Tbe  last  male  of  bis  race,  of  wboin  we 
have  any  .aocount,  was  John  Martin  Toll,  *  of  Attinghausen, 
who  died  in  1684«  His  desoent  in  the  fbmale  line  became 
extinct  in  .1720.^  Grasser^  a  Swiss  wr.hiei*,'  long  ago  re- 
marked the  resemblance  between  tbe  incident  of  the  apple, 
as  commonly  related  of  Tell,  and  that  *  told  of  Tocco;  a 
Dane,  by  Saxo  Grammaiicus ;  and  from  this  coincidence, 
some  bave  sup\)osed  tbe  latter*,  at  least,  to  be  fictitious  ; 
this,  however,  does  not  tfmount  to  a  proof.      It  is  possible, 

Vol.  XXIX.  O 


494  T  E  L  L  I  E  R. 

though  perhaps  not  ^probable,  that  it  maj  have  happened 
twice.* 

TELLIER  (FRAM901S  Michel  le),  marquis  de  Louvois, 
-by  which  title  he  is  generally  known,  was  bom  at  Parb, 
January  18,  1641.     He  was  the  son  of  Michel  le  Tellier, 
secretary  of  state,  and  afterwards  chancellor  of  France,  and 
keeper  of  the  seals.    The  great  credit  and  power  of  the 
father  gave  an  early  introduction  to  the  son  into  the  offices 
of  state,  and  he  was  only  twenty-three  when  the  reversion 
of  the  place  of  war-minister  was  assigned  to  him.     His 
vigilance,  activity,  and  application,  immediately  marked 
him  as  a  man  of  superior  talents  for  business ;  lind  two 
jfears  afterwards,  in  1666,  he  succeeded  his  father  as  se- 
cretary of  state.     In  1668  he  was  appointed  post*master«« 
general,  chancellor  of  the  royal  orders,  and  grand  vicar  of 
the  orders  of  8t  Lazarus  and  Mount  Carmel ;  in  all  which 
places  he  fully  justified  the  first  conception  of  bis  talents. 
By  his  advice,  and  under  his  care,  was  built  the  royal  hos- 
pital of  invalids ;  and  several  academies  were  founded  for 
the  education  of  young  men  of  good  families  in  the  military 
line.     After  the  death  of  Colbert,  in  1683,  Louvois  was 
appointed  superintendant  of  buildings,  arts,  and  manufac- 
tures.    Amidst  this  variety  of  occupations,  to  which  his 
genius  proved  itself  fully  equal,  he  shone  most  particularly 
in  the  direction  of  military  affairs.     He  established  maga- 
zines, and  introduced  a  discipline  which  was  felt  with  ad- 
vantage in  every  department  of  the  army.     He  several 
times  acted  in  person  as  grand  master  of  the  ordnance,  and 
in  that  branch  of  duty  signalized  his  judgment  and  energy 
no  less  than  in  every  other.    The  force  of  his  genius,  and 
the  success  of  his  most  arduous  undertakings,  gained  him 
an  extreme  ascendant  over  the  mind  of  Louis  XIV.  but  he 
'  abused  his  power,  and  treated  his  sovereign  with  a  haughti- 
ness which  created  disgust  and  hatred  in  all  who  saw  it. 
One  day,  on  returning  from  a  council,  where  he  had  been 
very  ill  received  by  the  king,  he  expired  in  his  own  apart- 
ment, the  victim  of  ambition,  grief,  and  vexation.     This 
1  happened  when  he  was  no  more  than  fifty-one,  on  the  16  th 

of  July,  1691. 
;    .Louvois,  with  all  his  talents,  was  not  regretted  either  by 
the  king  or  the  courtiers.     His  harsh  disposition,  and  very 
.  haughty  manners,  bad  irritated  every  one  against  him«    He 

\  Mailer's  Hiit  of  Switzerluicl,  toU  I.  p.  611. 


T  S  L  L  I  S  B.  I9h 

{B«yHals<x  be  Reproached  for  the  crueltief  exeifeiied  in  the 
Palatinate,  and  for  other  sanguinary  proceeding  He 
wished  not  to  be  outdone  in  any  severities..  *^1(  the  enemy 
bums  one  Til  Uge  within  your  government,'^- said  he,  in  a 
letter  to  the  marshal  de  Bouflers^  <'  do  you  burn  ten  Jn 
his.'*  Yet,  notwittistanding  every  exception  which  may 
Justly  be  made  to  his  chairacter,  has  talents  were  of  more 
advantage  than  his  faults  were  of  injury  to  his  country.  In 
no  one  of  his  successors  was  found  the  same  spirit  of  detail^ 
united  with  complete  grandeur  of  views ;  the  same  promp- 
titude of  execution  in  defiance  of  all  obstacles ;  the  same 
.firmness  of  discipline,  or  the  same  profound  secrecy  in  de- 
sign. Yet  he  did  not  support  ill  fortune  with  the  same 
firmness  as.  his  master.  When  the  siege  of  Coni  was  raised, 
he  ca  Tied  the  news  to  Louis  XIV.  with  tears  in  bis  eyes. 
<^  You  are  easily  depressed,"  said  the  king ;  *^  it  is  not 
difficult  to  perceive  that  you  are  too  much  accustomed  to 
success.  I,  who  have  seen  the  Spanish  troops  within  the 
walls  of  Paris,  am  not  so  easily  cast  down.''  His  sudden 
death  is  mentioned  by  madame  de  Sevign6,  in  her  letters, 
in  her  own  characteristic  style.  ^*  He  is  dead,  then ; — this 
great  minister,  this  man  of  so  high  consideration ;  whose 
Moi  (as  M.  Nicole  says)  was  of  such  extent ;  who  was  the 
centre  of  so  many  affairs, .  How  much  business,  how  many, 
designs,  uqw  many  secrets,  how  many  interests  to  de- 
,veIope!  How  many  wars  commenced,  how  many  fine 
strokes  of  chess-  to  make  and  to  manage ! — ^Oh,  give  me 
but  a  little  time ; — ^I  would  fain  give  check  to  the  duke 
of  Savoy,  check-mate  to  the  prince  of  Orange.— ^No,  no ; 
not  a  moment  Can  we  reason  on  this  strange  event  i  No, 
.truly ;  we  must  retire  into  our  closets,  and  there  reflect 
upon  it !" 

A  book  entitled  ^^  Testament  politique  du  marquis  de 
Louvois,"  was  published  in  his  name,  1695,  in  12mo,  but 
the  author  of  it  was  Courtils,  and  no  just  judgment  of  the 
marquis  can  be  deduced  from  such  a  rhapsody.  He  left 
prodigious  wealth,  a  great  part  of  which  he  owed  to  bis 
-wife,  Anne  de  Souvri,  marchioness  of  Courtenvaux,  the 
richest  heiress  then  in  the  kingdom,  ^ 

TELLIER  (Michael),  a  celebrated  Jesuit,  was  bora 
December  16,  1643,  near  Vire  in  Lower  Normandy,  and 
after  teaching  the  belles  lettres  and  philosophy  with  credit, 

1  Diet.  Hist 
02 


196  T  E  L  L  I  E  R. 

rose  grftdually  to  the  highest  offices  in  iTis  society,  was  ap« 
pointed  confessor  to  Loais  XIV.  on  the  death  of  father  de 
la  Chaise,  1709,  and  chosen  an  honorary  member  of  the 
academy  of  inscriptions  and  belles  lettres.  He  procured 
the  constitution  Unigenitus,  engaged  warmly  in  the  dis- 
putes which  arose  concerning  that  bull,  and  after  the  king's 
death,  in  1715,  was  banished  to  Amiens,  and  then  to  la 
Fleche,  where  be  died,  September  2,  1719,  aged  seventy- 
six.  His  works  are,  ^^  Defense  des  nouveaux  Chretiens  et 
des  Missionnaires  de  la  Chine,  du  Japon,  et  des  Indes,** 
12mo.  This  book  made  much  noise.  ^^  Observations  sur 
la  nouvelle  Defense  de  la  Version  Fran^oise  du  Nouveau 
Testament  imprim6  a  Mons/'  &c.  Rouen,  1684,  8vo.  The 
latter  is  afi  apology  for  M.  Mallet's  writings.  Father  Tel- 
Iter  was  author  of  several  other  works^  particularly  the 
Delphin  Quintus  Curtius,  which  is  esteemed.  He  did  not 
belong  to  the  same  family  with  Teliier,  mentioned  in  the 
preceding  article.  ^ 

TEMPESTA  (Antonio),  a  Florentine  painter,  was  born 
at  Florence  in  1555,  and  was  a  disciple  of  John  Strada,  or 
Stradanus.  He  proved  in  many  respects  superior  to  bis 
master, and  especially  in, the  fertility  of  his  genius,  and  th^ 
vast  number  and  variety  of  bis  figures,  tie  painted  chiefly 
landscapes,  animals,  and  battles.  He  invented  with  ease, 
and  executed  with  vigour ;  but  not  always  with  delicacy 
of  colouring.  He  died  in  1630,  at  the  age  of  seventy«five. 
He  sometimes  engraved,  but  bis  prints  are  not  prize4  in 
proportion  to  his  paintings.  * 

TEMPESTA  (Peter),  otherwise  called  Molyn,  and 
Pi£TRO  MuLiER,  another  artist  of  note,  was  born  at  Haer- 
Jem  in  1637,  and  according  to  some  authors,  was  the  dis- 
ciple pf  Snyders,  whose  manner  be  at  first  adopted,  and 
painted  buntings  of  different  animals,  as  large  as  life,  with 
singular  force  and  success.  He  afterwards  changed  both 
his  style  and  subjects,  and  delighted  to  paint  ten^ests^ 
storms  at  sea,  and  shipwrecks,  which  he  executed  ad-^ 
mirably,  and  therefore  got  the  name,  by  which  he  is  gene- 
rally known,  of  .Tempesta.  After  travelling  through  Hol- 
land he  went  to  Rome,  and  having  changed  his  religion 
from  protestantism  to  popery,  became  greatly  caressed  as 
aaartist,  and  received  the  title  of  cavaliere.  After  passing 
HOiQe  years  at  Rome  he  visited  Genoa,  where  he  was  like- 

1  Moreri.-*-Dict.  Hist.  <  Pilkingcon.— Strutt. 


T  E  M  P  E  S  T  A.  197 

wise  highly  honoured,  and  fully  employed,  but  appears  to 
have  lost  all  sense  of  principle  or  shame ;  for,  in  order  to 
marry  a  Genoese  lady,  be  caused  bis  wife,  whom  be  bad 
left  at  Rome,  to  be  murdered.  This  atrocious  affair  being 
discovered,  be  was  sentenced  to  be  banged,  but  by  the 
intervention  of  some  of  the  nobility,  who  admired  his  ta- 
lents, his  sentence  would  probably  have  been  changed  to 
perpetual  ^imprisonment.  From  this,  however,  he  con- 
triv'ed  to  escape,  after  being  confined  sixteen  years,  and 
died  in  1701,  in  the  sixty-fourth  year  of  bis  age.  It  was 
from  this  crime  that  he  obtained  the  name  of  Pietro  Mix- 
LIER,  or  De  MuLiERiBUS.  His  pictures  are  very  rare,  and 
held  in  great  estimation,  and  those  be  painted  in  prison 
are  thought  to  be  of  very  superior  merit.  He  executed 
also,  by  the  graver  only,  several  very  neat  prints,  in  a 
style  greatly  resembling  that  of  Vander  Velde.  Tbey  con- 
sist chiefly  of  candle»light  pieces,  and  dark  subjects.  ^ 

TEMPLE  (Sir  William),  a  very  eminent  statesman  and 
writer,  was  the  son  of  sir  William  Temple,  of  Sheen,  in 
Surrey,  master  of  the  rolls  and  privy-counsellor  in  Ireland, 
in  the  reign  of  Charles  II.  by  a  sister  of  the  learned  Dn 
Henry  Hammond.  His  grandfather,  sir  William  Temple^ 
the  founder  of  the  family,  was  the  ^younger  sonof  the 
Temples,  of  Temple-ball,  in  Leicestershire.  He  was  fel- 
low of  King^s  college,  in  Cambridge,  afterwards  mastet  o£ 
the  free-school  at  Lincoln,  then  secretary  successively  to 
sir  Philip  Sidney,  to  William  Davison,  esq.  one  of  queeti 
Elizabeth's  secretaries,  and  to  the  celebrated  earl  of  Essex, 
whom  he  served  while  he  was  lord-deputy  of  Ireland.  la 
1609,  upon  the  importunate  solicitation  of  Dr.  James  Usher^ 
he  accepted  the  provostship  of  Trinity  college,  in  Dublin ; 
after  which  he  was  knighted,  and  made  one  of  the  masters 
in  chancery  of  Ireland.  He  died  about  1626,  aged  se- 
venty-two, after  having  given  proof  of  his  abilities  and 
learning^  by  several  publications  in  Latin. 

The  subject  of  the  present  memoir  was  born  in  London 
ip  1628,  and  first  sent  to  school  at  Pensburst  in  Kent, 
under  the  care  of  bis  uncle  Dr.  Hammond,  then  minister 
of  that  parish.  At  the  age  of  ten  he  was  removed  to  a 
school  at  Bishop  Stortford,  in  Hertfordshire,  kept  by  Mr. 
Leigh,  where  he  was  taught  Greek  and  Latin.  At  the  age 
of  fifteen  he  returned  and  remained  at  home  for  about 
two  years,  from  some  doubts,  during  these  turbulent  times, 

i  PilkiogtoD.— Stirutt. 


198  T  I  MP  L  E. 

M  to  the  proprtetfy  of  tending  him  to  any  oaiiFeraitjr.  Tbesv 
having  been  remoTed,  be  wm  about,  two  years  after  en* 
tered  of  Emanuel  college,  Cambridge,  under  the  tuttiou 
ef  the  learned  Cadvrortb.  His  fiitber  intending  him  for 
political  life,  seems  not  to  have  tbougbt  a  long  residence 
here  necessary ;  and  therefore  about  1M7,  or  1648,  sent 
him  on  bis  traTels,  While  on  bis  way  to  France  he  visited 
ibe  Isle  of  Wight,  where  bis  majesty  Charles  L  was  then  a 
prisoner;  and  there  formed  an  attachment,  to  Dorothy,  se^ 
coifed  daughter  of  sir  Peter  Osborn,  of  Obicksand,  in  IBed- 
fordsbire,  whom  he  afterwards  married. 

His  travels  extended  to  France,  Holtaad,  Flanders,  a^ 
Germany ;  during  wbteh  be  acquired  a  facility  in  speaking 
and  reading  those  modern  languages,  which  tbew  formed 
a  necessary  accomplishment  in  a  statesman.  In  1654,  on 
his  return,  he  married  the  above«mentioned  Mrs.  Osborn, 
and  passed  his  time  for  some  years  with  bis  father  and  fa-: 
mily  in  Ireland,  improving  himself  in  the  study  of  history 
and  philosophy,  and  cautiously  avoiding  any  employment 
during  the  usurpation.  At  the  restoration,  in  1660,  bewaa 
chosen  a  member  of  the  convention  in  Ireland,  and  first  • 
distinguished  himself  by  opposing  the  polUbill,  a  very  un- 
popalar  ministerial  measure;  which  be  did  with  so  much 
independence  of  spirit,  as  to  furnish  a  ptiesage  of  his  future 
character.  In  the  succeeding  parliament,  in  1 66 1 ,  he  was 
chosen,  with  bis  father,  for  the  county  of  Csrlow,  where 
he  distinguished  himself  by  voting  and  speakingx  indif* 
ferently,  as  he  approved  or  disapproved  their  measures, 
without  joining  any  party.  In  1662  he  was  cbosei^  one  of 
the  commissioners  to  be  sent  from  that  parliament  to  the 
king,  and  took  this  opportunity  of  waiting  on  tbe  lord 
lieutenant,  tbe  duke  of  Ormond,  then  at  Lonikm,  and  seems 
at  the  same  time  to  have  now  formed  tbe  design  of  quitting 
Ireland  altogether,  and  residing  in  England.  It  was  ne- 
cessary, huwever,^  to  return  to  Ireland,  where  on  a  second/ 
interview  with  tbe  4nke  of  Ormond,  then  at  Dublin,  the 
duke  made  extraordinary  professions  of  respect  for  him, 
complaining,  *with  polite  irony,  that  he  was- the  only  man 
in  Ireland  who  had  never  asked  him  any  thing :  and  when 
he  found  him  bent  on  going  to  England,  insisted  on  giving 
him  letters  of  recommendation  to  Ciarendoni  ^e  lord 
chancellor,  and  to  Arlington,  secretary  of  state* 

This  recommendation   was  eiFectual   with   both   these 
statesmen^  as  well  as  with  the  king^  although  be  was  not 


TEMPLE.  ^wd 

immediately  employed.     Sir  Willtan^  Temple  was  never 
forgetful  t)f  this  obligation  :  be  constantly  kept  up  a  cof'^ 
respondence  with  the  duke  of  Ormond,  and  afterwards 
eealousiy  defended  him  against  tbe  attempt  of  tiie  earl 
of  Essex  to  displace  btm  from  the  government  of  Ireland. 
In  the  mean  time,  during  his  interviews  with  lord  A rling-* 
toD,  who  seems  to  have  had  his  promotion  at  hearty  he 
itook  occasion  ta  hint  to  bis  lordship,  that  if  his  majesty 
thought  him  worthy  of  any  employment  abroad,  be  shoi^ld 
be  happy  to  accept  it ;  but  begged  leave  to  object  to  the 
northern  climates,  to  which  be  bad  a  great  aversion.     Lord 
^Arlington  expressed  bis  regret  at  this,  because  the  place 
of  envoy  at  Sweden  was  the  only  one  then  vacant.     In 
1665,  however,  about  tbe  commencement  of  tbe  first  Dutch 
war,  lord  Arlington  commuhicated  to  bim  that  his  majesjty 
wanted  to  send  a  person  abroad  upon  an  affair  of  great  im* 
portance,  and  advised  htm  to  accept  the  offer,  whether  in 
all  respects  agreeable  or  not,  as  it  would  prove  an  intro- 
duction to  bis  majesty's  service.    This  business  was  a  se- 
cret commission  to  the  bishop  of  Munster,  for  the  purpose 
of  concluding  a  treaty  between  the  king, and  bim,  by  which 
the  bishop  should  be  obliged,  upon  receiving  a  certain  sum 
of  money,  to  join  bis  majesty  immediately  in  the  war  with 
Holland. '  Sir  William  made  no  scruple  to  accept  this  co^i- 
mission,  which  be  executed  with  speed  and  success,  and  in 
the^most  private  manner,  without  any  train  or  official  cha- 
racter.   In  July  he  began  his  journey  to  Coesvelt,  and 
not  long  after  it  was  known  publicly,  that  be  had  in  a  very 
few  days  conoluded  and  signed  the  treaty  there,  in  which 
>  his  perfect  kooyvledge  in  Latin,  which  he  had  retained,  lyas 
of  no  little  advantage  to  him,  the  bishop  conversing  in  ^po 
other, language,,  >  After  signing  tbe  treaty,  he  went  to  Bras- 
-seb,  saw  the  ^firat)  f)ayment  made,  and  received  the  news 
that  the  bishop  was*  in  the  field,  by  whicb  this  negotiation 
began  fir^t^to  be  discovered  ;  but.  no  pcfrson  suspected  the 
part  be  bad  in-  it;  (and he  continued  privately  at  Brussels 
till  it  wais  whispered  to  the  marquis  Castel-Rodrigo  the 
governor,  that  he  came  upon  some  particular  errand  (which 
be  was  then  at  liberty  to  own].    Tbe  governor  immediately 
/aent  to  desire  bis  acquaintance,  and  tnat  he  might  see  him 
in  private,  to  whicb  be  easily  consented.     Soon  after  a 
commission  was  sent  bim  to  be  resident  at  Brussels,  a  situ- 
<  ation  which  be  bad  long  cobtemplated  with  pleasure,  and 
bis  commission  was  accompanied  with  a  baronet's  patent. 


000  T  E  M  P  L  E. 

Sir  William  now  sent  for  his  family  (April  1666);  but, 
before  their  arrival,  was  again  ordered  to  Monster,  to  pre- 
vent the  bishop's  concluding  peace  with  the  Dutch,  which 
be  threatened  to  do,  in  consequence  of  some  remissness  in* 
the  payments  from  England,  and  actually  signed  it  at  Cleve 
the  very  night  sir  William  Temple  arrived  at  Munster.  On 
ibis  he  returned  to  Brussels ;  and  before  be  bad  been  there 
a  year»  peace  with. the  Dutch  was  concluded  at  Breda. 
Two  months  after  this  event,  his  sister,  who  resided  with 
him  at  Brussels,  having  an  inclination  to  see  Holland,  be 
went  thither  with  her  incognito,  and  while  at  the  Hague^ 
became  acquainted  with  the  celebrated  Pensicnary  De 
Witt. 

In  the  spring  of  1667,  a  new  war  broke  out  between 
France  and  Spain,  which  rendering  Brussels  a  place  of  in- 
security,  as  it  might  fall  into  the  hands  of  the  French,  he 
seQt  his  family  to  Eugland,  but  remained  himself  until  the 
end  of  the  year,  when  the  king  ordered  him  to  return  pri- 
vately to  England,  and  in  his  way  to  go  secretly,  to  the 
Hague,  and  concert  with  the  states  the  means  of  saving 
the  Netherlands.     Sir  William^  whom,  Hume  says,  philo- 
liophy  had  taught  to  despise  the  world,  without  rendering 
him  unfit  for  it,  was  frank,  open,  sincere,  superior  to  the 
little  tricks  of  vulgar  politicians ;  and  meeting  in  De  Witt 
with  a  man  of  the  same  generous  and  enlarged  sentiments, 
be  immediately  opened  his  master's  intentions,  and  pressed 
a  speedy  conclusion.     A  treaty  was  from  the  first  nego- 
tiated between  these  two  statesmen,  with  the  same  cordi- 
ality  as  if  it  were  a  private  transaction  between  intimate 
companions.     Deeming  the  interests  of  their  country  the 
same,  they  gave  full  ^cope  to  that  sympathy  of  character 
which  disposed  them  to  an  entire  reliance  on  each  otber^s 
professions  and  engagements.     The  issue  was  the  famosa 
triple  alliance  between  England,  Sweden,  and  Holland; 
which  being  ratified  Feb.  15,  1668,  sir  Willianpi  Temple 
bad  orders  to  return  to  Brussels,  and  protpote  the  treaty 
of  peace  between  France  and- Spain,  then  carrying  oaa| 
,  Aix-la-Cbapelle,    He  was  accordingly  sent  thither  in  April, 
as  his  majesty's  ambassador-extraordinary  and  mediator, 
and  brought  the  affair  to  a  happy  conclusion.     Soon  after, 
he  was  sent  ambassador-extraordinary  to  the  States-Gene- 
ral, with  instructions  to  confirm  the  triple  alliance,  and  so-« 
Kcit  the  emperor  and  German  princes,  by  their  ministers, 
to  enter  intoit.^    Being  the  iirst  English  ambassador  that 


TEMPLE.  «  501 

had  been  there  since  king  James's  time,  be  was.  received 
«nd  distinguished  by  every  mark  of  regard  and  esteem 
they  could  express  for  his  character  and  person ;  and,  by 
the  good  opinion  he  had  gained,  was  able  to  bring  the 
States  into  such  measures,  as,  M.  de  Witt  said,  he  was  sure 
•was  not  in  the  power  of  any  other  man  to  do*  He  lived  in 
confidence  with  that  great  minister,  and  in  constant  and 
familiar  conversation  with  the  prince  of  Orange,  then  eight- 
leen  years  old.  Yet,  although  he  had  a  diflScuk  part  to 
act,  h^  compassed  the  chief  design  of  his  embassy,  in 
engaging  the  emperor  and  Spain  in  the  measures  that  were 
:then  desired ;  but  by  this  time  the  measures  of  his  own 
court  took  a  new  turn  ;  and  though  he  had  observed  a  dis- , 
position  before,  to  complain  of  the  Dutch  upon  trifling  oc- 
casions, yet  he  suspected  nothing  till  lord  Arlington^  in 
September  1669,  hurried  him  over,  by  telling  him,  as  soon 
as  ;he  received  his  letter  he  should  put  his  foot  into  the 
stirrup.  When  he  came  to  his  lordship,  whom  he  always 
saw  the  first,  and  with  great  eagerness  desired  to  know  the 
important  affair  that  required  his  sudden  recall,  he  found 
that  his  lordship  had  not  one  word  to  say  to  him ;  and, 
after  making  him  wait  a  great  while,  only  asked  him  seve- 
ral indifferent  questions  about  his  journey ;  and  next  day 
he  was  received  as  coldly  by  the  king.  .  The  secret,  how*-' 
jever,  soon  came  out ;  and  sir  William  Temple  was  pressed 
to  return  to  the  Hague,  and  make  way  for  a  war  with  Hol- 
land, which,  less  than  two  years  before,  he  had  been  so 
much  applauded  for  preventing  by  a  strict  alliance:  but 
he  excused  himself  from  having  any  share  in  it,  which  so 
much  provoked  the  lord  treasurer  Clifford,  that  he  refused 
to  pay  him  an  arrear  of  two  thousand  pounds,  due  from  his 
embassy.  All  this  passed  without  any  particular  unkind- 
ness  from  the  king;  but  lord  Arlington's  usage,  so  unlike 
iQ  the  friendship  be  had  professed,  was  resented  by  sir 
William  Temple  with  much  spirit.  He  now  retired  to  his 
bouse  at  Sheen,  and  employed  this  interval  of  leisure  in 
writing  his  '^  Observations  on  the  United  Provinces,"  and 
pne  part  of  his  *^  Miscellanies/' 

In  1673,  the  king,  becoming  weary  of  the  second  Dutch 
war,  at^d  convinced  of  its  unpopularity,  sent  for  sir  Wil- 
liam Temple,  and  wished  him  to  go  to  Holland,  with  the 
offer  of  the  king's,  mediation  between  Frahce  and  the  con* 
liederates  then  at  war,  which  was  not  long  after  accepted;  . 
and  in  Jime  1674,  lord  Berkley,  sir  William  Temple,  and 


SOS  TEMPLE. 

tir  Lioline  Jenkins,  were  declared  ambassadcnrf  utA  medUU 
fttorsy  and  Nimeguen  appointed,  by  general  consent,  as  the 
place  of  treaty.  During  sir  William's  -stay  at  the  Ha^ne, 
the  prince  of  Orange,  who  was  fond  of  speaking  English, 
and  of  English  habits,  constantly  dined  and  supped  onoe 
or  twice  a  week  at  his  house.  Sir  William  insensibly  ao- 
qoired  his  Highness's  confidence,  and  had  a  considerable 
hand  in  his  marriage  with  the  princess- Mary,  of  which  be 
has  said  so  much  in  his  **  Memoirs.*'  One  instance  of.  his 
employing  his  influence  with  the  prince,  he  used  to  reckon 
amongst  the  good  fortunes  of  his  life.  Five  Englishmen 
happened  to  be  taken  and  brought  to  the  Hague  wliUst  he 
was  there,  and  in  the  prince's  absence,  who  were  immedi* 
ately  tried,  and  condemned  by  a  councU  of  war,  for  de- 
serting their  colours :  some  of  his  servants  had  the  cari- 
osity to  visit  their  unfortunate  countrymen,  and  came 
home  with  a  deplorable  story,  that,  by  what  they  had 
heard,  it  seemed  to  be  a  mistake ;  and  that  they  were  all 
like  to  die  innocent ;  but,  however,  that  it  was  without  re- 
medy, that  their  graves  were  digging,  and  they  were  to 
be  shot  next  morning.  Sir  William  Temple  left  nothing 
vnattempted  to  prevent  their  sudden  execution;  andsent 
to  the  officers  to  threaten  them,  that  he  would  complain 
first  to  the  prince,  and  then  to  the  king,  who,  he  was  sure, 
would  demand  reparation,  if  so  many  of  his  subjects  suf- 
fered unjustly  :  but  nothing  would  move  them,  till  he  made 
it  his  last  request  to  reprieve  them  one  day^  during  which 
the  prince  happened  to  come  within  reach  of  returning  an 
answer  to  a  message  he  sent,  and  they  were  released.  The 
first  thing*  they  did  was  to  go  and  look  at  their  graves  ;  and 
the  next,  to  come  and  thank  sir  William  Temple  upon  their 
knees. 

In  July  1676,  he  removed  his  family  to  Nimeguen,  where 
he*  passed  that  year  without  making  any  progress  in  the 
treaty,  which,  owing  to  various  circumstaooes,^  was  then  at 
a  stand;  and,  the  year  after,  his  ison  was  sent  over  with 
letters  from  the  lord  treasurer,  to  order  him  to  return  and 
succeed  Mr.  Coventry  in  his  place  of  secretary  of  states 
which  the  latter  made  some  difficulty  of  resigning,  unless 
he  had  leave  to  name  his  successor,  which  the  king  re* 
fused.  Sir  William  Temple,  who  was  not  ambitious  of  thie 
change  at  this  time,  requested  his'  majesty  would  defer  it 
until  all  parties  were  agreed,  and  the  treaty  he  was  then 
concerned  in  concluded*   This  business^  howev er^  required 


TEMPLE.  ^M 

kts  (iresence  in  England,  and  be  did  not  retarn  to  Nime« 
gnen  that  year.  About  the  same  time  the  prince  of  Orange 
came  over  and  married  the  lady  Mary,  which  seems  to  have 
occasioned  a  coolness  between  sir  William  Temple  and  lord 
Arlington,  the  latter  being  offended  at  sir  William's  inti* 
macy  with  the  lord  treasurer  Osbom,  who  was  related  to 
lady  Temple,  they  two  being  the  only  persons  intrusted 
iwith  the  affair  of  the  marriage. 

Iq  the  mean  time,  in  1678,  the  king,  finding  that  affairs 
were  not  likely  to  come  to  any  conclusion  with  France,  sent 
for  sir  William  Temple  to  the  council,  and  told  him,  that 
he  intended  he  should  go  to  Holland,  in  order  to  form  a 
treaty  of  alliance  with  the  States  ;  and  that  the  purpose  of 
k  should  be,  like  the  triple  league,  to  force  both  France 
and  Spain  to  accept  of  the  terms  proposed.  Temple  was 
sorry  to  find  this  act  of  vigour  qualified  by  such  a  regard 
to  France,  and  by  such  an  appearance  of  indifference  and 
neutrality  between  the  parties.  He  told  the  kmg,  that  the 
yesolution  agreed  on,  was  to  begin  the  war  in  conjunction 
with  all  the  confederates,  in  case  of  no  direct  and  immei« 
diate  answer  from  France ;  that  this  measure  would  satisfy 
the -prince,  the  allies,  and  the  people  of  England  ;  advan^" 
tages  which  could  not  be  expected  from  such  an  alliance 
with  Holland  alone  ;  that  France  would  be  disobliged,  and 
Spain  likewise;  ^nor  would  the  Dutch  be  satisfied  with  such 
a  faint  imitation  of  the  triple  league,  a  measure  concerted 
when  they  were  equally  at  league  with  both  parties.  For 
these  reasons  sir  William  Temple  declined  the  employ- 
ment; and  Lawrence  Hyde,  second  son  of  the  chancellor 
Clarendon,  was  sent  in  bis  place ;  and  although  the  mea- 
sure was  notpaliitable  to  the  prince,  the  States  concluded 
the  treaty  in  the  terms  proposed  by  the  king.  Just  after- 
wardii  we  find  the  king  a  little  out  of  humour  with  sir  Wil- 
liam Temple;  and  when  the  parliament  would  not^pass 
the  suppUes  without  some  security  against  the  prevaiesce 
of  the  popish  party,  the  king  thought  proper  to  reproach 
Temple  with  his  popular  notions,  'a^  he  termed  them ;  and 
asked  him  how  he  thought  the  House  of  Commons  could 
be  trusted  in  carryingon  the  war,  should  it  he  entered  on, 
when  in  the  very  commencement  they  made  such  declara- 
tions i  Sir  William,  however,  was  not  daunted  by  tUs  re- 
proach ;  and  when  the  king,  thwarted  by  his  parliamtet^ 
began  to  lend  an  ear  to  the  proposals  of  the  king  of  Fraace, 
who  offered  him  great  sums  of  money>  if  be  wouidi  consent 


£04  TEMPLE. 

to  France's  making  an  advantageous  peace  with  the  allies^ 
sir  William^  though  pressed  by  his  majesty,  refused  to  have 
any  concern  in  so  dishonourable  a  negociation.  He  in- 
forms us  that  the  king  said,  there  was  one  article  proposed, 
which  so  incensed  him,  that  as  long  as  he  lived,  he  should 
never  forget  it  What  it  was,  sir  William  does  not  men* 
tion  ;  but  dean  Swift,  who  was  the  editor  of  his  works,  in- 
forms us,  that  the  French,  before  they  would  agree  to  any 
payment,  required  as  a  preliminary,  that  king  Charles 
should  engage  ^never  to  keep  above  8000  regular  troops  in 
Great  Briuin  ! 

Sir  William  appears  frequently  to  have  retired  from 
court  disgusted  with  the  fluctuating  counsels  which  pre- 
vailed  there,  but  was  ever  ready  to  lend  his  aid  to  measures 
which  bore  the  appearance  of  public  advantage :  and  in 
July  1678,  upon  the  discovery  of  the  French  design  not  to 
evacuate  the  Spanish  towns  agreed  on  by  the  treaty  to  be 
delivered  up,  the  king  commanded  him  to  go  upon  a  third 
embassy  to  the  States,  with  whom  he  concluded  a  treaty, 
by  which  England  engaged,  upon  the  refusal  of  the  French 
to  evacuate  the  towns  in  forty  days,  to  declare  immediate 
war  with  France :  but,  before  half  that  time  was  run  out, 
one  Du  Cros  was  sent  from  our  court  into  Holland,  upon 
an  errand  that  again  embarrassed  the  relative  state  of  af- 
fairs; and  such  sudden  and  capricious  changes  in  our 
councils,  which  sir  William  Temple  had  seen  too  often  to 
be  astonished  at,  increased  his  growing  distaste  to  all  pub- 
lic employment. 

In  1679  he  went  back  to  Nimeguen,  where  the  French 
delayed  signing  the  treaty  to  the  last  hour;  and  after  he 
had  concluded  it,  he  returned  to  the  Hague,  from  whence 
he  was  soon .  sent  for  to  enter  upon  the  secretary's  place, 
which  Mr.  Coventry  was  at  last  resolved  to  part  with  ;  and 
my  lord  Sunderland,  who  was  newly  come  into  the  other, 
pressed  him  with  much  earnestness  to  accept.  He  very 
unwillingly  obeyed  his  majesty's  commands  to  come  over, 
as  he  had  long  at  heart  a  visit  he  had  promised  to  make 
the  great  duke,  as  soon  as  his  embassy  was  ended  ;  having 
begun  a  particular  acquaintance  with  him  in  England,  and 
kept  up  a  correspondence  ever  since.  Besides,  having  so  ill 
succeeded  in  the  designs  (which  no  man  ever  more  steadily 
piirsued  in  the  course  of  his  employments)  of  doing  his 
country  the  best  service,  and  advancing  its  honour  and 
greatness  to  the  height  of  which  he  thought  it  capable,  he. 


TEMPLE.  203 

resolved  t6  ask  leaVe  of  the  king  to  retire.  At  this  time^ 
indeed)  no  person  could  engage  in  public  aflPairs  witb  a 
worse  prospect ;  the  Popish  plot  being  newly  broke  out, 
and  the  parliament  violent  in  the  persecution  of  it,  aU 
though  it  is  now  generally  allowed  to  baVe  been  an  absurd 
imposture.  On  these  accounts,  although  the  king,  who, 
after  the  removal  of  the  lord  treasurer  Danby,  whom  the 
parliament  sent  to  the  Tower,  had  no  one  with  whom  he 
could  discourse  witb  freedom  on  public  affair^,  sir  Williatn, 
alarmed  at  the  universal  discontents  and^  jealousies  which 
prevailed,  was  determined  to  make. his  retreat,  as  soon  as 
possible,  from  a  scene  which  threatened  such  confusions* 
Meanwhile,  as  he  could  not  refuse  the  confidence  with 
which  his  master  honoured  him,  he  represented  to  the 
king,  that,  as  the  jealousies  of  the  nation  were  extreme,  it 
was  necessary  to  cure  them, by  some  new  remedy,  and  to 
restore  that  mutual  confidence,  so  requisite  for  the  safety 
both  of  the  king  and  people  ;^  that  to  refuse  every  thing  to 
tl^  parliament  in  their  present  disposition,  or  to  yield 
every  thing,  was  equally  dangerous  to  the  constitution,  as 
well  as  to  public  tranquillity ;  that  if  the  king  would  intro- 
duce into  his  councils  such  men  as  .enjoyed  the  confideu^*e 
of  his  people,  fewer  concessions  would  probably  be  re- 
quired ;  or  if  unreasonable  demands  were  made,  the  king, 
under  the  sanction  of  such  counsellors,  might  be  enabled, 
witb  the  greater  safety,  to  refusie  tbem;>  and.  that  the  heads 
of  the  popular  party,  being  gratified  with  the  king's  favour, 
would  probably  abate  of  that  violence  by  which  they  ea<- 
deavoured  at  present  to  pay  court  to  the  mpltitude. 

Tbe  king  assented  to  these  reasons ;  and,  in  concert 
with  Temple,  laid  the  plan  of  a  new  privy-council,  without 
whose  advice  he  declared  himself  determined  for  the  future 
to  take  no  measure  of  importance.  This  council  was  to 
consist  of  thirty  persons,  and  was  never  to  exceed  that 
nunober.  Fifteen  of  the  chief  officers  of  the  crown  were 
to  be  continued^  who,  it  was  supposed,  would  adhere  to  the 
king,  and,  in  case  of  any  extremity,  oppose  the  exorbitances, 
of  faction.  The  other  half  of  the  council  was  to  be  com-* 
posed,  either  of  men  of  character,  detached  from  the  court, 
or  of  those  who  possessed  chi^f  credit  in  both  Houses. 
The  experiment  seemed  at  first  to  give  some  satisfactida 
to  the  people ;  but  as  Sbaftesbury  was  made  president  of 
the  council,  contrary  to  the  advice  of  sir  William  Temple, 
the  plan  upon  the  whole  was  of  little  avail.    Temple  often 


20$  TEMPLE. 

joiiied  tbem,  though  he  kept  himself  detached  from  poUiie 
business.  When  tiie  bill  was  proposed  for  putting  restric** 
tions  on  the>  duke  of  York,  as  successor  to  the  throne, 
fibaftesbury  thought  them  insufficient,  and  was  for  a  total 
exclusion ;  but  sir  William  Temple  thought  them  so  rigo- 
rous as  even  to  subvert  the  constitution  ;  and  that  shackles, 
put  upon  a  Popish  successor,  would  not  afterwards  be 
easily  cast  off  by  a  Protestant. 

.  In  1680,  when  the  council  was  again  changed,  sir  Wil- 
liam gradually  withdrew  himself,  for  reasons  which  he  has 
assigned  in  the  third  part  of  his  Memoirs ;  but  soon  after 
the  king  sent  for  him  again,  and  proposed  his  going  am- 
bassador into  Spain,  and  giving  credit  to  an  alliance  pre- 
tended to  be  made  with  that  crown,  against  the  meeting 
ot  the  parliament ;  but  when  his  equipage  was  almost 
ready,  the  king  changed  his  mind,  and  told  him,  he  would 
have  him  defer  his  journey  till  the  end  of  the  session  of 
parliament,  of  which  he  was  chosen  a  member  for  the  uni« 
▼ersity  of  Cambridge,  and  in  which  the  factions  ran  so 
high,  that  he  saw  it  impossible  to  bring  them  to  any  tern* 
per.  The  duke  of  York  was  sent  into  Scotland :  that 
would  not  satisfy  them,  nor  any  thing  but  a  bill  of  exclu- 
aion,  against  which  he  always  declared  himself,  being  a 
legal  man,  and  said,  his  endeavours  should  ever  be  to  unite 
the  royal  family,  but  that  he  would  never  enter  into  any 
counsels  to  divide  them.  This  famous  bill,  after  long  ooo- 
tests,  was  thrown  out,  and  the  parliament  dissolved ;  and 
it  was  upon  his  majesty^s  taking  this  resolution  without  the 
advice  of  his  priyy-oouncil,  contrary  to  what  he  had  pro- 
mised, that  sir  William  Temple  spoke  so  boldly  there,  aild 
was  so  ill-used  for  taking  that  liberty,  by  some  of  those 
friends  who  had  been  most  earnest  in  promoting  the  last 
change.  Upon  this  he  grew  quite  tired  with  public  busi- 
ness, refused  the  offer  he  had  of  serving  again  forthe  uni- 
versity in  the  next  parliament,  that  was  soon  after  called 
and  met  at  Oxford,  and  was  even  uneasy  with  the  name  of 
a  privy  •counsellor,  but  this  he  soon  got  rid  of ;  for  the 
duke  beine  returned,  and  all  the  councils  changed,  lord 
Sunderland's,  Essex^s,  and  sir  William  Templets  names 
were  by  the  king's  order  all  struck  out  of  the  council-book 
together.  On  this  occasion  he.  informed  his  majesty  that 
he  would  live  the  rest  of  his  life  as  good  a  subject  as  any 
in  bis  kingdom,  but  never  more  meddle  with  public  affairs*. 
The  king  assured  him  that  he  was  not  at  aU  angry^  and 


TEMPLE.  floy 

«ver  after  received  his^visits,  when  he  came  lata  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Sheen,  with  respect :  nor  was  less  attention 
shewn  to  sir,  William  by  king  James,  wb^  used  to  address 
his  conversation  to  bito  the  moment  be  s^w  him  enter  the 
room  of  the  palace  at  Richmond* 

After  this  retirement,  which  occurred  in  1685,  sir  WiW 
liam  Temple  continued  a  year  at  Sheen,  and,  having  par« 
chased  a  small  seat  called  Moor-^Park,  near  Farnbam  in 
Surrey,  which  he  preferred  for  its  retirement,  and  the 
healthy  and  pleasant  situation,  and  being  much  afflicted 
.with  the  gout,  and  broken  with  age  and  infirmities,  be  re- 
fMslved  to  pass  the  remainder  of  his  life  there ;  and  in  No« 
vember  1686,  in  bis  way  thither,  waited  on  king  Janes^ 
jthen  at  Windsor,  and  begged  bis  favour. and  protection  to 
one  that  would  always  live  a  good  subject,  but,  whatever 
happened,  never  enter  again,  upon  any  public  employment; 
and  desired  his  majesty  never  to  give  credit  to  whatever  he 
might  hear  to  the  contrary.  The  king,  who  used  to  say 
sir  William  Templets  character  was  always  to  be  believed, 
promised  him  what  he  desired,  made  him  some  reproaches 
for  not  coming  Into  his  service,  which  he  said  was  his  own 
fault,  and  kept  his  word  as  faithfully  to  sir  William  Tem* 
pie,  as  he  did  to  his  m^esty  during  the  turn  of  aSiairs  that 
soon  after  followed  by  the  prince  of  Orange's  coming  over, 
which  is  said  to  have  been  so  great  a  secret  to  bin),  that  he 
was  not  only  wholly  unacquainted  with  it>  but  one  of  the 
last  men  in  England  that  believed  it. 

At  the  time  of  this  revolution  in  1688,  Moor  Park  gpow* 
ing  unsafe  by  lying  in  the  way  of  both  armies,  he  went 
back  to  the  house  he  had  given  up  to  his  son  at  SbeeOt 
whom  he  would  not  permit  to  go  and  meet  the  prince  of 
Orange  at  bis  landing,  as  this  might  appear  a  breach .  of 
his  engagement,  never  to  join  in  any  measure. that  seemed 
to  divide  the  royal  family.  After  king  Jamei^'s  abdication, 
and  the  prince's  arrival  at  Windsor,  however,  sir  William 
Temple  went  to  wait  upon  his  highness,  along  with  bis  son. 
On  this  occasion  the  prince  pressed  him  to  enter  into  bis 
service,  and  to  be  secretary  of  state ;  said,  it.  was  in  kind* 
jiess  to  him  that  be  had  not  been  acquainted  with  his  de- 
sign ;  came  to  him  two  or  three  times  at  Sheen^  and  seve* 
ral  of  his  friends  made  him  very  uneasy,  in  urging  how 
much  the  prince  (who  was  bis  friend),  bis  country,  and  bis 
religion,  must  suffer  by  his  obstinate  refusal  to  engage  in 
their  defeaee;' adding,  that  his  conduct  would  give  the 


2eg  TEMPLE. 

world  an  onfavoorable  opinion  of  this  great  urtdertaking; 
and  make  tbeoi  mistrust  spme  bad  design  at  the  bottom^ 
which  a  man  of  his  truth  and  honour  did  not  care  to  be 
concerned  in.  Sir  William,  however,  continued  unshaken 
in  his  resolutions,  although  very  sensible  of  the  trouble  and 
uneasiness  the  prince  and  all  his  friends  expressed ;  and 
was  the  more  anxious  to  return  to  his  retirement  at  Moor 
Park,  about  the  end  of  1689,  that  he  might  be  less  exposed 
ta  similar  solicitations. 

From  that  time  he  employed  himself  wholly  in  the  cares 
and  amusements  of  a  country  life,  and  saw  little  company, 
but  had  the  honour  of  being  often  consulted  by  king  WiU 
liam  in  some  of  his  secret  and  important  affairs,  and  of  a 
visit  froQ^  him  in  his  way  from  Winchester,  and  used  to 
wait  upon  his  majesty  at  Richmond  and  Windsor,  where- 
he  was  always  very  graciously  received  with  that  easiness 
and  familiarity,  and  particular  confidence,  that  had  begun 
in  Holland  so  many  years  before.  .      .      • 

Sir  William  Temple  died  towards  the  end  of  1700,  in  his ' 
seventy-second  year,  at  Moor  Park  ;  where,  according  to 
express  directions  in  his  will,  his  heart  was  buried  in  a  stU  "- 
yer  box,  under  the  sun-dial  in  his  garden.  This  sun«dial/ 
we  are  told,  was  opposite  to  the  window  whence  he  used 
to  contemplate  and  admire  the  works  of  nature  with  his  sis-i- 
ter,  the  ingenious  lady  Giffard  * ;  who,  as  she  shared  and 
eased  the  fatigues  of  his  voyages  and  travels  during  hia 
public  employments,  was  the  chief  delight  and  cotafort  ef 
his  retiren[>ent  in  old  age,  as  he  had  the  misfortune  to  lose 
his  lady  in  1694.  As  to  his  person,  bis  stature  was  above 
the  middle  size :  he  was  well-set  and  well-shaped  ;  his  hair 
chesnut  brown,  bis  face  oval,  his  forehead  large,  a  <!|irick 
pieroing  eye,  and  a  sedate  and  pMlosophical  look.  '  Those 
who  have  endeavoured  to  set  sir  William's  <^haracter  in^  the 
best  light,  have  allowed  him  to  have  had  some  tincfure  of 
vanity  and  spleen^  Bishop  Burnet  has  painted  him  most 
unfavourably,  allowing  him  to  possess  a  true  judgment  in 
all  affairs,  and  very  good  principles  with' relation  to"  govern* 
ment,  but  in  nothing  else.  The  bishop  adds,  that  <*  he 
seemed  to  think,  that  things  were  as  they  are  from  all  eter- 
nity ;  at  least,  he  thought  religion  was  fk  only  for  the  mob. 
He  was  a  great  admirer  of  the  sect  of  Confucius  in  Cbina> 
who  were  atheists  themselves,  but  left  religion  to  the  rab« 


«  Lady  Giffard  died  io  I'^S,  at  the  tgc  of  84.^ 


»^'*  ••* 


T  £  M  P  L  B.  sDt 

Ue.  He  was  a  corrupter  of  all  that  came  near  him :  and 
he  delivered  himself  'up  wholly  to  study,  ease,  and  plea«- 
sure."  Burnet's  dislike  to  sir  William  Temple  seems^ 
therefore,  to  hare ^ arisen  from  a  very  sufficient  cause; 
from  bis  holding  and  propagating  irreligious  principles ;  but 
this,  others  have  not  only  doubted,  but  peremptorily  de- 
nied, and  have  cited. his  beautiful  letter  to  lady  Essex,  .as  a 
proof  of  his  piety.  Burnet,  however,  we  perceive,  allows 
him  to  have  been  a  great  statesman  ;  and,  in  the  very  next 
words  to  those  just  cited,  refers  his  reader  for  **  an  account 
of  our  affairs  beyond  sea,  to  his  letters ;  in  which,"  says 
Burnet,  *^  they  are  very  truly  and  fully  set  forth.*' 

Sir  William  Temple  was  not  only  a  very  able  statesman 
and  negotiator,  but  also  a  polite  and  elegant  writer.  As 
maiiy  of  his  works  have  been  published,  at  different  times, 
as  amount  to  two  volumes  in  folio;  which  have  also  been 
printed  more  than  once  in  octavo.  His  '*  Observations 
upon  the  United  Provinces  of  the  Netherlands,"  were 
published  in  one  volume,  8vo,  in  1672.  His  '^Miscella- 
nea," consisting  of  ten  tractsupon  different  subjects,  were 
originally  published  in  two  volumes,  8vo.  One  of  these 
trscts  is  upon  ancient  and  modern  learning ;  and  what  he 
advanced  there,  as  it  in  some  measure  gave  occasion  to,  so 
it  involved  him  in,  the  controversy,  which  was  soon  after 
agitated  here  in  England,  concerning  the  superiority  of 
the  ancients  and  the  moderns.  His  **  Memoirs"  also,  of 
what  bad  passed  in  his  public  employments,  especially  those 
abroad,  uiake  a  very  interesting  part  of  bis  works.  They  . 
were  wriiteo  in  three  parts ;  the  first  of  which  began  with 
faiii  jourrtey  to  Munster,  contained  chiefly  his  negotiations 
of  the  triple  alliance,  and  ended  with  his  first  retirement 
from  public  busiiiess,  in  1671,  a  little  before  the  second 
Dutch  war.  He  began  the  second  part  with  the  approaches 
of  the  peace  between  England  and  Holland,  in  1673,  and 
concluded  it  with  his  being  recalled  from  Holland  in  Fe- 
bruary 1^78-9,  after  the  c<jnclu$i6n  of  that  of  Ntmeguen. 
The  third  part  contains  what  passed  from  this  peace  to  sir 
William's  retirement.  The  second  part  of  these  ''  Me- 
moirs" was  published  in  his  life* time,  and,  it  is  believed, 
with  bis<  consetis ;  though  it  is  pretended  that  cbey  were 
written  only  for  the  use  6f  his  son,  and  isent  into  the  world 
without  his  knowledge.  The  third  part  was  published  by 
Swift,  in   1709,    many  years  after  his  death.     The  first 

Vol.  XXIX.  P 


210  TEMPLE. 

jpart  was  never  pi^blishe^  at  all ;  apd  Swift,  in  the  preCace 
to  the  third,  tells  us,  that  *'  Sir  William  often  assured 
him  he  had  burnt. those  Memoirs;  and  for  that  reason  was 
content  his  letters  during  bis  embassies  at  the  Hague  ao^ 
AiK-la-Chapelle  (he  ii>jgbt  have  added  Munster)  should 
be  printed  aft^r  his  death,  to  supply  that  loss.  What,  it 
was,"  continues  Swift,,  "  that  moved  sir  William  Temple 
to  burA  those  first  Memoirs,  may,  perhaps,  be  conjectured 
from  some  passages  in  the  second  part  formerly  printed, 
luione  place  the  author  has  thes^  words :  *  My  lord  At^r 
Ijpgton,  who  made  so  great  a  figure  in  the  former  part  of 
tbf^se  Memoirs,  was  now  grown  but  of  all  <:redit/  &c.  la 
other  parts  he  tells  us,  '  That  that  lord  was  of  the  ministrj 
which  broke  the  triple-^nlliance,  advised  the  Dutch  war  ana 
French  alliance ;  and,  in  sbqrt,  was.  at  th^  bottom  of  .aU 
those  ruinous  measures  which  the  court, of  England  was 
Uien  taking;  so  that,  as  I  have  been -told  from  a  good 
hai^d,  and  as  it  seems  very  probable,  he  ,could  not  think 
that  lord  a  person  fit  to  be  celebrated  for  his  ,parc  in.  for^ 
fir^ding  that  famous  league,  while  he  was  secretary  Jq^ 
j^tate,  who  had  made  such  counterpaccs  to  destroy  it."'  ^  i 
In  1693,  sir  William  published  an  answer  to  a  scurrilous 
pamphlet,  entitled  "  A  Letter  from  Mr.  du  Cros  to  the  lprc[ 
— — ."  This  Du  Cros  bore  very  impatiently  the  chjaractei; 
which  sir  William  had  given  him  in  the  second  part  qf  hts 
M  Memoirs,"  and  wrote  the  above  letter  to  abuse  him  for 
it*  In  1695,  he  pubUshed  <<  Ad  Introduction  to  the  Hjstgry 
of.  j^ngland  :*'  in  which  some  few  mistakes  have  been  dis- 
covered, .as  his  speaking  of  William,  the,  Conqueror  abolisk,- 
ing  the' trial  of  camp-fight,  or  duel,  who,  oh  the  contrafy^^ 
introduced  it.  Not  long  after  his  death,  pr.  Swift,  theo 
domestic  chaplain  to  the  earl  of  Berkley,  who  Uved  mapy 
years  as  an  amanuensis,  iu .  sir  William  Temple's  family, 
pujblished  two  volumes  of  his  V  Letters,"  containing  an  acr 
coji^pt  of  the  most  important  transactions  that  passed  in 
Christendom,  from  1667  tp  1672;  and,  in  1703^,  a  third 
Yptyme^  containing  ^^Letter^  tp  king  Charles  II.  the  prince 
of  Orange,  the  chief  ministers  of  state,  and  other  persons,'* 
in  octavo.  The  editor  informs  us,  that  these  papers  were 
the  last  of  this  or  any  kind,  about  which  be  hi^d  received 
bis  p^artioular  commands;  and  that  they  ijvere  corrected  by 
hiift)self,  and  transcribed  i,n  bi^  lijertime.  The  lyhol^e  .of 
bis  w9rks  were .  handsojo^ely  reprinted  ip  A  vols.  8vq^.  ia 


• 


TEMPLE.       >  211 

-  Sir  William  Temple  had  one  son,  John  Temple,  esq^  a 
fnan  of  great  abilities  and  accompUsbmentSy  and  who,  »oon 
after  the  Revolution,  was  appomted  secretary  at  war  by 
king  William  ;'  but  be  had  scarce  been  a  week  in  that  of- 
fice, when  he  drowned  himself  at  London-bridge.  Thi$ 
extraordn.ary  affiiir  happened  the  I4th  of  April,  1689; 
when  Mr.  Temple,  having  spent  the  whole  morning  ar  his 
office,  took  a  boat  about  noon,  as  if  he  designed  to  go  to 
Greenwich  ;  when  he  had  got  a  little  way,  he  ordered  the 
waterman  to  set  him  ashore,  and  then  finisliing  some  dis- 
patches which  he  had  forgot,  proceeded.  Before  he  thre^ 
himself  out,  he  dropped  in  the  boat  a  shilling  forthe  water- 
wsan,  and  a  note  to  this  effect : 

**  My  folly  ill  undertaking  whsft  I  was  not  able  to  per- 
form, has  done  the  king  and  kingdom  a  great  deal  of  pre^ 
jadice.     I  wish  him  all  happiness,  and  abler  servants  than 

JaHN  Temple.'* 

It  was  thought,  at  first,  that  he  meant  by  this,  his  inca- 
pacity for  the  secretaryship  at  war,  which  he  had  asked  the 
king  leave  to  resign  the  day  before ;  but  the  fact  was,^  that 
he  had  been  melancholy  for  some  months  before,  and  the 
great  prejudice  to  the  king%  affairs,  mentioned  in  his  note^ 
could  not  be  occasione/i  by  mistakes  committed  in  a  place 
in  which  he  had  yet  done  little  or  nothing.  Another  cause 
of  bis  melancholy  is  assigned,  which  carries  nK>re  probabi- 
lity. General  Richard  Hamilton  being  upon  suspicion 
confined  in  the  Tower,  Mn  Temple  visited  him  sometimes 
u]pOn  the  score  of  a  former  acquaintance:  when  discourse 
ing  upon  the  present  juncture  of  affairs,  and  how  to  pre- 
fent  the  effusion  of  blood  in  Ireland,  the  general  said, 
**That  the  best  way  was,  to  send  thither  a  person  in  whom 
Tyrconnel  could  trust ;  and  he  did  not  doubt,  if  such  a 
person  gave  hnn  a  true  accoant  of  things  in  England,  he 
woiild  readily  submit/^  Mr.  Temple  communicated  this 
overture  to  the  king,  who  approving  of  it,  and  looking  upon 
general  Hamilron  to  be  the  properest  person  fdr  such  a 
service,  asked  Mr.  Temple  whether  he  cfould  be  trusted^ 
Temple  readily  engaged  his  word  for  him,  and  Hamilton 
was  sent  to  Ireland  ;  but,  instead  of  discharging  his  com- 
mission and  persuading  Tyrconnel  to  submit,  he  encou- 
raged him  as  much  as  possible  to  stand  out,  and  offered 
him  his  assistance,  which  Tyrconnel  gladly  accepted.  Mr. 
Temple  contracted  an  extreme  inela^choly  upori  R^miU 
ton's  desertion ;  although  the  king  assured  him  he  was  coiik 

P  2 


214  T  E  M  P  L  E  M  A  N. 

oret  with  proper  encoumgement  from  the  public,  it  was 
bif  intention  to  bare  extemied  the  work  to  twelve  vokuBes, 
with  an  additional,  one  of  index,  and  that  he  waa  prepared 
to  publish  two  such  volumes  every  year.  Histransl8tii>n  of 
*^  Nofden's  Travels"  appeared  in  the  beginning  of  1757  ; 
aYid  in  that  year  he  was  editor  of  *-  Select  Cases  and  Con** 
sultations  in  Physic,  by  Dr.  Woodward,"  8vo.  On  the 
astablishment  of  the  British  Museum  in  1753,  he  was  ap- 
pointed to  the  ofiice  of  keeper  of  the  reading-room,  wbick 
he  resigned  on  being  chosen,  in  1760,*  seetetary  to  €h<$ 
then  newly  instituted  Society  of  Arts,  Manufactures,  an4 
Commerce.  In  1762  be  was  elected  a  corresponding  mem^ 
ber  of  the  Royal  Academy  of  Science  of  Parts,  and  aisi^  of 
the  CEconomical  Society  at  Berne.  Very  early  in  life  I>r; 
Templeman  was  afflicted  with  severe  paroxysms  of  an 
asthma,  which  eluded  the  force  of  all  that  either  bi«r  owil 
skill,  or  that  of  the  most  eminent  physicians  then  livings 
could  suggest  to  him  ;  and  it  continued  to  harass  ^hitk^  till 
his  death,  which  happened  September  2S,  1769.  'He  wtt 
esteemed  a  man  of  great  learning,  particularly  with  reaped 
tb  languages;  spoke  French  with  great  fluency^  and  left 
the  character  of  a  humane,  generous,  and  poUte  member 
t>f  society. 

.  It  may  not  be  improper  to  distinguish  Dr.  Tempienan 
from  Mr.  Thomas  Templeman,  the  author  of  ^<  Eogva^ed 
Tables,  containing  calculations  of  the  number  Of  scjtiatre 
feet  and  people  in  the  several  kingdoms «^  the  World  f^ 
who  was  a  .writing-master  in  the  town  of  St.  Edmund'a 
Bury,'  where  he  died  May  2,  1729.  Both  are^often  con- 
founded, and  the  latter  often  appears  In  quotations  with 
the  doctor's  degree  of  the  former. ' 
'  TENCIN  (Claddine,  Alexandrine,  Gtreotsi,'  de),  a 
lady  of  considerable  talents,  tobk  the  habit  of  a  religious 
St  the  monastery  of  Montfl«uri,  near  Grenoblei  Becoming 
tired  of  that  mode  of  life,  she  went  to'  Paris,  where  she 
lived  in  the  world,  and  solicited  a  bull  from  the  pope  to 
authorize  this  unusual  proceeding.  With  cardinal  Lam- 
bertini,  afterwards  Benedict  XIV.  she  was  on  good  terms^ 
and  he  gave  her  no  molestation.  Her  bouse  at>  Pavts'  was 
the  general  meeting'  of  all  who  had  wit,  or  wished  to  have 
mke  credit  of  it.  The  gaiety  of  her  society  was«  however, 
disturbed  by  some  unfortunate  adventures ;  particularly  by 

* 

*  Nichols's  Bowyer. 


T  E  .N  C  I  N. 


2l#. 


tbe»  death  of  La  ^Fre^aye,  a  counsellor  of  sl^ate^  who  ws^^ 
killed  in  jier.apart^aient.  Mademoiselle  TeDcin  waa  prpsci-. 
€bted  as  coni^erned  in  the  murder,  and  was  confined  6fSit 
in  the  Chatelety  and  afterwards  in  the  Bastille;  but  was, at. 
length  discharged  as  innocent.  She  died  at  Paris  in  1749, 
being  then  a  good  deal  advanced  in  years.  She  appeared 
as  an  author  in  several  instances,  and  produced,  1.  ^^  JLe. 
Siege  de  Calais,"  a  romance,  of  considerable  delicacy  and 
g^ius,  thoughjiQt  without  faults.  2.  '^  Memoires  de  Com- 
mingesy"  i2mo,  another  novel  which  has  had  its  admirers* 
^  nephew  of  M..de  Tenoin,  M.  Pont-de-veste,  had  some 
share,  in  both. these  productions.  3.  ^^  Les  Malheurs  de 
yAjDour,"  a  novel,  ^ia  which  some,  have  supposed  that  she 
describes  a  part  of  her  own  history,  4.  *^  Anecdotes  oC 
Sdward  Il.'Va  posthumous  work,  published  in  1776.  All 
berwprks  wece  published  at  Paris  in  17S6,  in  seven  small 
yoiumes^  ]2mo.' 

T£NI£RS  (David),  a<  Flemish  painter,  was  born  ^t 
Antwerp,  in  1582,  and  received  the  first  rudiments  of  his 
afjbXram  the  famous  Rubens,  who  considered  him,  atlength, 
i«s;;his  most  deserving  scholar.  On  leaving  Rubens,  he 
iifigan  io  be  muck  employed ;  and,  in  a  little  time,  was  in 
a  condition  to  take  a  journey  to  Italy.  At  Rome  he  fixed 
iMmself  with  Adam  Elsheimer,  who  was  then  in  great  vogue ; 
bi* whose  manner  he  became  a. thorough  master,  without 
«ieglecting  at.  the  same  time  the  study  of  other  great 
H^asteri,  and  endeavouring  to  penetrate  into  the  deepest 
.mysteries  oftheir  practice.  An  abode  of  tea  years  in  Italy 
eiiobled.bim  to  become  one  of  the  first  in  bis  style  of  paint- 
ing; aoda  happy  union  in  the  schools  of  Rubens  and  £1* 
sheimer  formed  in  him  a  manner  as  agreeable  as  divertiug. 
When  Teoiers  retiJMrhed  to  his  own  country,  he  entirely 
employed  Irimself  in  painting  small  pictures,  filled  with 
figures  of  persons  drinking,  chemists,  fairs,  and  merry- 
makings, with  a  number  of  country  meo  aad  women.  He 
.spread  so  much  taste  and  truth  through  his  pictures,  that 
£bw  painters  have  ever. produced  a  juster  effect.  The  de- 
maad  for  them  was  universal ;  and  even  his  master  Ruben& 
thought  them  an  ornament,  to  bis  cabinet,;  which  wfis^ 
^'higfa.a  compliment  as  could  belaid  tbem.  Teoi^r^.  drew 
Jbia  own  cbiiracier.  in  Ua  pictures^  and  in  all  hi)>  ^bjfiiRts 
crvery  thing  tends  to  joy  and  pleasun?.     ^fi^  wasj  ^)^f  ^^  em- 


I  Diet.  HJitj-^hesterfi^ld't  Mistellanies. 


ii« 


t  E  N  I  E  R  8. 


ptoy«d  in  eopjring  after  aatiire,  Whatooefer  preflenled  iuelf; 
and  be  accustomed  bU  two  sons  to  follow  bit  example,  ^ui 
to  paint  nothing  but  from  tbat  in&llible  models  by  wbiob 
iDeans  they  botb  became  excellent  painters.    Tbeseara 
the  only  disciples  we  know  of  this  David  Tenters,  styled 
the  elder,  who  died  at  Antwerp  in  1649,  aged  sijffty-eeven.  * 
TENIERS  (David),  son  of  the  precedingy  was  born  at 
Antwerp  in    1610,  and  was  nick<>named   <' The  Ape  oi 
Painting;**  for  there  was  no  manner  of  painttog  tbat  be 
could  not  imitate  so  exactly,  as  to  deceive  even  the  nicest 
jadges.     He  improved  greatly  on  the  talents  and  merit  oC 
bis  father,  and  his  reputation  introduced  him  to  the  fairour 
of  the  great.    The  archduke  Leopold  William  made  bmk) 
gentleman  of  his  bedchamber;  'and  all  the  pictures  of  bis) 
gallery  were  copied  by  Teniers,  and  engraved  by  bis  di<iC 
rection*    Teniers  took  a  voyage  to  England,'  to  buy  several: 
pictures  of  the  great  Italian  masters  for  count  Fuenaain 
degna,  who,  on  his  return,  heaped  favours  on  hi  m^    Dfon 
John  of  Austria,  and  the  king  of  Spain,  set  so  great. al 
value  on  his  pictures,  that  they  built  a  gallery  on  ^uirpose^ 
for  them.     Prince  William  of  Orange  iKmoured  bim  withe 
his  friendship ;  Rubens  esteemed  his  works,  and  assisittfA 
him  with  his  advice.     In  his  tbirty^fifth  year  be  was  io  hia 
zenith  of  perfection*     His  principal  talent  was  landscape,  ^ 
adorned  with  small  figures.     He  painted  men. drinking  and: 
smoking,  chemists,    and  their  laboratories,  country  fairr,\ 
and  the  like :  bis  small  figures  are  superior  to  4)ia  large 
ones.     The  distinction  between  the  works  of  the  £siber 
and  theaon  is,  fhatih  the  son's  you  discover  a  finieir  ceticb. 
and  a  fresher  pencil,  and  a  greater  choice,  of  attiiades,  and 
a  better  disposition  of  figures.     Tbe  father  retained  some*  : 
thing  of  the  tone  of  Italy  in  his  colouring,  wbicb  was; 
stronger  than  the  son's,  but  his  pictures  bave  less  barmonjr^ 
and  union;  besides,  the  son  used  to  put  at  tbe  bottom  of  * 
bis  pictures,  *<  David  Teniers,  junior.''     He  died  at  Aiit* 
werp  in  1 694,  aged  eighty*four.     Sir  Jostuia  Reynolds  says, : 
that  the  works  of  this  artist  are  worthy  tbe  elosest  attention 
of  a  painter  who  desires  to  excel  in.  the  opecfaanical  know-' ' 
ledge  of  bis  art^     His  manner  of  touching,  or  wbat  we  caU  \ 
bandling,  has  perhaps  never  been  equalled :  there  is  in  hia  z 
pictures  tbat  exact  mixture  of  softness  and  sbatpaess,  wbiclK  . 
is  difEii;iiU  to  execute. .  -\      :    :    r. 


T  E  N  1  E  B  a;  iif 

Hfa  wither  AlRiiflAJf  was  «  good  painter ;  4^l]fi1;  if  nol 
superior,  to  bis  iuiber  and  brother  in-  the  expression  of  bis 
(Dbaractersy  and  knowledge  of  the  chiaro-scuro,  though  in- 
ferior in  the  sprigbtUness  of  his  touchi  and  the  lightness  of 
bis  pencil. ' 

TENISON  (THOMAff),  a  learned  and  worthy  prelate^ 
tiM^  son  of  the  rev.  John  Tenison,  B.  D.  by  Mary,  daughter 
6§  Tboinas  Dowson  of  Cottenbam  inr  Cambridgeshire,  wi^ 
born  at  that  place  Sept;  29,  1636.  His  father  was  reotoe 
of  Af  uncksley  in  Norfolk,  whence  be  was  ejected  for  bit 
adberewee  to  Charles  I.  At  the  restoration,  according  to 
Dr.  Kenned,  be  became  rector  of  Bracon-Ash,  and  died 
there  in  V671,  bat  Mr.  Masters  apprehends  that  he  was  rec« 
tor  of  Toperoft  in  Norfolk  in  1646,  and  by  Le  Neve  wia 
find  ibat  in  1712,  hie  son,  the  subject  of  the  present  ar-* 
tiele,  at  the  exp^ftce  of  340/.  rebuilt  the  chancel  of  Top«* 
oeoft  church,  where  bis  father  and  mother,  are  buried. 
"  Young  Tenison  was  first  educated  at  the  free-school  «t 
Norwich,  whieh  was  then  in  great  reputation,  under  Mr. 
Loyering ,  the  master.  From  this  school,  at  the  age  of 
seventeen,  be  was  admitted  a  scholar  upon  archbishop 
Barker's  foundation,  of  BeneH  college,  Cambridge,  where 
be  look  bis  degree  of  A.  B.  in  Lent  term,  1656-7 ;  and  thef 
stw^y  of  diniriiy  being  at  that  time  interrupted,  at  least  as 
to  its  ordinary  process,  he  began  to  study  medicine,  but 
on  the  eve  of  the  restoration  he  procured  himself  to  be  pri- 
vately ordained  at  Richmond  in  Surrey,  by  Dr.  Duppa, 
bisbop  of  Salisbury.  In  1660,^  the  year  following,  he  pro-» 
ceeded  M.  A.  and  being  by  virtue  of  a  pre-election,  ad-* 
mitted  felbw  of  bis  college,  March  24,  1662,  be  became 
tutor,  and  in  J  665  was  chosen  one  of  the  university 
preachers,  and  about  the  sanae  time  was  presented  by  the 
dealt  and  chapter  of  Ely  to  the  cUr^  of  St.  Andrew  the^reat 
in  Cambridge. 

Ht  had  not  long  held  this  last  situation  before  t<be  plague 
broke  out  and  dispersed  the  members  of  the  college,  and 
probably  soone  ofitbe  inhabitants  of  his  parish,  but  Mr.  Te- 
nison remained' fa^cQllege,  with  only  two  scholars,  and  a 
few  servants,  dering  the  whole  of  the  calaoiity,  and  con- 
scientiously perfohned  bis  parochial  duties,  without  neg* 
lettcing  sooh'^ipracautions  as  the  faculty  at  that  time  pre- 
scribed.    His  parishioners  were  so  sensibly  struok  with  this 

1  Argenville,  y^l  2II.-->Pilkin^n.«-3ir  J.  Reynoldv**  Works. 


« 

/ 


SIS  r  E  N  I  S  O  N. 

efibrt  o(  piety  and  courage,  as  to  prevent  him  with- a  band- 
some  piece  of  plate  when  be  left  tbem  in  1667.  *  In  pensem^ 
brance  of  their  kindness,  he  gave  them,  a  short  time  before 
bis  death,  the  sum  of  50/.  towards  repairing  their  church. 

In  this  last  mentioned  year,  1667,  be  proceeded  B.  D» 
He  bad  for  some  time  served  bis  futher's  cure  at  Bracon« 
asbe,  and  quitted  St.  Andrew's  in  Cambridge  on  being  pre- 
sented to  the  rectory  of  Holywell  and  Nedingwoitb  in  Hun- 
tipigdonshire,  by  Edward,  earl  of  Manchester.  This  noble^ 
liian  had  before  that  time  placed  his  son  Thomas  under  bis 
tuition  in  the  college,  and  afterwards  appointed  Inm  hiit 
chaplain,  in  which  relation  he  was  likewise  continued  by 
bis  successor,'  earl  Robert.  About  the  same  time  be  mar« 
ried  Anne,  daughter  of  Dr.  Richard  Love,  some  time  mllst-^ 
ter  of  .Bene't  college.  In  1670  his  first  publication  ap«9 
peared,  under  the  title  of  '*  Th6  creed  of  Mr.  Hobbea  eis^ 
amined,  in  a  feigned  conference  between  him  and.  a  sin-v 
dent  in  divinity,"  8Vo*  This,  which  is  said  to  have  beeaii 
{Published  to  obviate  an  absurd  calumny,  that  .be^iwas  a  fa>* 
vourer  of  Hobbes,  affords  a  very  excellent  refutation!  c»l 
that  autbor^s  principles.  v-'v 

'  In  1674,  the  parishioners  of  St.  Peter's  Manscrofti^  in 
Norwich,  chose  him  their  upper  minister,  with  a.salary^of 
100/.  a  year.  In  1 678  he  published  his  .^^Diseourse  of  Iife^ 
]atry/'  and  the  year  following,  some  irapubbshed.remaio^of 
lord  Bacon,  under  the  title  *^  Baconiana,"  witb^a  ptefMH 
giving  an  excellent  analysis  of  his  lordship's  works.  la  I48Q 
he  took  his  degree  of  D.  D.  and  in  Ootoberof  <the«ame  yiiat^ 
was  presented  by  Charles  II.  being  then  one  of  bis  m»h 
jesty's  chaplains,  to  tbe  vicarage  of  St.  Martians  ^i<n  the 
Fields.  Here  he  cotitinued  the  measures  wliiebDri  Lloyd 
his  predecessor  had  adopted  to  cheek  tbe  gsevn^tb  of  4>opery, 
abd  became  the  founder  of  our  parochial  cb^rity-aGboola. 
He  also  founded  a  library.  Dr.  Kennethsays  that  in  this 
office,  Dr.  Tenison  did  as  much  good  as  pferbaps  it  was. 
possible  for  one  man  to  do,  and  the  writer -<of  bis  life  assttres 
us  that  there  were  not  above  two  persons  in  bis  parishwbo 
turned  Roman  catholics  while  be  was  vicar.  Indeed  tbia 
large  and  important  cure  extending  to  Whitehall,  and  .the 
whole  court,  rendered  an  unusual  portion  of  xrourage.  aa4 
perseverance  necessary  in  watching  the  pcoeeedings  of  the 
popish  party,  who  bad  too  many  friends  in  the  highest  sta* 
tion.  Dr.  Tenison,  however,  undautu^i^lily:,  to6R  SfeSsliiife 
in  the  controversy  which  their  conduct  procfuced,  and  wils 


T  E  N  I  S  O  N:  219 

sooti  fnatked  as  arixantagonistjiot  to  be  despised.  In  16^1 
be  preached  and  pubiisiied  **  A  Sermon  of  Discretion  in 
giving  alms,"  wMich  being  attacked  by  Andrew  Pulton,  who 
was  at  the  head  of  the  Jesuits  in  the  Savoy,  Dr.  T^iison 
wrote  a  defence  of  it.  In  June  1684  an  attempt  was  made 
to  entrap  him  into  an  obscure  house,  on  pretence  of  his 
receiving  there  some  information  respecting  the  murder  of 
sir  Edmondbury  Godfrey ;  but  by  the  precaution  he  took, 
this  des'rgh,  whatever  it  might  be,  was  defeated.  In  this 
year  h<f  published  "The  difference  between  the  protestiant 
and  the  Socinian  methods,''  in  answer  to  a  book  written  by 
a  ^api^t  entitled  *♦  The  Protestant's  plea  for  a  Socinian.'* 
In  f^emean  titne,  in  1683,  be  had  rivalled  that  party  in 
their  grace  of  charity,  by  distributing  upwards  of  300/.  for 
the  relief  of  his  poor  parishioners  during  the  hard  frost. 
He  also  now  completed  tbe  designs  before  mentioned,  of 
endowing  a  charity-school,  and  setting  up  a  public  library, 
both  which  still  exist. 

^  In  I6S5,  he  attended  the  unfortunate  duke  of  Monmoutb, 
l^y  bid  glee's  desire,  both. before,  and  at  the  time  of  bis 
execution ;  and  Burnet  tells  us  that  he  spoke  to  his  grace 
with  a  freedom  becoming  his  station,  both  as  to  the  duke's 
|nibtic  conduct  and  private  life,  yet  with  such  prudence 
and  circumspection,  as  to  give  no  offence.-  In  1687,  Dr^ 
TetMsbn  held^a^'Conference  with  Andrew  Pulton,  his  oppo- 
nent'before  Uientioned,  respecting  the  pr^testant  religion, 
il^taii  of  which  be  afterwards  published  under  the  title  of 
**iA  true  account  of  a  Conference  held  about  Religion  at 
hamiMky  tSept.  29,  1687,  between  Andrew  Pulton*,  Je&juit, 
iiltd  'IThomas  -Tenison,  D.  D.  as  also  that  which  led  to  it, 
and  ibltd^^  after  it,"  Lond.  1687.-  Soon  aftier  Dr.  Teni- 
^on  fmblished  the  following  tracts,  arising  from  this  con*- 
ib^Moe,  or  connected  with  the  popish  controversy  in  ge- 
neral: **  A  Gaide  in  matters  of  Faith,  with  respect  espe*- 
dially  to  the  Romish  practice  of  such  a  one  as  is  ibfallible ;" 
^  Mr.  Pulton  considered  in  his  sincerity,  reasonings,  and 
sititfaorities ;  or,  a  just  answer  to  what  he  has  hitherto  pub- 
lished in  his  true  and  full  account  of  a  conference,  &c.  his 
i^marks,  and  in  them  his  pretended  confutation  of  what  he 
calls  Dr.  T.'s  (Dr.  Tillotson's)  Rule  of  Faith  ;"«  Six  Con- 
ferences  concerning  the  Eucharist,  wherein  is  shewed,  that 

ft 

-«  :  ■    •  •  ■ 

,  *^  Dodd,  10  his  Ciiarch,Hi)S,torf,  meDtioQt  ibis  Andrew  Pulton  sligbily,  and 
•«  dfstini^uishedoikly  for  his  cottfertioce  with  Dr.  Tenlson.     See  Dodd,  vol.  III. 


120  T  E  N  1  S  O  N. 

the  doctrine  of  Traiisubstantiation  overthrows  the  proofs  of 
the  Christian  religion/'  frotn  the  Flrench  of  La  Placette ; 
*<The  Difference  between  the  Church  of  England  and  the 
Church  of  Rome ;  in  answer  to  a  book  written  by  a  Ro- 
manist,  entitled  The  Agreement  between  them  ;"  and  *^  An 
Examination  of  Bellarmine*s  tenth  note  of  holine;»s  of  life.** 

About  this  time  Dr.  Tenison  preached  a  sermon  at  the 
funeral  of  the  famous  Nell  Gwynn,  one  of  Charles  II.'s 
mistresses,  whom  he  represented  as  a  penitent.  This  drew 
upon  him  some  censure ;  and  perhaps  the  measure  was  not 
a  very  prudent  one,  even  supposing  the  fact  of  her  peni- 
tence to  be  as  be  represented.  His  enemies,  however, 
could  hot  have  many  just  objections  to  what  he  said,  as 
they  were  reduced  to  the  meanness  of  publishing  a  false 
copy  of  the  sermon,  against  which  Dr.  Tenison  advertised. 
In  1680^  a  considerable  sum  of  money,  we  are  not  told  by 
whom,  was  deposited  in  bis  hands,  jointly  with  Dr.  Simon 
Patrick,  to  be  laid  out  in  works  of  charity,  according  to 
their  discretion;  and  after  distributing  some  part  of  it  ac- 
cordingly in  charitable  uses,  they  settled  the  remainder  as 
a  kind  of  fund  for  augmenting  the  insufficient  maintenance 
of  poor  vicars.  This  they  managed  themselves  for  some 
years,  dividing  the  sum  of  100/.  among  twenty  vicars,  half 
of  the  diocese  of  Canterbury,  the  other  of  Ely,  at  the  equal 
rate  of  5L  to  each  vicar;  but  in  1697  they  assigned  over 
the  whole  stock,  amounting  to  2400/.  to  sir  Nathan  Wright, 
lord  keeper  of  the  great  seal,  and  other  trustees,  ft^r  the. 
^ame  purposes. 

Resuming  his  pen  against  popery.  Dr.  Tenison  now  pub- 
lished five  more  treatises  or  tracts  on  the  subject,  entitled 
**The  Introduction  to  Popery  not  founded  in  Scripture;" 
**  An  answer  to  a  letter  of  the  Roman  catholic  soldier;'' 
**  Speculum  Ecclesiasticum  ;  or  an  ecclesia^itical  prospec- 
tive glass  considered  in  its  faUe  reasonings  and  quotations  ;** 
"The  incurable  Scepticism  of  the  Church  of  Rome,"  trans- 
lated from  Placette;  and  <*The  Protestant  and  Popish  way 
gf  interpreting  Scripture,  impartially  compared,  in  answer 
to  Pax  vobis,  &c."  alt  in  4to,  and  published  in  1688  or 
1689.  We  are  told  that,  notwithstanding  his  zeal  in  this 
cause,  he  was  so  much  respected  at  court,  thdt  James  IL 
was  induced,  out  of  regard  to  him,  to  take  off  the  suspension 
which  that  infatuated  monarch  had  laid  upon  Dr.  John  Sharp 
(See  SHAttP,  vol.  XXVII.  p.  400) ;  "but  there  is  more  reason 
to  think  that  this,  on  the  king^s  part,  was  an  attempt  at 


T  E  N  I  S  O  N.  £21 

•oaciliation^  when  he  found  ho^  unpopular  that  and  bk 
other  measures  in  favour  pf  popery  were. 

In  the  succeeding  reign,  Dr.  Tegison  is  said  to  have  acr 
quired  favour  at  court,  on  account  o£  his  moderation  towards 
the  dissenters.  He  was  one  of  those  who  dwelt  fondly  oft 
the  hopes  of  a  comprehension,  as  it  was  called,  to  be  effect* 
ed  partly  by  a  review  of  the  Liturgy.  Immediately  after 
the  revolution,  he  was  promoted  to  be  archdeacon  of  Lou* 
•don,  and  was  appointed  one  of  the  commissioners  to  pre- 
pare matters  towards  reconciling  the  dissenters  for  the  con- 
vocation. He  even  wrote  a  defence  of  it,  entitled  ^^  A  Dis- 
course on  the  Ecclesiastical  commission,  proving  it  agree- 
able to  the  word  of  God,  useful  to  the  convocation,  &c.** 
168i),  4to,  but  he  soon  found  the  main  object  to  be  un- 
attainable, neither  party  being  satisfied  with  the  proposed 
alterations  in  the  liturgy*  It  was  this  endeavour  to  conci- 
liate the  dissenters  which  is  said  to'  have  induced  queen 
Mary  to  solicit  that  he  might  have  the  bishopric  of  Lincoln, 
to  which  be  was  accordingly  nominated  Nov.  25,  1691,  and 
consecrated  at  Lambeth,  Jan.  10  following.  The  writer  of 
his  life,  in  Bvo,  tells  us  that  the  earl  of  Jersey,  then  master 
pf  the  horse  to  her  majesty,  endeavoured  as  much  as  pos- 
sible to  prejudice  Dr.  Tenison  in  her  majesty's  opinion,  in. 
order  to  gain  her  interest  for  his  friend  Dr.  John  Scott,  rec- 
tor of  St*  Giles's  in  the  fields ;  and  represented  to  her  ma- 
jesty, who  was  speaking  of  Dr.  Tenison  in  terms  of  respect, 
that  he  had  preached  a  funeral  sermon,  in  which  he  had 
spoken  favourably  of  Mrs.  Eleanor  Gwyn,  one  of  king 
Charles  lid's  mistresses.  *^  What  then  ?"  said  the  queen, 
^/  I  have  beard  as  much.  This  is  a  sign,  that  that  poor 
unfortunate  woman  died  penitent;  for  if  I  can  read  a  man's 
heart  throt^gh  his  looks,  had  she  not  made  a  truly  pious 
and  Christian  end,  the  doctor  could  never  have  been  in- 
duced to  speak  well  of  her.*' 

He  bad  ho^  been  seated  in  this  see  above  two  years, 
^hetijt  upon  the  death  of  Dr.  Marsh,  he  was  offered  the 
archbishopric  of  Dublin;  but  be  made  it  the  condition  of 
bis .  acceptance,  that  the  impropriations  belonging  to  the 
estates  itben  forfeited  to  the  crown,  should  be  all  restored 
to  the  respective  parish  churches.  The  king  thought  this 
yery  reasonal^le,  but  the  difficulties  were  found  so  grea| 
t^at  i^  never  could  b^  carded  into  execution  ^  and  Instead 
f^ft  being  translated  into  Ireland,  bishop  Tenison  was  raised 
i^  I694^.fippp  the  de^th  of  Dr. Tillolson,  to  thp  see  ol 


ISS  T  £  N  I  S  O  N. 

Canterbury.  Dr.  Kentiet  observes,  that  upon  the  death  dt 
archbishop  Tillptson,  **  it  was  the  solicitous  care  of  the 
Court  to  fill  up  the  see  of  Canterbury.  The  first  pei:son 
that  seemed  to  be  offered  to  the  eye  of  the  world,  was  Dr. 
StillingBeet,  bishop  of  Worcester;  but  his  great  abilities 
had  raised  some  envy  and  some  jealousy  of  him :  and,  in- 
deed, his  body  would  not  have  borne  the  fatigues  of  such  a 
station.  Even  the  bishop  of  Bristol,  Dr.  John  Hall,  mas* 
ter  of  Pembroke  college,  Oxford,  was  recommended  by  a 
great  party  of  men,  who  had  an  opinion  of  his  great  piety 
and  moderation.  But  the  person  most  esteemed  by  their 
majesties,  and  most  universally  approved  by  the  ministry, 
and  the  clergy,  and  the  people,  was  Dr.Tenison,  bishop  of 
Lincoln,  who  had  been  exemplary  in  every  station  of  his 
life,  had  restored  a  neglected  large  diocese  to  some  disci*- 
pline  and  good  order,  and  had  before,  in  the  office  of  a 
parochial  minister,  done  as  much  good  as,  perhaps,  was 
possible  for  any  one  man  to  do.  It  was  with  gre-at  impor* 
tunity,  and  after  rejecting  better  offers,  that  he  was  pre- 
'vailed  with  to  take  the  bishopric  of  Lincoln  ;  aird  it  was 
with  greater  reluctancy,  that  he  now  received  their  majesties' 
desire  and  command  for  his  translation  to  Canterbury. 
Burnet  speaks  much  to  the  same  purpose,  although  his 
opinion  of  Dr.  Tenison  seems  never  to  have  been  very 
high ;  and  adds,  that  at  this  time  **  he  had  many  friends, 
and  no  enemies." 

*  Soon  after  his  promotion  to  the  archbishopric,  queen* 
Mary  was  seized  with  the  small  pox,  which  proved  fiactal,' 
and  at  her  desire  archbishop  Tenison  attended  her  during 
her  illness,  was  present  at  her  death,  and  preached  a  fune* 
ral  sermon,  which  is  said  to  have  given  some  offence,  and 
was  severelycensured  in  a  letter  to  his  grace  by  Dr.  Ken^ 
the  deprived  bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells,  who  maintained 
that  the  archbishop  was  guilty  of  neglect  of  duty  in  not 
having  represented  to  her  majesty  when  on  her  death-bed 
"  the  gr«^at  guilt  she  lay  under  by  her  conduct  at  the  re* 
volution.-*  Of  this  letter,  Dr.Tenison  took  no  notice,  for 
which  few  will  now  blame  him.  A  **  Defence  of  his  Ser- 
irtort"  wail  afterwards  published  by  his  friend  Dr.  John 
Withams.  But  if  Dr.  Tenison  failed  in  bringing  the  queen 
to  repentance  for  **  the  revolution,'*  he  is  said  to  have  pro- 
duced some  good  effects  on  the  king's  disposition.*  W*hen 
the  queen  died,  William  was  deeply  affected,  and  impressed 
With  ^rf  sefious  notions,  which,  we  are  told,  Dr.Tenison 


'     TEN  ISDN.  229 

■ 

^ncourag^d^  *  aud  .in  one  ioslnnce  (the  king^s  iliieit.  om^ 
nectioo  with  iaiiyVilliers)  urged  the  beinousness  o£  that 
crime  with  suqh  power,  that,  if  we  may  believe  Whi«totS^ 
bis  majesty  promised  nev^  tO;  seetbat  lady  more.  Tbe 
archbishop  is  also  said  to  have  been  instrumental  in  healing 
some  differences  in  the  royal  family,  especially  respecting 
tbe  settlement  of  the  princess  Anne  of  Denmark.  . 
1  The  several  injunctions  and  circular  letters  to  his  clergy 
for  preserving  .the  order  and  discipline  of  the  church,  and 
for  healing  tbe  animosities  that  arose  in  bis  time  respect?- 
ing  the  doctrioe.  of  tbe  Trinity,  are  such  as  have  been 
thought  to  reflect  honour  on  his  high  station.  It  was  in 
his  timej  too,  that  tbe  disputes  occurred  respecting  the 
distiuct  powers  of  tbe  two^houses  of  convocation,  which 
proved  ultimately  tbe  ruin  of  that  assembly,  so  that,  as  has 
been  justly  remarked,  while  every  other  church  and  every 
sect,  has  its  synods,  or  other  assemblies  of  tbe  kind,  the 
church  of  England  has  no  longer  any  thing  preserved  but 
the  mere  forqa.of  meeting  and  breaking  up. 
^  In  16^6>  be  gave  a  signal  proof  of  his  zeal  for  the  re-i 
vplivtion  in  tbe  ^ase  of  sir  John  Fenwick's  attainder.  Oil 
this  occasion,,  when  the  celebrated  Mr.  Nelson  requested 
bis  vote  against  that  bill,  the  equity  of  which  was  much 
disputed,  the  aixbhisbop  said,  ^^  My  good  friend,  give  me 
leave  to  tell  you,  .that  I  know  not  what  spirit  this  man,  noi> 
I,  am  of.  i  wish  for  his,  nor  no  man's  blood :  but  bow  can 
I  do  my  dut^  to  Cod  and  the  king,  should  I  declare  a  man 
innocent  (for  my.  not  being  on.  the  side  of  the  bill  will  conw 
vince  the  world  that  I  think  him  so)  when  I  am  satisfied  in  my 
conscience,,  not  only  from  Goodman's  evidence,  but  all  the 
convincing  testimonies  in  the  worlds  that  he  is  guilty.  Laws ' 
ex  post  facto  jn^y  indeed  carry  tbe  face  of  rigour  with  them; 
but,  if  ever,  a  law  was  necessary,  this  is.V  .  :. 

In  1700|  bis  grfice  obtaiued  a  commission,  authorizing, 
liimy  jointly  .with  the  archbishop  of  York,,  and  four  othec 
prelates,. vi^.  Bprnet.of  Salisbury,  Lloyd  of  Worces^r,  Pa-<> 
trick. pf  £ly,  and  Moor  .of  Norwich,  to  cecoooimend  to  Jhi». 
majesty,,  proper  persons  for  all  the  eccle&iasudal  pr^feiK* 
ment^  inj  his. gift,  above  (be.  value  of  20/.  pen  an».<in  the; 
book.of  first  fruits  and  tenths.  He,  continued  in  the/stmer 
favo.qr  at  court  until  the  death  of  king  William,  whomhcw 
cpQ^antly  attended. in  his  illness,  aod  preivailed,  with  hioii. 
t^  put  tbe  ia^t  hand. to  a  bill  for  tbe  beti^r  security  of  tbe^ 
pi^ote^tant  ^ucce^sion*    In  conaequenoe  of  hi*  s^a«ioj>,  be 


tSi  T  E  N  I  S  O  N. 

had  the  boROiir  of  crowning  queen  An  net  ^^^  ^  iMit  en* 
joj  much  favour  at  her  court.     During  the  first  three  yean 
of  her  reign  he  steadily  opposed  the  bill  to  prevent  occa^ 
•ional  conformity.     At  the  same  time  he  was  not  neglectful 
of  what  concerned  the  welfare  of  the  established  churcbyi 
and  engaged  Dr.  White  Kennet,  afterwards  bishop  of  Peter« 
boruugh,  to  write  **  The  case  of  Impropriations^  &c."  in, 
consequence  of  the  queen's  halving  given  the  first  fruitt 
for  augmenting  the  maintenance  of  the  poorer  clergy.     Iq 
1705^  he  wrote  a  letter  to  the  princess  Sophia,  acquaint* 
ing  her  with  his  own  zeal  in  particular,  and  that  of  ber» 
friends,  for  the  security  of  the  Hanover  succesttion,  to 
which  he  received  au  answer,  in  which  her  highness  gave 
some  intimation  of  her  desire  to  come  *to  England  at  that 
juncture.     Tbis  letter  of  hers  was  published  some  time 
after,  together  with  one  from  sir  Rowland  Gwynn  to  the . 
earl  of  Stamford,  upon  the  same  subject  of  the  princess'f 
coming  over ;  which  last  being  voted  by  both  houses  to  be 
a  scandalous  libel,  tending  to  create  misunderitandinga  be* 
tween  her  majesty  and  the  princess  Sophia,  the  publisher^ 
Charles  Gitdon,  was  fined  100/.  by  the  court  of  queen's 
bench.     But  notwithstanding  that  our  archbishop'*  aeal  in 
this  matter  could  not.be  very  agreeable  to  her  mi^ty, 
who  was  always  averse  to  the  notion  of  a  visit  firom  the 
electress,  yet  in  April   1706  he  was  nominated  first  com* 
jnissioner  in  the  treaty  of  union  between  England  and 
Scotland.     The  same  year,  he  concurred  with  the  majo- 
rity of  the  lords  in  their  resolution  against  those  who  iu* 
sinuated  that  '^  the  church  was  in  danger," 

On  the  death  of  queen  Anne  he  was  appointed  one  of  the 
three  officers  of  s^ate  in  whose  bands  were  lodged,  by  au« 
thority  of  parliament,  one  of  those  instruments  empower-- 
ing  her  successor,  if  abroad  at  the  time  of  her  demise,  to 
appoint  auch  regents  as  be  should  think  proper,  to  continue 
the  administration  in  his  name  till  his  arrival.  He  had 
afterwards  the  honour  of  crowning  George  I.  and  of  being 
admitted  to  a  private  conference  \«ith  him.  This  was,  how- 
ever,  bis  last  attendance  on  that  prince,  as  his  infirmities, 
and  particularly  frequent  attacks  of  the  gout,  rendered  it 
necessary  for  him  to  live  as  retired  as  possible  at  his  palace 
at  Lambeth,  where  he  died  Dec.  I*!*,  1715,  in  the  seventy* 
ninth  year  of  bis  age.  He  was  interred  privately  in  the 
chancel  of  the  church  of  Lambeth,  and  in  the  same  vauh 
with  his  wife,^  who  died  the  Receding  year,  leaving  him 


T  E  N  I  S  o  N..  aas 

I 

.without  issue.  By  hi$  will  he  bexju^atbed  very  large  sums 
to  charitable  purposes,  and  proved  a  liberal  benefactor  to 
.Bene't  college,  Cambridge,  the  library  of  St,  Paul's  ca« 
ihedral^  the  society  for  the  propagation  of  the  gospel, 
queen  Anne's  bounty,  Bromley  Ci^Hege^  &c.  The  residue 
of  his  fortune,  which  was  very  considerable,  he  ord^r^d  to 
be  equally  divided  among  the  children  of  bis  kinsmen,  Dr. 
Edward  Tenison  (afterwardsbishopofOssory),  Mr.  Richard 
Tubby,  and  Mr.  George  Fage. 

■'  The  author  of  the  **  Memoirs  of  his  Life*'  says,  he  was  a 
]kelate  ^^  who,  through  the  whole  course  of  his  life,  always 
practised  that  integrity  and  resolution  ha  first  set  out  with; 
Xior  was  he  influenced  by  the  changes  of  the  age  he  lived 
in-,  CO  act  contrary  to  the  pure  and  peaceab^ti  spirit  of  Ui^ 
gospel,  of  which  he  was  so  bright  an  ornament."  ,  He  add% 
that  he  was  *^  an  exact  pattern  of  that  exemplary  piety, 
charity,  steadfastness,  and  good  conduct  requisite  in  a  go* 
vernor  of  the  church."  Dr.  Richardson,  in  bis  e(i|ition  of 
Godwin's  Lives  of  the  Bishops,  at  first  brought  a  serious 
charge  against  Dn  Tenison  for  neglecting  the  fairest  opt 
portunity  of  introducing  the  ecclesiastical  polity  of  the 
church  of  England  into  the  kingdom  of  Prussis^ ;  but  h^ 
w«s  afterwards  so  fully  convinced  of  the  injustice  of  tbi# 
jcfiafge,  a^  to  alter  the  page  of  his  wprk  in  which  it  wa$ 
brought  forward,  and  lay  the  blame  upon  those  to  whom 
it  more  ptoperly  belonged.  Swift  appears  to  have  spokeu 
wi Ai'  great  di^espect  of  archbishop  Teoison,  for  which  no 
better  reaa(on  can  be  given  than  his  prejudices  against  the 
whigS|  to  which  p$rty  Tenison  was  supposed  to  belong ; 
^iid  is  s'aiii  to  have  furnished  some  hinjts  for  Steele's  me« 
morttble  **  Crisis,"  for  which  the  latter  was  expelled  the 
House  of  Commons.  The  archbishop,  however,  had  ad <^ 
milkers  in  many  of  bis  contemporaries^  especially  Dr.  Garth,  ' 
who  has  introduced  him  in  the  2nd  canto  of  the  Dispen-: 
sary,  with  a  handsome  compliment,  in  the  form  of  a  com^ 

pbiint  from  E'^ivy  :  ■ ' 

.1 

^'  Within  this  isle  for  ever  must  I  find 
Disasters  to  distra^^t  my  restless  liiind  ? 
Good  Tenison *s  celestial  piety 
/At  last  has  raised  him  to  the  sacred  see.** 

The  celebrated  nonconformist  Baxter  likewise  held  bjm; 
in  admiration.  Besides  the  works  already  mentioned,  he 
pobHflihed  sonfe  occasional  sermons,  anel'i^suppOi^ed  to  have, 
be«n  the  au^bpr  of  a  trafct  entitled  '<  Grievances  9f  tbe*^ 
Vol.  XXIX.  Q 


S26  T  E  R  B  U  R  G  H. 

Cburcfa  oF  England,  which  are  not  in  the  power  q(  the  g<^ 
pernors  to  remedy/* ' 

TERBURGH  (Gbrard),  a  Dulch  painter,  was  born  in 
I608^at  Zwol^  nearOTeryssel.  He  learned  ibe  artof  painting 
ander  his  father,  who  had  passed  some  years  at  Rome.  He 
travelled  over  the  chief  part  of  Europe,  and  was  every 
where  much  encouraged.  His  subjects  were  usually  con^ 
▼ersations,  persons  employed  in  games,  or  in  humorous 
adventures.  His  colouring  is  lively,  and  bis  pictures  highly 
finished.  But  he  is  not  thought  equal  ^ther  to  Mieris  or 
Gerard  Dow,  in  the  same  style.  He  died  in  1681,  at  the 
age  of  seventy «three.  • 

TERENTIANUS  (Mauaus),  was  a  Latin  poet  and  gram^ 
marian,  whose  age  is  not  ^cactly  known,  unless  be  Vas  the 
Posthumus  Terentianus  to  whooi  Longinus  dedi^atlEsd  *  his 
admirable  treatise  on  the  sublime,  and  wbdm^Martial  ^e«» 
}ehrates  as  prasfect  of  Syene,  in  Egypt.  Both  these.tfaifi^ 
are  uncertain,  hut  both  have  been  affirmed  by  Vossilis, 
and  others.  Some  have  also  ealled  brm  a'Canhaginfaa; 
that  he  was  a  Moor,  he  himself  tells  us,  and  thence  be  ia 
called  Maurus.  Certain  it  is,  that  he  was  earlier  than  St; 
Augustin,  who  quotes  him,  De  Civ«  Dei,  ri..  2.  He  wrote 
a  most  el^ant  poem  in  various  measures,  ^^  De  Uteris^  syl*> 
labis,  pedibus,  et  metris,"  addressed  to  his  son  Bissinnii^ 
and  his  son-in-law  Novatemus,  which  gives  a  tridy  pleasing 
impression  of  his  genius,  and  admirably  exemplifies  tbh 
precepts  it  delivers.  This  poem  is  stUl  estanlV' having 
been  found  in  a  monastery  at  Bobbio,  in  the  Milanese^  bj 
G.  Morula.  It  was  first  published  by  him  at  Milan,  with 
Ausonius,  in  1497^  afterwards  by  Janus  Parrhastu8,>and 
Nic.  Brissoius ;  then  by  Jacobus  Micyllus,  at  Francfort^ 
1584,  in  8vo.  It  appeared  also  in  the  **  Gi*ammatici  ve^ 
teres,"  of  Putscbius,  published  at  Hanau,  in  1605^  4 to; 
*knd  in  the  *^  Corpus  omnium  veterum' Poetarum  Romanoi^ 
mm,"  Geneva,  1611,  2vols.  4to.^ 

TERENTIUS  (PuB*.ius),  or  TERENCE,  an  aneient 
dramatic  writer  among  the  Romans,  was  a  native  of  Car<^ 
thage,  and  bora  in  the  year  of  Rome  560.  ^  He  was  brought 
earlj  to  Rome,  among  other  slaves,  and  fell  into  the  bands 
of  a  generous  master,  Terentius  Lucanus,  a  Roman  se* 
aator,  who  was  to  taken  with  his  uncommon  parts,  that  be 

,  '^1  Memoirs  of  the  L\h  hb^  Tiol^i  of,  Svo,  ao  date.— Bio;.  Brit.-*— MMls^'a 
Hist,  of  C.  C.  C.  C. 
.^  Kilh&DfiMi^  »  MorcrK-i^VottHiP.— >Sa»i  Qaoiaact. 


fEttriSTTlUS.  327 

gaveliidi  foster  goad lectoeatioiiy  mud  afterwards  bis  liberty. 
He  received  his  name,  as  well  as  hi^  libert^^  from  Teren-i' 
tiur  iiuoanus,  as  the  oosufm  ivasr;  and  thii?,  by  a  singular 
fatality,  says  inafdain  Bacier/ urfaale  he  faas  imaiortalized  tlie 
aiame  of  bis  master,  bebas  not  been  abie  to  preserve  his  own. 
ihs  merit  soosi  recqmdiencled  him  to  the  acquaintance  and 
iamiliartty^of'  the  ehief  Tiobility  ;  and  such  was  his  friend- 
ship, with  Scipio  and  LeeHus,  that  his  rivals  iand  enemies 
(ooko<K»isi0n  from  tbeoce  to  say  that  his  plays  were  com- 
posed b^y  tbeae  noblemen.  Suetonius  relates  a  story  from 
£)ortieiius  Nepos,.  whtbli  may  ^eem  to  confirm  such  a  sur« 
mise:  it  is,  that  on  the  1st  of  March,  which  was  the  feast 
<if-«tfieHoman  ladies,  Lselius  being  desired  by  his  wife  to 
sup  a  little  soouer  than  ordinary,  he  prayed  her  not  to 
distari)  him;  and  that,  coming  very  late  to  supper  that 
lught,  h^^aid  ke  bad  nerer  composed  any  thing  with  more 
{deasuneand  siiccess ;  when,  bekig  asked  by  the  company 
what  it  was,  be  lepeBZeA  some  verses  out  4^f  the  third  scene 
ot'tbe  loQftfa  aet  in  the  ^*  Heaulpntimoromenos."  Terence 
takes  tiertice  of  this  report  in  his  prniogiie  to  the  ^^  Adeipbi;'- 
and  does  ttot offer  to  refute  it;  but  Snetonius  says  that  he 
forboreyin  complaisance  to  his  patrons,  who  might  possibly 
not  be  displdjtsed  with  it;  and,  indeed,  in  the  prologue  to 
ihe  *^  HeautoHtfrnorumenos,^'  Terence  desired  the  auditors 
potf  to  credit  the  slanderous  reports  of  bis  brother  writers. 
it  is  very  possible  that  Scipio  and  Ltelius  might  sometimes 
amuse  themselves  with  composing  a  scene  or  two  for  u 
poet,  with  wboar  they  conversed,  so  familiarly ;  but  the 
plays  were  certainty  Terence's. 

^  We  have  six  of  them  remaining,  and  probably  one  or 
(wp  are  lost^  for  the  ^'Andria"  does  not  Seem  to  have  been 
has  first4  The  very  prologue  to  this  play  intinrates  the 
contrary;  and  thecircumstuicejrelatedby Saetoriiias,  about 
Tenenc^^s  readtiig^  his  fira^  piece  Co  Csecilin^,  proves  the 
**  Andria^'  not  to  have  been  it, « and:  that  Suetonius  Jias  mis^ 
tdken  ihe:nai3t)e  of  the  play ;  'for  ^GefGiliicsLUied  twb  years 
before  the  *^  Andria'^  was  brought  one  the  stage;  CaBcitius 
was  th6  best  poet  of  the  age^  and  near  founridore  nh»ti 
Terenee  oiiened  fab  fir^  play  ;  mndv'Tegardiiwiib'patdto 
Im  judgment,  and  ^  ^erefpre>the  sediie  .ofitfRed  Kierent^tl 
H»  wait  upon  Ceeoihus.with  bis  play  Jbidfofa be,  woi|ld  veni^ 
ture  to  receive  it.  The  old  gentleman,  being  at  table, 
biff  the  "young  autlioir  take  k  stool,  a:nd  begin,  to  read  ..it 
to  him.   .it.  is<,jCii)flerved.bd^Suetonius,  that  Terence's  dress 

a  3 


S2«  T  E  R  E  N  T  I  U  8. 

was  mean,  so  that  his  outside  did  not  much  recotemen^ 
him;  but  he  bad  not  gone  through  the  first  scene  when 
Caecilius  invited  him  to  sit  at  table  with  him,  deferring 
to  have  the  rest  of  the  play  read  till  after  supper^  Thtis^ 
with  the  advantage  of  Ciecilius's  recommendation,  did  Te* 
rence*$  first  play  appear,  when  Terence  cotild  not  be  twen« 
ty-five ;  for  the  "  Andria"  was  acted  when  he  was  but 
twenty-seven.  The  **  Hecyra''  was  acted  the  year  follow- 
ing ;  the  **  Self- tormentor,  or  Heautontimoramenos,*'  two 
years  after  that ;  the  <'  Eunuch"  two  years  aftei^  the  *^  Seif^ 
tormentor ;''  the  ^^  Phormio,"  the  latter  end  of  the  same 
year;  and,  the  year  afterwards,  the  ^'Addphi,  or  Bro-* 
thers,"  was  acted;  that  is,  160  B.C.  when  Terence  was 
tbirty-<three  years  of  age. 

After  this,  Terence  went  into  Greece,  where  he  stayed 
about  a  year,  in  order,  as  it  is  thought,  to  collect  some  of 
llen^nder^s  plays.  He  fell  sick  on  his  return  from  thence^ 
and  died  at  sea,  according  to  some;  at  Stympbalts,  a 
town  in  Arcadia,  according  to  others.  From  the  above  ac« 
count,  we  cannot  have  lost  above  one  or  two  of  Terence's 
plays ;  for  it  is  impossible  to  credit  what  Suetonius  repona 
fronr  one  Cbnsentius,  an  unknown  author,  namely,  thai 
Terence  was  returning  with  above  an  hnndred  of  Metian*-- 
der^s  plays,  which  he  had  translated,  but  that  he  lost  them 
by  shipwreck,  and  died  of  grief  for  the  loss.  Terence  was 
of  a  middle  size,  very  slender,  and  of  a  dark  (^omplto^on. 
He  keft  a  daughter  behind  him,  who  was  afterwards  mar* 
ried  to  h  Roman  knight.  He  left  also  a  house  and  gar- 
den$  on  the  Appian  way,  near  the  Villa  Martls,  so  that  the 
notion  of  his  djnng  poor  is  very  improbable.  If  -fa'e'cotrid 
be  supposed  to  have  reaped  no  advantages  frdm  the  frieni}*-' 
ship  of  Kcipio  and  Lselius,  yet  his  plays  must  have  brought 
him  in  ^considerable  sums«  He  received  eight  thtiQsand 
sesterces  for  his  '*  Eunuch,'*  which  was  acted  twice  in  one 
day;  a  piece  iff  good  fortune  which  perhaps  never  hap- 
pened to  any!  other  plaj^,  for  plays  with  'the  Ronfaraui  Werts 
never  designed  to  serve  above  two  or  thr^e  times.-  There 
i$  no  doubt  that  he  was  well  paid 'for  the  rest ;  fcfr  it  ap- 
pears from  the  prologtie  to  the  *<  Hecyra,'*  thtt  the  poets 
used  to  be  pind  every  time  their  play  was  acted.  At  this 
pate,  Terence  must  have  made  a  handsome  fortune  before* 
i)e  died,  for  most  of  his  plays  Wereitcted  more  than  once  in 
Sis^ife^itme.  * 


•.'.  '        •  •-•'    .. 


4 


T  E  R  E  N  T  I  U  &  229 

"  It  xirould  Ims  endless  to  mention  the  testimonies  of  thd^ 
ancients  in  his  favour^  or  the  high  commendations  bestowed 
upon  him  hj  modern  commentators  and  critics.  Menander 
was  his  model,  and  from  him  he  borrowed  many  of  his  ma* 
terials.  He  was  not  content  with  a  servile  imitation  of 
Menander,  but  always  consuhed  his  own  genius,  and  made 
such  alterations  as  seemed  to  him  expedient.  His  enemies 
bUined  bi^  conduct  in  this;  but  in  the  prologue  to  the 
^'  Andria,"  be  pleads  guilty  to  the  charge,  and  justifies 
ti^hat  he  had  done  by  very  sufficient  reasons.  The  come* 
dies  of  Terence  were  in  great  repute  an^ong  the  Romans ; 
ihough  Plautus,  having  more  wit,  more  action,  and  more 
vigour,  was  sometimes  more  popular  upon  the  stage.  Te* 
pence's  chief  excellence  consists  in  these  three  points, 
beauty  of  characters,  politeness  of  dialogue,  and  regularity 
of  scene.  His  characters  are  natural,^  exact,  and  finished 
to  'the  last  degree  ;  and  no  writer,  perhaps,  ever  came  up 
to  him  for  propriety  and  decorum  in  this  respect.  .If  he 
bad  laid  the  scene  at  Rome,  and  made  his  characters  Ro* 
man,  instead  of  Grecian;  or  if  there  had' been  a  greater 
variety  in  the  general  cast  of  his  characters,  the  want  of 
both-  which  things  have  been  objected  to  him ;  his  plays 
might  have  been  more  agreeable,  might  have  more  affected 
those  for  whose  entertainment  they  were  written ;  yet  in 
what  he  attempted  be  has  been  perfectly  successful.  Tbe 
elegance  of  his  dialogue,  and  the  purity  of  his  diction,  are 
acknowledged  by  all :  by  Caesar,  Cicero,  Paterculus,  and 
Q.uintilian,  among  tbe  ancients;  and  by  all  tbe  moderns. 
If  Terence  could  not  attain  all  the  wit  and, humour  of 
Menander,  yet,  he  fairly  equalled  himii^  chasteness  and 
correctness  of  style. 

The  moderns  have  been  no  less  united  in  their  praise  of 
the  style  of  Terence.  Erasmus  says,  that  "  the  purity,  of 
the  Roman  language  cannot  be  learned  frpm  any  ancient 
author  sq  well  as  from  Terence;  and  many  have, given,  it 
as  their  opinion,  that  the  Latin  tongue  cannot.be  lost  while 
the  comedies  of  Terence  remain.  This  Roman,  urbanity 
and  purity  of  diction  shews  Terence  to  hare  been  made  a 
slave  very  young,  and  his  education  to  have  been  wholly 
Roman,  since  otherwise  bis  style  could  never  have  been  so 
Jree  from  tbe  tincture  of  his  African  origin*  Regularity 
of  scene,  or  proper  disposition  and  conduct  of  the  dramsk, 
is  a  third  excellence  of  Terence.  His  scene,  as  Conjgreve^ 
who  calls  him  the  correctest  writer  in  the  world,  has  well 


230  T  E  R  E  WT  ru  s; 

observedy:a1wny8  proceeds  in  a  regular  contiddion^  tb% 
persons  going  off  and  on  for  visible  reasons,  and  to  carry^ 
on  the  action  of  the  pia^f,  and,  upon  the  whole,  the  faults 
and  imperfections  are  so  few,  that  they  scarcely  deserve  ta 
be  mentioned.  Scaliger  said,  there  were  not  three  in  the  \ 
whole  six  plays :  and  the  comica  visj  which  ^Cssar  wiMiea 
for  bim,  would  probably  have  suited  our  taste  less  than^ 
his  pcesent  delicate  humour  and  wit.  Madam  Dacier  baa 
observed,  that  ^*  it  would  be  difficult  to  determine  whi^hr 
of  nis  six  plays  deserves  the  preference,  since  they  hav^ 
each  of  them  their  peculiar  excellencies.  The  **  Andrta**^ 
and  "Adelphi,"  says  she,  "appear  to  excel  in  cbafacliers'' 
and  manners;  the  "Eunuch*'  and  '♦Phofmio,'*  In  vigtr* 
rous  action  and  lively  intrigue ;  the  "  Heautontimortrme- 
nos'*  and  "  Hecyra/*  id  sentiment,  passion,  and  tfimplieity. 
of  style.'*  ^ 

The  best  editions  of  Terence  are,  the  Elzevir,  16S^, 
12.no;  that  "  cum  integris  notis  Donati,  et  selectis  vari- 
orutn,   1686,"  8vo;  thatof  Westefhoviutf,  in  two'vt>lume8, 
quarto,   1726;  and  of  "  Bentley,*'    thci  skihe  year^  4to; 
the  immaculate  Edinburgh  editioh  of  175&;'  l^md,  aud  the 
edition  of  Zeunius,  in  two  volumes^  Leipsld,-  1774,  Bv6^' 
with  very  copious  hotefe  and  index.     Madatki  !>acier'ha^ 
given  a  most  beautiful  French  version  of  this  author ;  vxiK 
in  English  we  have  a  translation  in  blank-verse,  by  €l6lman,   * 
which  is  justly  esteerted. *  '  ■'    *  '       .    x       ^» 

TERKASSON  (Andrew),  the  first  o^a  literary  iairiily* 
of  considerable  note  in  France,  was  th^  eldest  bf  tlte^  four' 
sons  of  Peter  Terrasson,  a  lawyer  of  LybRs;  s^ndf  became  it' 
priest  of  the  oratory,  preacher  totheking^  and  aJFtefr ward*  ^ 
preacher  to  the  court  of  Lorraiu;     His  pulpit  servfces  wei^-' 
much  applauded,  and  attended  by  the  nlost  crowded  coiw- 
gregationis;  ' "His  eicertions  during  Lent  in  the  metropolitan* 
church  Mt  ?aris  threw  him  itito  an  iUness  of  which  he  died- 
April  25,   1723.     His  "  Sermons"   were-printed  ina^Sfe, 
4  vftls.'l 2*0^0/ 'and  reprinted  in  1736/*^    l 

TEHliASiJON  (John),  brother  to  the  preceding,  was ' 
born  at  Lj/btife  in  1670,  and  educated  at  the  house  of  the' 
oratory  at  Pdris,  which  he  quitted  very  soon.     He  after* 
wairds  ehtoretl  into  it  again,  and  then  left  it  finally,  a  proof 
oPTinsteadiness,\at  which  his  father  wa»  so  angry,  having 


t  't     .  ^   ..  •  / 


1  Crnsius's  Lives  of  ttie  Roman  Poets.— Vosstut.— Fabric.  Bibl.  Lal.-^Saxii 
Oaoaiast.     •  .  ^  0ict.  Hilt.    < 


T  E  R  R  A  S  S  O  N,  «l 

ne^oWed  ()Q>reed  up  all  his  sons  to  the  church,  that  he  re* 
dMced  bisa  by  bis  will  to  a  very  moderate  iucome ;  whichj 
hQw<;yery  Joba  bore  without  complaining.      He.  went  to 
Paris,  .and  obtaix>ed  the  apquaintance  of  the  abbiS  Bignon, 
who  became  hij»  projector  and  patron,  and  procured  him  a. 
plac«  in  the  academy  of  sciences  in  1707.     In  1721,  be 
Wias.  elected  d  processor  in  the  college  royal.     W^en  the. 
disputes  about  Hi^mer  between  LaMotteand  madam  Da-^. 
cier  were  at  tbeir  height,  he  thought  proper  to  enter  the 
lists,  a;id  wrote  ^'  Upe  Dissertation  contre  Flliade,^^  in  2 
"^s^  19mOy. which  did  yery  little*  credit  to  his  taste  or 
judgment.     He  bad,  however,  better  success  in  his  /^  Se- 
thos/*  which,  as  a  learned  and  philosophical  romance,  has 
considerable  merit.     It  has  been  translated  into  English, 
Another  work  of  Terrassoo  is  **  A  French  Traoslation  of, 
Piodorus  Siculus,  with  a  preface  and  notes,''  which  lias 
been  much  commended. 

.He  died  SepI;.  15,  1750,  with  the  iieputation  of  having, 
been  one  of  the  best  practical  philosophers  of  his  age.  Ac- 
cording to  D'Alembert,  in  bis  ^^  History  of  the  Members 
of  the  French  Academy,"  he  was  absent,  simple,  totaljjr. 
ignorant  of  the  worlds  with  much  learning,  and  original, 
wit  .and  humour.     He  suddenly  became  very  rich,  by  the 
Mississ^ppi-scheito^,  in  favour  of  which  he  wrote  a  pamphlet 
of  ^^  lleilejKions ;"  but  was  neither  affected  by  bis  sudden 
riches,  nor  by  the  sudden  ruin  which  followed.     He  said 
be,  bad  now  got  tid  of  many  difficulties  in  which  wealth  had 
ii^volved  him,,  and,  lie;  should  enjoy  the  comfort  and  con^, 
venience  of,  living  on  a  little.    At  the  latter  end  of  his  life 
he  totally  lost  his  memory,  and  when  any  question  was  asked . 
him,  ha^saida.  '^  Inquire  of  Mrs.  Luquet,  my  housekeeper;'^  - 
and  eveii  jwb^n-the, priest,  who  confessed  him  in  bis  last.- 
illness,  interiro^^d  him  concerning  the  sins  which  he  had* 
cfimmitted,,  be  pould  get  no  other  answer  from,  him  than 
«  A^k  Mrs.  Lnquet.V » 

TERRA SSON  (Gash'arb),  brojther  of  the  two  preceding,, 
waa.bor^  October  .5,  16.80^.  at  Lyons.  At  the  age  of  eight- 
een, he  was^ent  by  his  father  to  the  bouse  of  the  oratoiy .; 
at  PariS]^  where  be  immediately  devoted  himself  tei  the  stu^y 
of  scripture  and- the  fatbem,  and  taiiffbt  afterwardit  in  dif-.. 
ferent  houses  of  bis  oi^fier,  cbie0y  at  Troyes,  where  he  spo^ce . 
a  funeral  oration  for  the  dauphin,  son  of  Louis  XIV.  in  the 

iDict.  Btft. 


a«  T  E  R  R  A  S  S  O  N. 

FrftttGiscan  church.  ,  Notwithstanding  fcb^  toQc^as  wfaich- 
attended.  this  hrst  essay  of  his  talents  for  the  pulp|it^  he  did 
not  continue  to  preach,  but  only  delivered  exhortations  in  tiie 
seminaries  fiut  after  his  brother's  deaths  heiAg  solicited 
to  biipply  several  j.ulpits  where  the  deceased  had  engaged 
himself,  be  soon  acquired  a  degree  of  reputation  superior 
to  that  which  Andrew  Terrasson  bad  enjoyed,  l)e  preached 
at  Paris  during  6ve  years,  and,  among  other  ocpasipi>^»  a: 
whole  Lent  in  tbe  metropolitan  church,  to  a  very  num^rouji 
congregation.  •  Various  circumstances^  particularly  hia^t* 
tacbnient  to  the  Jansenists,  obliged  him  afterwards  to  quit 
both  the  congregation  of  the  oratory  and  the  pulpit  at  thf 
same  time ;  but  M.  de  Caylus,  bishop  of  Auxerre^  mad^ 
him  curate  of  Treigny  in  1735.  Persecution,  however,  stilli 
following  him,  he  was  sent  to  the  Bastille,  which  he  quitted 
ill  1744,  to  be  confined  with  the  Minimes  at  Argent^uik 
At  length,  when  his  weakened  faculties  ipade  him  con^i* 
^ered  as  usi^less  to  bis  party,  be  was  set  at  liberty,  and 
died  at  Paris  in  tbe  bosoin  of  his  family,  Jan*  2,  1752, 
leaving  ^^Sermons^'*  4  vols.  12mo,  and  an  anoriympu^bo^itk 
entitled,  *'  Lettres  ftnr  la  Justice  Chr^tiennep*'  which  has 
been  censured  by  the  Sorbonne. ' 

TERRAB80N  (Matthew),  an.  eminent  advptcate  to  the 
parliament  of  Paris,  was  born  August  13.,  1669,  and  i^ras 
related  to  the  same  family  as  the  preceding,  H^  was  adt 
mitted  advocate  at  Parts  in  1691,  where  his  merit  and 
abilities  soon  proeared  him  many  clients,  and  having  made 
the  written  law  hh  peculiar  study,  he  be^amc^  is  it  were, 
the  oracle  of  the  Lyonnois,  and  all  the  provinces  wlier0 
tbe  law  is  fotfdwed.  He  assisted  in  th^  ><  Journal  de  8a* 
vans'*  during  five  years^  and  was  several  years  ceaaori- 
royal  of  books  of  law  and  literature.  -  He  diedvSe^ceinbef 
30,  1734,  at  Paris,  aged  sixty-six.  He  left  a  collection  ^ 
his  own  discourses,  pleadings,  memoirs,  and  consultation^ 
under  the  title  of  <^  CEuvres  de  Matthieu  Terrasson,''  &q. 
4to.  This  collection,  which  v(rasf  much  .'valued,  w^  pub,« 
lished  by  his  only  son>  Anthony  Ti^rrisson,'  advocate  ^  th^ 
parliament  of  Paris,  and  author  ^f  ^'L'HIstolre  de  la  W 
risprudence  Romatne/'  pritoied  at  Paris>  1750,  fol  ^  There 
i»  an  edition  of  the  wark^  of  Henrys  in  4  vols.  ffil.  with 
notes  by  Maubew  Terrabsou)   priut^d  by  Br«toe»iief  til 


t  > 


t  Diet.  UfU      .,,,,.,,     ;  »  JXf-t.  J^iit^Morerl. 


T  E  R  t  R  E.  in 

TChTHE  i(FftAKcis  JOACltiM  Duport  liu),  a  French 
irriter  of  more  industry  than  genius^  was  born  at  St.  Malo's, 
ih  1715;  He  entered  for  a  time  into  the  society  of  the 
Jesuits,  where  he  tanght  the  learned  languages.  Return- 
ing into  the  world^  he  was  employed  with  Messrs!  Freron 
and  de  la  Pdrte,  in  some  periodical  publications.  He  was 
also  a  member  of  the  literary  and  military  society  of  Be-^ 
mn^on,  and  of  the  academy  at  Angers.  He  died  April  17, 
I75d,  at  the  age  of  forty-four.  Besides  his  periodical 
writings,  he  made  himself  known  by  several  publications: 
f.  "  An  Abridgment  of  the  History  of  England,**  3  vols. 
t2mo,  which  has  the  advantages  of  a  chronological  abridg- 
ment, without  its  dryness.  The  narration  is  faithful,  sim- 
ple, and  clear ;  the  style  rather  cold,  but  in  general,  pure, 
amd  of  a  good  taste;  and  the  portraits  dra\vn  with  accu- 
rtlty  t  yet  the  abridgment  of  the  abb6  Millot  is  generally 
[Preferred,  as  containing  more  original  matter.  '2.  "  His- 
tbire  des  Conjurations  et  des  Conspirations  celebres,^*  l6 
volis.  l^mtr;  an  unequal  compilation,  but  containing  some 
ifiterestihg  matters.  S,  The  two  last  volumes  of  the  **  Bifai- 
libthec)ue  amusanre.*'  4.  **  L* Almanach  des  Beaut-Arts,** 
afterwards  known  by  the  thle  of  *«  La  France  liieraire.** 
He  pubtfsheda  very  itnperfect  sketch  of  it  in  1752;  but 
ithafs  since  been  extended  to  several  vols.  8vo.'  5.  **Me- 
ift^ireii  du  Marquis  db  Choupes,**  1753,  1 2mo.  He  had 
al!to  a  hand'  In  the  "  History  of  Spain,'*  published  by  M. 
Desoriiiailic. 

*  His  son  MARG^tyfiRitE-Louis-FttANdis  Dijport.  Duter- 
TRB,  "Was  one  of  the  moderate  revolutionists  in  1789,  and 
strflTei^d  under  the  guillotine  in  1793^  when  moderation 
became  a  crime.* 

TERTREtJorii^  Racist  r>u),  a  French  Ddmirtican,  wais 
born  at  Calais  ih  Id  10.  Re  quitted  his  studies  to  go  intd 
the  ttinfy  and  visited  the  various  countries  in  a  Dutch  sbi[5, 
but  returning  to  France  entered  the  Domintttin  order  at 
Parb  in  1«3S.  Five  years  after  this  he  was^iint'  as  a  miS-r 
aionary  to  the  America^  islands,  where  he  laboured  zea- 
iohsly^  but  returned  to  his  native  country  in  1658,  and 
died  at  Paris  1(587,  having  first  revised  his  general  his^ 
tory  of  the  islands  of  St.  Christopher,  &c.  and  published 
it  mncb  more  complete  under  the  title  of  **  Histoire  g6- 
ni^rale  des  Antilles  habitues    par    les    Francois/^  1667, 

*'  Diet.  Pitt.— Biog.  Kloif.  in  Du?oiif . 


S34  T  E  R  T  U  D  L  i  A.N. 

167  i,  4  t?ok»  4tv  It  motk  ivbicb  was  loog  cootidered  m  of 
auchoricy. '  .        .  )  f 

TERTULLIAN   (dviKTUS  Septimaw  Fl.OiiftN8),    th^ 
fir»t  Latin  writer  of  ihe  primilive  church  whos^.writiogt 
are  comedown  to.us^  was.  an  Africaiii  and  born  at  Car'*:- 
thage  in  the  seoond  oenturj.    His  father  was. a  oenutrien  in 
the  .troops  which  served  und^r  the  proconsul  of  Africa^ 
TertuUian  was  at  first  an  heathen,  and  aiinan#  as  be  hini<» 
self  owns  in  various  parts  of  hia  work%  of  loose  maaaers; 
but  afterwards  embraced  the  Christian  religion,,  tlioagbu^ 
is  not  known  when,  or  upon  what  occasion>  *  He  flour^eil 
chiefty  utider  the  reigns  of  the  emperor  Severua  and  Canii- 
callai  from  about  the  year  194  to  216;  aodiC;  u.probaUetbaa' 
h^  lived  several  yeari^  since  Jerome  iiientions.a're|^ont^ffail»< . 
having  attained  to  a  decrepit  old  age./.  There  tStnb|iasi^« 
sage  in  his  writings  whence  it  can  be  cono}u^ed.lhat>b#. 
was  a  priest;  but  Jerome  affirms  it  so  positiveljr^<.tbat  ib 
cannot  be  doubted.    He  had  great  abilities  and  lenroio^ 
which  he  employed  vigoroasiy  ia  the  cause  of. Ohristiamay^v 
and  against  heathens  and  heretics;  but  .towailds  .th«r.Mter 
part  of  his. life  tquiued  the  cborch  to  follow  the .JMbantanisis^' 
which  is  the  reasou  why  bis  name  has  not  ifaeen  ;tfaiiSmiited.. 
to  us  with  the  title  of  saints    The  caiiae^of  bia«eparalMui: 
is  not.  certainly  Known.    Baronius  has  altcibaied  it  to  jea«<< 
lottsy,  because  Victor  was  preferred  befeore  bias -to  nhe  isee 
of  Rome;  Pamelius  hkHs  at  bis  disappoioftment,; beoause 
be  could  not  get  the  bishopric  of  Carthage ;.  aaid  JeuN>oM) 
says,  that  the  envy  which  the  Bomad  desgyhomhiaSr'Md 
the  outrageous  manner  with .  which  they  treatetd  bitn,<eRH^ 
asperated  him  against  lihe.  church,  and  proYoked.bioi.  tar 
quit  it.    What  perhaps  had  as  much  weight  aS  any  c^itheadi. 
reasons  was  the  extraordinary  austerily^whiob^tfieseetiof 
Montanus  affected^  which  suited  bis  oionaaticttimofm^aflL: 
Whatever  the  caose^  he  not  only  joined  them,  hut  wrote  in* 
tl^ir  defence,  and' treated  the  church  from  which  he  de«> 
parted,  with  unbecoming  contempt*. .  ErMr,  however^  says ' 
a  modero  ecclesiastical  historian^  is  very  inoonstaot;  for< 
TertuUian  afterwards  left  the  Montanis^  or  nearly^  so,  and  i 
formed  a  ^ect  of  his  own,  called  Tertulliaoisia,  whocoo^^ 
tinned  in  Africa  till  Augustine^s  time,  by  wfaosei  laboun j 
tbeir  existence^  as  a  distinct  body^  «a^  brooght.^o  a.  close. 
The  character  of  Terlullian  is  very  strongly  delittie^ted  by^^ 

■  OjC^  Hist.— Biog,  ViMF>  in  DuTitnTWt 


TEH  T  O  L  r  IAN.  235 

liioi^ff  ia  bfe  dvm  ^firings;  if  there 4)ad*be6ric»nf  thFng 
peculiarly  Christian,  which  he  bad  learned  from  the  Mon-^ 
latiiists,  his  works  cdast  httve  shown  it ;  but  the  only  change 
dilcoverabie  is,  that^he  increased  in  his  austerities.  He  ap« 
pears  to  have  been  married,  and  lived  ail  his  hfe,  without 
separating^  rfrcgn  bis  wife  upon  bis  coonnenciHg  priest^  if^ 
indeed,  he  did  not  marry  her  after.  The  time  of  hia  death 
i8:no  vd)er#  mentioned. 

^  JVf  any  hiitorians  have  spoken  highly  of  the  abilities  and 
learning  of  this  father,  particularly  Eusebius,  who  says  that 
b&was  one  df  the  ablest  Latin  writers,  and  particularly  in<> 
sitta  4lpon  bis  being  thoroughly  conversant  in  the  Roman 
laiws  ;'^  which  may  incline  us  to  think  that^  like  his  scholar, 
Cyprian,  be^as  bred  to  the  bar.  Cyprtan  used  every  day 
thread  part  €^  his  works,  and;  when  he  called  for  the  book^ 
sard,  ^Gi^e  me  my  master,*'  as  Jerome  r^^lates.  Lacta^ntina 
allows  him  ta  have  been  skilled  in  all  ktnds  of  learnings  yet 
censur0»hima»an  harsh,  inelegant,  and  abstruse  writer.  Je- 
ranie,iiihisOatalogueof  ecclesiastical  writers><:aHBhimaiiiait 
oi^qnitk  aftd^sbarp  wit  -,  and  says,  in  his  epistle  ta  Magnos^ 
time  noautihbrhad  more  learning  and  subtlety ;  but  in  other 
pdacei  fa0 Tepi^eUetids  his  errors  and  defects;  and,  in  bis^ 
apoldgy  against  Knffinus^  ^'commends  bis  witv  bat-  oon- 
dtmins/  bis^iyere^iiei."  Vicentius  Lirinensis  givesi  this  cha- 
racter'df  him: '^^Tertullian  was,*'  says  he,  ^<  among  the 
LoEtiii^,  what  Odgen  was  among  the  Greeks ;  that  is  to  say, 
the  &%%  a'nd  most  considerable  man  they  bad.  For  who 
ismore  leartfed  than  he  i  who  more  versed  botfa  m  eccle*- 
siasti^al^nSd  pfofane  knowledge?  ^  Has^bO'  not  comprised 
in  his  vast^eapaoiotts  mind  all  the  philosophy  of  the  sages, 
tbe  maxims  of  the.  different  sects,  with  their  histoiries,  and: 
vjbatever  pei^tained  to  tfaon  ?  Did  he  ever  attack  any 
tbtfkg  wbich  he  has  not  almost  always  either  pierced  by  the 
vivacity  of  hi&wit)  or  overthrown  by  tbe  force  and  we^ht 
of  his  reasonings  f  And  who  can  sufHoiently  extd  the 
beiuitiea  of  bis .  discourse,  which  i^  so  w;eil  gjiarded  and: 
linked  together  b^C  a  continual  chain  of  argum^ntsi^tbat  he 
even  forces  the  consent  of  those  whcAn  be  cannot  peisuadei? 
His  words  are  so  many  sentences;  his  aiiswers  almost  so^* 
many  victories."  •      .        .^      .   •     i 

Of  the  moderns,  Malebrancbe  says^  ^''T^t«Uii8^^  was^^ 
man  of  profoand  learning;  but  he  had  more  memoi^ithah'' 
judgment,  greater  penetration  and  extent  of  imagination 
than  of  understsCndihg.     There  is  no  doubt  that  he  was  a 
visionary^  and  had  all  the  qualities  I  have  attributed  to 


iU  T  E  R  T  U  L  L  I  A  N. 

Visionaries.  The  respect  be  had  for  the  Tisions  of  Monta* 
nusy  and  for  his  prophetesses^  is  an  incontestable  proof  of 
the  weakness  of  his  jadgment.  His  fire,  bis  transports,  bis 
enthusiasms  upon  the  most  trifling  subjects,  plainly  indi- 
cate a  distempered  imagination.     What  irregular  motions 

'ire  there  in  his  hyperboles  and  figures  !  How  many 
pompous  and  magnificent  arguments^  that  owe  all  their  • 
force  to  their  sensible  lustre,  and  persuade  many  merely 
by  giddying  and  dazzling  the  mind.*'  He  then  gives  er*  ' 
amples  out  of  his  book  *^  De  Pallio;**  and  concludes  with 
saying,  that  ''if  justness  of  thought,  with  clearness  and  ele-* 
gance  of  expression,  should  always  appear  in  whatever  a 
man  writes,  since  the  end  of  writing  is  to  manifest  the 
truth,  it  is  impossible  to  excuse  this  author ;  who,  by  the 
testimony  of  even  Salmasius,  the  greatest  critic  of  our 
times,  has  laid  out  all  his  endeavours  to  become  obsciare ; 
and  has  succeeded  so  well  in  what  be  aimed  at,  that  this 
commentator  was.  almost  ready  to  swear,  no  man  ever  un<« 
derstood  him  perfectly." 

Balzac  thus  expresses  bis  sentiments  of  Tertullian  in  a 

'  letter  to  his  editor,  Rigaltius  :  ''  I  expect,^'  says  be,  *'  the 
Tertuliian  you  are  publishing,  that  he  may  learn  me  iktU 
patience,  for  which  he  gives  such  admirable  instructions. 
He  is  an  author  to  whom  your  preface  would  have  recon- 
ciled me,  if  I  had  an  aversion  for  him ;  and  if  the  barsh-^ 
ness  of  his  expressions^  and  the  vices  of  bis  age,  had  dis- 
suaded ine  from  reading  him :  but  I  have  had  an'  esteem 
for  him  a  long  time  ;  and  as  bard  and  crabbed  as  be  is, 
yet  he  is  not  at  all  unpleasant  to  me.  I  have  found  itt 
bis  writihgs  that  black  light,  which  is  mentioned  in  one 
of  the  ancient  poets ;  and  1  look  upon  his  obsourlty  with 
tbe  same  pleasure  as  that  of  ebony  which  is  very  bright 
and  neatly  wrought.  This  has  always  been  my  opinion  ; 
for  as  the  beauties  of  Africa  are  no  less  amiable,  though 
they  are  not  like  ours,  and  as  Sophonisba  has  eclipsed 
several  Italian  ladies,  so  the  wits  of  that  country  are  not 
less  pleasing  with  this  foreign  sort  of  eloquence ;  and  i 
shall  prefer  him  to  a  great  many  aflfected  imitators  of  Ci-* 
Cero.  And  though  we  should  grant  to  nice  critics  thatbi^ 
style  is  of  iron,  yet  they  must  likewise  own  to  us,  that 
out  of  this  iron  be  has  forged  most  excellent  weapons: 
that  he  has  defended  the  honour  and  innocence  of  Chris- 
tianity ;  that  he  has  ^uite  routed  the  Valentinians,  and 
^trucK  Marcion  to  the  very  heart."  Ouf  learned  coun- 
ryman,  Dn  Cave,  has  likewise  shewn  himself,  still  more 


T  E  R  T  U  I.  L  I  A  N.  23? 

thaoBalzac^  an  advocate  for  Tertullian^s  style ;  and,  with 
$ubaiission  to  Lactantius,  who  (as  we  have  seen  above)  cen- 
sured it  us  harsh,  inelegant,  and  obscure,  afBrnns,  that  ^^  it 
has  a  certain  majesty  peculiar  to  itself,  a  sublime  aoil 
noble  eloquence  seasoned  abundantly  with  wit  and  satire^ 
which,  at  the  same  time  that  it  exercises  the  sagacity  of 
a  reader,  highly  enteiftains  and  pleases  him."  The  style/ 
however,  of  Tertullian,  is  a  matter  of  less  consequence 
than  those  other  merits  which  give  him  a  rank  among  th^ 
fathers  :  but  in  this  respect  it  seems  difficult  which  of  th^ 
|wo  were  predominant,  his  virtues  or  his  defects.  He  .was 
endued  with  a  great  genius,  but  seemed  deficient  in  point 
of  judgment.  His  piety  was  warm  and  vigorous,  but  at 
the  same  time  melancholy  and  austere,  and  his  credulity 
and  superstition,  learned  as  he  was,  were  such  as  could 
only  have  been  expected  from  the  darkest  ignorance.  Hq 
placed  religion  too  much  in  austere  observances ;  and  in 
this  respect,  the  littleness  of  his  views  appears  conspicuous 
in  the  very  first  tract  in  the  volume  of  his  works,  *^  Da 
Pailio,"  the  purport  of  which  is  to  recommend  a  vutgac 
and  r^istic  kind  of  garment  for  Christians  in  the  place  of 
the  Roman  toga;  but  a  more  remarkable  instance  is  giv^ 
of  bis  absurd  scrupulosity  about  such  trifles,  in  which  ho 
wttrmly  approves  the  conduct  of  a  Christian  soldier  who 
refused  to  wear  a  crowrr  of  laurel  which  bis  commander  had 
given  him  with  the  rest  of  the  regiment,  and  was  punished 
for  bis  disobedience.  Upon  the  whole,  although  bis  woikti 
throw  some  light  on  the  state  of  Christianity  in  bis  time^ 
they  contain  very  little  matter  of  useful  instruction. 

The  principal  editors  of  this  father,  who  have  giveit 
editions  of  his  works  in  one  collected  body,  are  Rhenanus, 
Pameliu9,  and  Rigaltius,  Rhenanus  first  published  them 
at  Basil  in  1521,  from  two  manuscripts  which  he  had  pro* 
eured  from  two  abbeys  in  Germany.  As  this  editor  was 
well  versed  in  all  parts  of  learning,  and  especially  in  eccle- 
siastical antiquity,  so  none  have  laboured  more  success- 
fully than  he  in  the  explication  of  Tertullian  ^  and  RigaU 
tius  has  observed,  with  reason,  that  he  wanted  nothing  to 
hitve*made  his  work  complete, but  more  manuscripts:  and. 
though^  says  Du  Pin,  his  notes  have  been  censured  by  the 
Spanitsh  inquisition,  and  put  at  Rome  into  the  Index  ex-- 
purgaCorius,  yet  tliis  should  not  diminish  the  esteem  we, 
onght  to  have  for  him.  Rhenanus^s  edition  had  beeu 
printed  a  great  number -of  times,  when  Parnfelius  porblished 


S38  T  E  R  T  U  L  L  I  A  N. 

^^rtutlkti  witb  f«ew  comotentaries^  dt  AfHXvlsrp^Mn  lOT^^; 
«od  although  t bis  editor  has  been  blatiWd '  fdr  4%iNS<6^f^ 
40O  o^ach  to  tbihgs  foreign  to  bis  points;  yet  bis  tiote^  ^ 
use&l  and  ieftrned.  His  edition,  as  widt'  ^s'R'beiiahiiF^ 
has  been  printed  often^  in  varioug  {>biees.  'Aft^ri:lkedtef^'tb^ 
learned  Rigaltias  produced  hh  ^ition  in  ;l^^,'>^bich'T» 
£ar  preferable  to  either  of  the  former ;  for;  bavirfjg  sdfn^ 
0)ai3ti<»cripts,  and  other  advantages  which  the  foriMi^r  edUdrs  ^ 
ivantedy  be  has  given  a  inore  correct  text.  He  hi^  ^e 
accompanied  it  with  notes,  in  which  he  has  explaineddif^ 
licak  passages,  cleared  some  ancient  custoifiYS,  a^vd^df^* 
cussed  many  curious  points  of  learning.  The  greatest  d&i 
jection  to  this  editor  has  been  made  by  the  Roman  teath<^ 
Jios,  who  say  that  be  has  occasionally  made  obserration^ 
not  favourable  to  the  presem  practice  of  the  ohorch  :'•  bnt^ 
says  Du  Pin,  *^  whatever  exceptions  tnay  be  niade  ^  hhi 
divinity,  his  remarhs  relating  to  grammar,  orittoi^n),  and  " 
the  explication  of  difficult  passages,  are  e^celleht:-  •  ^M 
new  edition  of  Tertullian  was  begun  at  Halle,  by  ^e^l^,^ 
in  1770,  and  six  parta  published  in  small  Svo^ahd.  thte  ^tne 
was  reprinted  mth  a  view  to  be  continued  by  Ob#rthbr^' fi^ 
17  80-^^1,  ^vofs.  Svo,  but  neither  the  offe  i^r  lfa^4dth>6\^ 
bave  j>een  completed.  Detached  pieciiss  of  ^itylltSrntlS^iff 
been  edited  byvery  learned  critics,  ^alinasilid  b<e^tdiretf 
a. very  vQluminou^  comment  upon  biil^  inMll^  piee^*A^€)e 
PalliD/^  the  best  edition  of  which  is  that  ^  Li^yd'eny^^O^^ 
in  8Vo  ;  but  some  <sq  under- rate  it  a^totbii^Ii  thd^il^'^^nh^ 
cipal  value  is  a  fine  print  of  Salmasim,  plaM4  btp'^Sl^  I96P 
ginning  of  it  His  ^<  ApoIogetiQua,'*-  as  it  lla«  i^^^tf'lGiSt^l^ 
xead,  so  it  has  been  ^be  oftenest  pobKsbod  of  4lt^^l|i^  f&^^ 
tber's  works^  This  apology  for  Cbristta^lliy  ^sitid^it^'^^ 
f^ssofs  was  wricren  abotit  the  year  SOOf  ih  th^  begitffiM^ 
of  the  persecution  under  the  emperor  Sev^ki^.  ^«  {t^  i^  <^6mf> 
luonly  believed  that  he  ^oteit  at  Rome,  atvd  ftddr^ii8<ed^f# 
to  the  senate  :  but  it  is  more  probable  that  i^wftii  ^(itnp^^^^ 
inAfriica,  as,  ihdeed^  be  does  not  address  bimc^f  toUt^ 
senaae^  but  to  the  procomsul  of  Africa,  and  th^  g^^rfi^^i^ 
of  the.pro^iiices*^^  'The  best  edition  of  it  is  that  hyHH^^^ 
camp^  Htiieyded,  1718,  Svo.^  ■    '■''         -^"^s 

TE&I^.  (ihfiTRo)/ jiti  Italian  painter  and^  ^gr«f^^ 
was  b^RBjac  lAsedA  in  li6tl.  It  is  thought^ ttoilti#b^gftA^, 
hi»stodaeaiin;his  n^th^  cityi  but  be  4«^aifpjUti#lit'id  §^€l^ 

1  DopiD.— CaTe.— TillemQflt^^^Mostieim  and  Milaer's  C|i.  Hist» 


T  E  S  T  A»  Q$9 

Bone,  where  he  became  a  diseiple  of  Dominichiao.  He 
was  to  attached  to  the  pursuit  of  bis  profession,  that  while, 
he  was  eopyirig  the  antiques  at  Rome  be  forgot  to  provide 
fpv  his  omi  subsistence.  He  was  relieved  from  great  wreteli- 
edtiess  by  the  compassioo  of  Sandran,  who  recooioiended 
him  effectually  ta  prince  Giustiniani,  aud  other  patrons. 
He  was  uofortunately  drowned  in  the  Tiber,  at  tbe  age  of 
tbirty^nine,  in  1&50,  endeavouring  to  recover  his  faat^  which 
liatd  be^n  biown  into  tbe  river. 

*  The  style  of  Pietro  Testa  as  a  designer,  Mr.  Fuselt  pro* 
noonees  unequal ;  **  he  generally  tacked  to  antique  torsos 
ignoble  heads  and  extremities  copied  from  vulgar  models. 
Of  female  beauty  be  seems  to  have  been  ignorant*  Of  his 
compositions,  generally  perplexed  an4  crowded,  the  best 
known  and  most  correct,  is  that  of  Achilles  draggi^Dg  Hec- 
tor from  the  walls  of  Troy  to  tbe  Grecian  fleet.  He  de*- 
lighted  in  allegoric  subjects,  which  are  mines  of  picturesque 
effects  and  attitudes,  but  in  their  meaning  as  obscure  as 
the  oeeasiens  to-  which  they  allude.  Of  expression '  he 
knew  only  the  extremes,  grimace^  or  loathsomeness  and 
horror  (*  but  tbe  charge  of  having  been  a  bad  colofufist^  ia 
fooadedion  igborances  bis  tone  is  geaid,  faarikionious,  and 
warm^-as  his  pencil  outrrowy  and  dree ;  supported:  by  pow« 
erfu)  imasses.of  ohiaroscuro  and  transparent  shades."  * 

TEXKII^A  (Jk^sph  Peter),  a  learned  Portuguese  Do«. 
ntinioan^  Was>  bern  in  I54S.  He  was  prior  of  the  content 
at.$sptareui  il7^  when  king  Sebastian  undertook  the  Afri*^ 
caoi  .e^xpeditisA  in  wbicb  be  perished.  Cardinal  Henry, 
wi^ipucceeded)  bim>  dying  eoon  after,  Texeira  joined  she 
friends  oliAni^hoi^,  who  had  been  proclaioied  king  by  the 
people,  and. constantly  adhered  to  him.  He  aceompamed 
this  prinee  into  France,  1581,  to  solicit  belp  against  Pbitifir 
n^who  disputed  the  crown  with  bim.  Though  Anthony V 
ildmon^r^  be  'was  honoured  wiih  tiie  title  of  preacher  aud^ 
OQuoseUor  to  Henry  III;  and  after  tbe  d«ath  of- that  ttio« 
n^ircb,  atiaabed  himself  to  Henry  IV;.  with  wkon»  hebe*^ 
oaoie  agreat&Tourite.  He  died  about  1620.  Te3pera%^ 
worki  clearly  discoverhis  hatred  of  the  Spaniards,  fndhts 
aversion  to  Philip  II.  who  took  Portugal  from  prince  An^ 
tbonyt  It  h  asserted^  that  as  he  was  preaching  one. day  ton 
the  love  of  OAir  neighbour,  he  said,  <^  We  are  obliged  to 
love  all  joieo  of  whatever  religion,  sect^  of  nation^  eveu^ 


I  PDkUiftM, 


•^    > 


^40  T  E  X  E  I  R  A. 

.  Castiliani.*'     His  ppliticali  historical,  and  (btelogici^l  vvril- 
ings  ara  very  nuoierous.     ^*  De  PortugaUi»  ortu/*  Pari*, 

I582»4to,70paget|5carce.  Atreati&e ^^OnibeOnBanunV' 
1398,   1 20)0 ;  **  Adventurei  of  Don  Sebastiao/'  8vo•^ 

TKXTOR.     SpeTlXIER. 

I'UALES,  a  celebrated  Gr^k  pbiloaopher^  and  the  fint^ 
of  the  seven  wise  men  of  Greece,  was  born  at  Miletus  aboift 
640  years  B»  C*  After  acquiring  the  usual  learning  of  hi» 
own  country,  he  travelled  into  Egypt  and  several  parts  of 
Asia,  to  learn  asironomy,  geooietry,  mystical  divinity,  na« 
tural  knowledge,  or  philosophy,  &c.  In  Egypt  he  mefe 
for  some  time  great  favour  from  the  king,  Amasis ;  bul  be 
lost  it  again  by  the  freedom  of  bis  remarks  on  the  eonduct 
'  of  kings,  which,  it  is  said^  occasioned  hit  return  to  his  owb 
country,  where  he  communicated  the  knowledge  be  hii4 
acquired  to  many  disciples,  among  the  principal  of.  whpm 
,  were  Anaximander,  Anaximenes,  and  Pythagoras,  and  wm» 
the  author  of  the  Ionian  sect  of  philosophers.  He  always^ 
however,  lived  very  retired,  and  refused  the  proffered  fa^ 
▼ours  of  many  great  men%  He  was  often  visited  by  Solon; 
and  it  is  said  he  took  great  pleasure  in  the  conversatioA  of 
.Thrasybulus,  whose  excellent  wit  made  him  forget  that  he 
was  Tyrant  of  Miletus. 

Laertius,  and  several  other  writers,  agree  that  he  waa 
the  father  of  the  Greek  philosophy  ;  being  the  first  that 
made  any  researches  into  natural  knowledge^- an;|l  mathef 
matics.  His  doctrine  was,  that  water  was  tbf  principle  of 
which  all  the  bodies  in  the  universe  are  composed ;  tbttt 
the  world  was  the  work  of  God ;  and  that  God  sees  th% 
most  secret  thoughts  in  the  heart  of  man.  He  said,  that 
in  order  to  live  well,  we  ought  to  abstain  from  what  we  find 
fault  with  in  others ;  that  bodily  felicity  consists  in  health ; 
and  that  of  th^  mind  in  knowledge.  That  the  moat  ancient 
of  beings  is  God,  because  he  is  uncreated ;  that  nothing  is 
more  beautiful  than  the  world,  because  it  is  the  work  of 
God ;  nothing  more  extensive  than  space,  quicker  than 
spirit,  stronger  than  necessity,  wiser  than  time.  He  used 
to  observe,  that  we  ought  never  to  say  that  to  any  oii# 
which  may  b^  turned  to  ovuc  pr^udioe ;  and  that  we  should 
)ive  with  our  friends  as  with  persons  that  may  become  out 
enemies.  ,    .   •    ; 

•  lu  geometry,  it  has  been  said,  be  was  a  Gonsiderabte 

1  Gea.  Diet.— X:bAuiep^.f«»]liMiMi>  Vii.  V. 


T  H  A  L  E  S.  241 

ttiYentor,  as  virell  as  an  improver;  particularly  in  triatigles. 
'And  all  the  writers  agree  that  he  was  the  first,  even  in 
Egypt,  who  look  the  height  of  the  pyramids  by  the  shadow. 

His  knowledge  and  improvements  in  astronomy  were 
very  considerable.  He  divided  the  celestial  sphere  into 
five  circles  -or  tonesy  the  arctic  and  antarctic  circles,  the 
two  tropical  circles,  and  the  equator.  He  observed  the 
api^arent  diameter  of  the  $iu>9  which  he  made  equal  to  half 
a  degree;  and  formed  the  constellation  of  the  Little  Bear. 
He  observed  the  nature  and  course  of  eclipses,  and  calcu- 
IkXed  them  exactly  ;  one  in  particular,  memorably  recorded 
by  Herodotus,  as  it  happened  on  a  day  of  battle  between 
the  Medes  and  Lydians,  which,  Laertius  says,  he  had  fore^ 
told  to  the  lonians.  And  the  same  author  informs  us  that 
h^  divided  the  year  into  36 i  days.  Plutarch  riot  only  con- 
firms his  general  knowledge  of  eclipses,  but  that  his  doc^ 
trifle  was,  that  an  eclipse  of  the  sun  is  occasioned  by  the 
intervention  of  the  moon,  and  that  an  eclipse  of  the  moon 
is  caofsed'by  the  intervention  of  the  earth. 

fiis  morals  were  as  just  as  his  mathematics  well  grounded, 
and  his  judi^ment  in  civil  affairs  equal  to  either.  He  was 
Very  averse  to  tyranny,  and  esteemed  monarchy  little  better 
in  any  shape. — Diogenes  Laertius  relates,  that  walking  to 
contemplate  the  stars,  he  fell  into  a  ditch  ;^  on  which  a 
go^  old  woman,  that  attended  him,  exclaimed,  ^*  HotV 
canst  thou  know  what  is  doing  in  the  heavens,  when  thou 
seest  hot  what  is  at  thy  feet  ?" — He  went  to  visit  Croesus, 
who- was  marching  a  powerful  army  into  Cappadocia,  and 
enabled  him  to  pass  the  river  Halys  without  making  a 
bridge. '  Thales  died  soon  after,  at  abpve  ninety  years  of 
a^e,  it  is  said,  at  the  Olympic  games,  where,  oppressed 
with  heat,  thirst,  and  a  bad  of  years,-  he,  in  public  view, 
flun^c' intt)  the  afms  of  his  friends. 

Concernin«*hi»  writings,  it  remains  doubtful  whether  he 
left  any  behind  him  ;  at  least  none  have  come  down  to  us. 
Augustine  mentions  some  b(>oks  of  natural  philosophy  ^ 
Simphcins,  ^ome  written  on  nautrc  astrology ;  Laerttusj 
two 'treatises  on  the  tropics  and  equinoxes; -and  Suidasr,  a 
treatise  on  meteor^,  written  in  verse.  * 

THP^MLSTIUS,  an  ancient  Greek  orator  and  philoso*' 
pher,  whose   eloquence   procured   him  the  name  of  Eu* 

'  Diog.  Laertias.—- HqUod^s  Diet.— Fenelon's  Lives  of  the  Philosophers.-*-^ 
Stanley. — Brucker.     %    ^        ..,*.  .  . 

Vol.  XXIX.  R 


M2  T  B  E  MI  S  Tl  U  S.' 

phrades,  was  of  Papblagonia,  and  flourished  in  the  fotliPtil 
century.  His  fiither,  Eugenius,  was  a  man  of  noble  birtb, 
and  educated  bis  son  under  bfs  own  care.  After  teacfahig 
pbilosopbj  twenty  years  at  Constantrioopte,  and  acquir- 
ing a  great  reputation,  he  went  to  Homey  where  the 
emperor  offered  any  cofiditions  if  be  would  fix  himself  ill 
that  city ;  but  he  returned  soon,  and  settled  at  Constan-^ 
tinople,  where  he  married,  and  had  children.  Themistios 
was  a  peripatetic,  and  tells  us  in  one  of  his  orations  that  he 
bad  chosen  Aristotle  for  the  arbiter  of  bis  opinions,  and 
the  guide  of  his  life ;  yet  he  was  not  so  bigotted  to  tbiA 
master,  but  that  he  was  well  versed  in  Plato,  and  was  par- 
ticularly studious  of  the  diction  and  manner  of  this  pbild'^ 
soplier,  as  appears  from  his  works.  He  bad  a  great  opinioii . 
of  the  necessity  of  sacriBcing  to  the  graces ;  and  be  sayA 
in  another  oration,  **  I  often  converse  with  the  divine  Pla^ 
to,  I  live  with  Aristotle,  and  I  am  very  unwiUiAgly  sepa- 
rated from  Homer." 

He  had  great  interest  with  several  succeeding  emperors. 
Constantius  elected  him  into  the  senate  in  the  year  355, 
ordered  a  brazen  statue  to  be  erected  to  him  in  361,  and 
pronounced  bis  philosophy  *^  the  ornament  of  his  reign.** 
Julian  made  him  prefect  of  Constantinople  in  the  year  362^ 
and  wrote  letters  to  him,  some  of  which  are  still  extant^ 
Jovian,  Valens,  Valentinian,  and  Gratian,  shewed  bim  many 
marks  of  esteem  and  affection,  and  beard  him  with  plea^* 
sure  haranguing  upon  the  most  important  subjects.  Valen§ 
in  particular,  who  v^as  inclined  to  favour  the  Arians,  suf-^ 
fered  himself  to  be  diverted  byThemistius  from  per^cuting 
the  orthodox ;  who  represented  to  him  the  little  reason 
there  was  to  be  surprised  at  a  diversity  of  opinions  among 
the  Christians,  when  that  was  nothing  in  comparison  of  the 
differences  among  the  heathens ;  and  that  such  differenceH 
ought  never  to  terminate  in  sanguinary  measures  ;  and  by 
such  arj^uments  be  is  said  to  have  procured  universal  tolera^ 
tion.  Though  himself  a  confirmed  heathen,  he  maintained 
correspondences  and  friendship  with  Christians,  and  par« 
licularly  with  Gregory  of  Nazianzen,  who,  in  a  letter  to 
him,  still  extant,  calls  him  ^*  the  king  of  language  and 
composition.*'  Lastly,  the  emperor  Theodosius  made  him 
again,  prefect  of  Constantinople  in  the  year  534;  and^' 
fidien  be  was  going  into  the  west,  placed  his  son  Area* 
dius  with  him  as  a  pupil.  He  lived  to  a  great  age;  but 
the  precise  time  of  his  death  is  not  recorded.     He  has 


T  H  E  M  1  ST  t  U  ST.  i4% 

I 

BQHiediiies  been  oonfounded  with  another  Themistitis,  who 
was  much  younger  than  he,  a  deacon  of  Alexandria,  and 
the  founder  of  a  sect  aoipng  Christians* 

Morp  than  thirty  orations  of  Themistius  are  still  extant^ 
eight  of  which  were  published  at  Venice  in  1534,  foUo,  but 
the  best  edition  of  the  whole  is  that,  with  a  Latin  version 
by  Petavius,  and  notea  by  father  Hardouin,  at  Paris,  1684, 
in  folio.  He  wrote  also  commentaries  upon  several  parts 
of  Aristotle's  works ;  which  were  published  in  Greek  at 
Venice,  in  1534,  folio;  Latin  versions  were  afterwards 
made  by  Hermolaus  Barbarus,  and  others.* 

THEMI8TO0LES,  the  great  preserver  of  Athens  at 
tbe  Ume  of  the  Persian  invasion,  owed  no  part  of  his  cele* 
brity  or  influence  to  the  accident  of  bia  birth.  He  was  born 
libout  530  B.  C.  his  father  being  Neocles,  an  Athenian  of 
no^illustrious  family,  and  his  mother  an  obscure  woman,  a 
Thracian  by  birth  (according  to  the  best  authorities),  and 
not  of  the  best  character.  His  disposition  was  naturally 
wbement,  yet  prudent ;  and  .Plutarch  says  that  be  was  pro* 
noiunced  very  early  by  his  preceptor,  to  be  a  person  wh6 
would  bring  either  great  gpod  or  great  evil  to  bis  country. 
Some. of  the  ancients  have  »aid  that  be  was  dissolute  in  bit 
youth,  and  for  that  reason  disinherited ;  but  this  is  posi* 
tively  denied  by  Plutarch.  His  ardent  but  honourable  am-* 
bition  was  soon  discovered  ;  and  contributed  to  put  him  on 
bad  terms  with  Aristidies^  and  some  other  leading  men.  He 
pushed  hinn»elf  forward  in  public  business,  and^  seeing  that 
it  was  necessary  for  Athens  to  become  a  maritime  power, 
persuadied  the  people  to  declare  war  against  iEgina,  and 
to  build  an  huiidred  triremes.  In  these  ships  he  es^ercised 
the  peoplOf  and  thus  .gave  them  those  means  of  defence 
and  aggrandizemtent  which  they  afterwards  employed  wikh 
so  much  success.  Yet  it  happened  that  he  bad  no  oppor- 
tunity of  distinguishing  his  military  talents  in  his  youth, 
being  forty  years  ^of  age  at.  the  time  of  the  battle  of  Mara- 
thon; after  whicb  be  was  frequently  heard  to  say  /<  that 
the  trophies  of  MUtiades  disturbed  his  rest."  As^a  judge, 
be  wa^  strict  and  severe ;  in  which  oflSce,  being  asked  by 
Simooides  to  make  some  stretch  of  power  in  his  behalf,  he 
replied,  '*  Neither  would  you  be  a  good  poet  if  you  trans* 
gressed  the  laws  of  numbers,  nor  should  1  be  a  good  judge, 
if  I  should  hold  the  request  of  any  pne  more  sacred  tbaa 

'  Fabticii  Bibl.  Grec— Brucker.-^Saxii  Onoaast. 

a  2  - 


I 


« 


341  TBEMISTOCL  K  S. 

the  laws."  Themistocles  bad  so  much  credit  with  the  peo* 
pie,  as  to  get  bis  rival  Aristides  bauisbed  by  ostracism*  In 
the  Persian  war,  it  was  he  who  first  interpreted  the  wooden 
walls  mentioned  by  the  oracle,  to  mean  the  Athenian  ships : 
by  his  contrivance  the  fleet  of  Xerxes  was  induced  to  figh^ 
in  a  most  disadvantageous  situation  off  Salamis,  where  it 
8u({iered  a  total  defeat.  For  his  whole  conduct  in  this 
action  he  gained  the  highest  honours,  both  at  home  and  in 
Sparta.  This  was  in  480^  ten  years  after  the  battle  of 
Marathqo. 

The  power  of  Themistocles  in  Athens  was  confirmed  for 
a,  time  by  this  great  exploit,  and  be  earnestly  pressed  the 
rebuilding  of  the  city,  and  the  construction  of  new  and' 
more  complete  fortifications.  The  latter  step  gave  alarm 
to  the  jealousy  of  Sparta ;  but  Themistocles,  employing  all 
h^s  prudence  to  deceive  the  Lacedaemonians,  and  even 
going  to  Sparta  in  person  as  an  ambassador,  contrived  to 
gain  so  much  time,  that  the  walls  were  nearly  completed 
before  the  oegociation  was  settled.  Wiih  equal  vigilance, 
patri.otism>  and  sagacity,  he  superintended  the  improve* 
ment;  of  the  Atheniian  port  named  Piraeus.  After  these,- 
and  other  services  to  bis  country,  Themistocles  met  with 
the  return  almost  itivariable  in  democratic  goverotpents, 
ingratitude*  He  was  accused  of  aggrandizing  his  own 
power  and  wealth  in  a  naval  expedition,  was  finally  impli* 
cated  in  the  accusations,  proved  against  Pausaniasin  Sparta, 
and  banished.  He  sought  first  the  patronage  of  Admetus, 
king  of  the  Moloasi,  ,and  afterwards  that  of  the  king  of 
Persia,  by  whom  he  was  magnificently  supported  to  bis 
death,  which  happened  about  465  years  before  our  aera. 
His  bones,  in  pursuance. of  bis  dying  request,  were  carried 
ir>to  Attica,  and  privately  buried  there.  The  blemishes  in 
the  character  and  conduct,  attributed  to  this  great  man, 
cannot,  perhaps,  with  strict  historical  fidelity,  be  com- 
pletely denied;  yet  much  allowance  must  be  made  for  that 
party  spirit,  by  which  political  worth  so  frequently  :suf- 
fered  in  Greece.  In  abilities,  and  in  his  actions,  be  waa 
certainly  one  of  the  greatest  men  whom  that  country  ever 
produced.  "  The  mind  of  Themistocles,'*  says  the  great 
historian  Thucydides,  "  seems  to  have  displayed  the  ut- 
most force  of , human  nature;  for  the  evident  superiority 
of  his  capacity  to  that  of  all  other  men  was  truly  wonderfuL 
His  penetration  was  sucb^  that  from  the  scantiest  informa- 
tion, and  with  the  most  instantaneous  thought,  he  formed 


T  H  E  M  I  S  T  O  C  L  E  S.  24J 

the  most  accurate  jndgment  of  the  past,  and  giaiii16d  thS 
clearest  insight  into  the  future.  He  had  a  discernment 
that  could  develope  the  advantageous  and  the  pernicious 
in  measures  proposed,  however  involv^jd  in  perplexity  and 
obscurity ;  and  he  had,  no  less  remarkably,  the  faculty  of 
explaining  things  clearly  to  others,  than  that  of  judging 
clearly  himself.  Such,  in  short,  were  the  powers  of  his 
genius,  and  the  readiness  of  his  judgment,  that  hd 
was,  beyond  all  nrten,  capable  of  directing  all  things,  ott 
every  occasion."  He  died,  according  to  Plutarch,  in  his 
sixty-fifth  year;  leaving  a  large  progeny,  to  whom  the 
bounty  of  the  Persian  monarch  was  con^ifiued.  Many  of 
them  were,  however,  restored  to  their  country.  It  is  vefry 
commonly  said,  and  Plutarch  favours  the  notion,  that  he 
died  by  poison  voluntarily  taken  :  but  Thucydides  does  not 
seem  to  credit  the  opinion^  but  rather  to  consider  his  death 
as  natural.* 

THEOBALD  (Lewis),  a  miscellaneous  writer  and  cri- 
tic, was  born  at  Sittingbourn  in  Kent,  in  which  place  his 
father  was  ah  eminent  attorney.  His  grammatical  learning 
he  received  at  Isleworth  in  Middlesex,  and  afterwards  ap- 
plied himself  to  the  law;  but,  finding  that  pursuit  tedioUs 
and  irksome,  he  quitted  it  for  the  profession  of  poetry. 
According:  to  the  editors  of  the  "  Biog.  Dramatica,'*  hii 
first  alppearance  in  this  profession  was  not  mudh  to  his 
credit.  One  Henry  Mestayer,  a  watchmaker,  had  written 
a  play,  which  he  submitted  to  the  correction  of  Theobald, 
who  formed  it  into  a  tragedy,  and  procured  it  to  be  acted 
and  printed  as  his  own.  This  compelled  the  watchmaker 
to  publish  his  own  performance  in  1716,  with  a  dedication 
to  Theobald.  The  editors  of  the  Biog.  Dram,  who  appear 
to  have  examined  both  pieces,  observe  that  Theobald, 
althqtigh  unmercifully  ridiculed  by  Pope,  never  appeared 
so  despicable  as  throughout  this  transaction.  "  We  had 
seen  him  before  only  in  the  light  of  a  puny  critic: 

"  But  here  the  fell  attorney  prowls  for  prey." 

Theobald  engaged  in  a  paper  called  "  The  Censor,"  pub- 
lished in  Mist's  "  Weekly  Journal ;"  and,  by  delivering 
bis  opinion  with  too  little  reserve  concerning  some  eminent 
wits,  exposed  himself  to  their  resentment.  Upon  the  pub- 
lication of  Pope's  Homer,  he  praised  it  in  the  most  extra- 
vagant terms ;  but  afterwards  thought  proper  to  retract  his 

»  Mitford's  Greece. -^Plutarch.— Thucydides. 


S4«  THEOBALD. 

opinion,  and  mbnsed  the  very  performance  he  had  before. 
afTected  to  admire.  Pope  at  first  made  Theobald  the  heror 
of  his  **  Dunciad  ;*'  but  afterwards  thought  proper  to  dis* 
robe  him  of  that  dignity,  and  bestow  it  upon  another.  In 
1726,  Theobald  published  a  piece  in  Svo,  called  '*  Shake* 
ap^ar  Restored  :*'  of  thi»,  it  is  said,  he  was  so  v6tn  as  to' 
aver,  in  one  of  Mist^s  "Journals,'*  "that  to  expose  any' 
errors  in  it  was  impracticable  ;*'  and,  in  another,  '^  thaJr 
whatever  care  might  for  the  future  be  taken,  either  by^ 
Mr.  Pope,  or  any  other  assistants,  he  would  give  above  five 
bundi'ed  emendations,  that  would  escape  them  all."  Pur-^ 
ing  two  whole  years,  while  Pope  was  preparing  his  editicVh, 
he  published  advertisements,  requesting  assistanee,  and 
promising  satisfaction  to  any  who  would  contribute  to  its 
greater  perfection.  But  this  restorer.  Who  was  at  thai  time 
soliciting  favours  of  him  by  letters,  wholly  concealed  that 
be  had  any  such  design  till  iafter  its  publication  ;  whidh  he 
owned  in  the  •'  Daily  Journal  of  Nov.  26,  1728.*'  Theo- 
bald was  not*  only  thus  obnoxious  to  the  resentment  of 
Pope,  but  we  find  him  waging  war  with  Mr.  Dennis,  who 
treated  him  with  more  roughness,  though  with  less  satire. 
Theobald,  in  "The  Censor,'*  N*  33,  calls  Dennis  by  the 
iiame  of  Furius.  Dennis,  to  resent  this,  in  his  remarks- on, 
Pope*a  Homer,  thus  mentions  him  :  "There k  a  notorious 
idiot,  one  Bight  Whacum ;  who,  from  an  under-spur-lea«* 
tber  to  the  law,  is  become  an  understrapper  to  th^  play-^ 
bouse,  who  has  lately  burlesqued  the  Metamorphoses  of: 
Ovid,  by  a  vile  translation,  &c.  -This  fellow  is  concenfied 
in  an  impertinent  paper  called  the  Censor.'*  Such  wdsT 
the  langusige  of  Dennis,  when  inflamed  by  contradiction.  '^ 
In  1720,  Theobald  introduced  upon  the  8t%e  a  tragedy 
called  "  The  Double  Falshood  ;*'  the  greatest  part  of  which- 
be  asserted  was  Shakspeare's.  Pope  insinuated  to  the 
town,  that  it  was  all,  or  certainly  the  greatest  part,  Mrritten, 
not  by  Shakspeare,  but  Theobald  himself;  and  quotes  thia 
line, 

*'  None  but  thyself  can  be  thy  parallel  5" 

which  he  calls  a  marvellous  line  of  Theobald,  .'^  unless,^* 
says  he,  "the  play,  called  *The  Double  Falshood,^  be  (as. 
he  would  have  it  thought)  Shakspeare's  $  but,  whether  this 
is  his  or  not,  he  proves  Shakspeare  to  have  written  as  bad.** 
The  arguments  which  Theobald  uses  to  prove  the  play  to 
be  Sbakspeare's^  are  indeed^  far  from  satisfactory,  and  it 


f 


TH  E  O  B  A  L  D*  8*^ 

^W8ft  aftetwardgi  Dr»  Farmer's  opinion  that  it  jvas  Shi^rliey's,. 
li  WAS)  however,  Ttndtcated  by  Theobald,  who  was  attacked 
agaiin  in  *<  The  Art  of  Sinking  in  Poetry.'*  Tbeobald  en^ 
diaavoured  to  prove  false  criticisins,  want  of  uoderstandixig. 
Sbakspeare's  manner)  ahd  perverse  cavilling  in  Pope:  JiQ 
justified  himself  and  the  great  dramatic  poet,  and  attempted, 
t^  prove  the  tragedy  in  question  to  be  in  reality  <Shak^T 
speare's,  aad  apt  i^nvrorthy  of  him*  Tbeobald,  besides  bi$* 
cijcUtion  of  Shakspeace's  plays,  in  which  he  collated  tbe,an<»; 
cient  copies,  and  corrected  with  great  pains  ai^d  iogenuit]^ 
many  faults,  was  ih^  author  of  several  dramatic  pieces.  Nqtf 
less  than,  twenty,  printed  or  acted,  are  ^i^umeratedio.tber- 
'*  Biogratpbia  Dramatica."  He  was.  also  concerned,  in  vari^f 
ou^  translations,  and  at  his  death  in  Sept.  \1^^\^  had  m^di^ 
some  progress  in  an  edition  of  Beaumont  and  f  l<^tcher. ;  ..^ 

•  As  the  name  is  not  very  common,  it  may  b^  necessary  tpl 
mention  a  later  writer,  a  John  Theobald,  who  hafl  tb^  ^e^ff 
gree  of  a  doctpr  of  physic,  but  doe$  not  appe^i;(tQ  ba^ 
been  of.  the  London  college  of  physicians*  ,  Ue  publisbedj 
a  little  volume  of  poetry  in  1753,  called;  "^MiisaPanegy'*^ 
rica,?'  and  died  May  17,  1760.  Ampngatmany  ptjier  p^^i^y^ 
formamcesy  be  produced  a  translation  of  Merope,  trsinalat^^ 
ffomVoUiMre^   1744,  Svo.V  -^  :  ,t 

.    THECMIIRITUS,  an  ancient  Greek  p9el:,  wa9^  a  Si^ilian^ 
and  born  at  Igyracuse,  the  son  of  Praxagoi^  and>Pbilina,f 
He  is  said  to>bave  been  the  scholar  of  Pbiletas,.  aad^  Asclet^ 
piades,  .or  SiCjeUdas :  Philetas  was  an  elegiac  po/^t,  of  tb^ 
illand^of  Cos,  bad  the  honour  to  be  preceptor  tp  Ptotep9y> 
£biladelphus,  and  is>  celebrated  by  QvJd  and.Pxopertius,^^ 
^iceiidas  wasaSamian,  a  writer  of  epigrams^:  Theocrituf^ 
Ojientionsbptjlft  these  with  honour  in  his  seveirthldy Ilium. 
As  to  the  age  in  which  be  fionri^hedj  it  seems  indisputably^ 
to  be  ascertained  by  two  Idylliutas  that  remain  :  w^  is,ad^« 
dressed  to  Hiero^Jcing  of  Syracuse^  and  the  other  tp  Ptpl/e-* 
my  Philadelphus,    the  Egyptian,  mqnikrch.     Hierp-  t^ega^H 
his  reign,  as  Casaubon  asserts  in  his  observations  on  Poly**; 
hius,  in  the  second  year. of  the- 126th  olympiad,  or  about 
275  years  before  Christ;  and  Ptolemy  in  the  fourth  year 
of  the  \%%A  olympiad.    Though  the  exploits  of  >Hiero  aria 
redorded  greatly  to  his  advantage  by  Poly  bins,  in  tbe  .first- 
bpdk  Pf  bis  history  ;  though  he  had  many  virtues,  had  fre«-l 

■7''  >  •  .  '        •        ,        « 

>  Cil).b«r'ft  LiTes.<^Biog*  Dram.-— D'IfiraeU'»  Quarrels^  toI..  I,— Bowles's  edi«^ 
tipo  <||fPope.^ Johnson's  Works.  \ 


MS  THEOCRITUS. 

> 

qnently  sig'nalized  bis  courage  and  conduct,  and  distki-* 
g.uished  himself  by  several  achievements  in  war;  yet  he 
seems,  at  least  in  the  early  part  of  his  reign,  to  have  ex- 
pressed no  great  affection  tor  learning  or  men  of  letters  c 
and  tb!S  is  supposed  to  have  given  occasion  to  the  16ih 
IJyUi'un,  inscribed  with  the  name  ot  Hiero;  where  rhe 
poet  asserts  the  dignity  of  his  profession,  complains  that  it 
met  witti  neither  favour  nor  protection,  and  in  a  very  artful 
manner  touches  upon  some  of  the  virtues  of  this  prince, 
and  insinuates  what  an  illustrious  figure  be  would  have 
made  in  poetry,  had  he  been  as  noble  a  patron,  as  be  was 
an  argument  for  the  Muses. 

His  not  meeting  with  the  encouragement  be  expected  in 
his  own  country,  was  in  all  probability  the  reason  that  in* 
duced  Theocritus  to  leave  Syracuse  for  the  more  friendly 
climate  of  Alexandria,  where  Ptolemy  Philadelphus  then 
reigned  in  unrivalled  splendour,  the  great  encourager  of 
arts  and  sciences,  and  the  patron  of  learned  men.  In  his 
voyage  to  Egypt  he  touched  at  Cos,  an  island  in  the  Ar-< 
chipelago  not,  far  from  Rhodes,  where  he  was  honourably 
entertained  by  Pbrasidamus  and  Antigenes,  who  invited 
him  into  the  country  to  celebrate  the  festival  of  Ceres,  as 
appears  by  the  seventh  Idyllium.  There  is  every  reason 
to  imagine  that  he  met  with  a  more  favourable  reception  at 
Alexandria,  than  be  had  experienced  at  Syracuse,  from 
bia  encomium  on  Ptolemy,  contained  in  the  17th  Idyllium; 
where  he  rises  above  his  pastoral  style,  and  shows^  that  be 
could  upon  occasion  (as  Virrgil  did  afterwards)  exalt  bis 
Sicilian  JMuse  to  a  subtimer  strain,  paulo^majora :  he  de- 
rives the  race  of  Ptolemy  from  Hercules,  he  enumerates 
bis  many  cities,  be  describes  his  great  power  and  immense 
riches,  but  above  all  be  commemorates  his  royal  munifi- 
cence to  the  sons  of  the  Muses.  Towards  the  conclusion 
of  the  14th  Idyllium,  there  is  a  short,  but  very  noble  pane- 
gyric on  .  Ptolemy :  in  the  1 5th  Idyllium  he  celebrates 
Berenice,  the  mother,  and  Arsinoe,  the  wife  of  Ptolemy. 
Little  else  of  this  poet^s  life  can  be  gathered  from  his 
works,  except  his  friendship  with  Aratus,  the  famous  au- 
thor of  the  *^  Phsenomena ;"  to  whom  he  addresses  his 
sixth  Idyllium,  and  whose  amours  be  describies  in  the 
seventh.  It  is  mentioned  by  all  bis  biographers,  that  be 
suffered  s^n  ignominious  death,  and  they  derive  their  in- 
formation from  a  distich  of  Ovid  in  his  Ibis. 

-    Utque  Syracosio  praestriot^  fiaiuce  poets. 
Sic  animsB  laqueo  sit  via  clausa  tuee. 


•»»' 

*.  rt 


TH  E  O  C  R  I  T  U  S.  249 

*  / 

t 

But  it  does  not  appear,  that  by  the  Syracusan  poet,  Ovid 
means  Theocritus ;  more  probably,  as  socne  commentators 
on  the  passage  have  supposed,  Empedoctes,  who  was  a 
poet  and  philosopher  of  Sicily,  is  ttie  person  pointed  at: 
others  think  that  Ovid  by  a  s.nait  mistake  or  slip  of  his  me- 
mory might  confound  Theocritus  the  rhetorician  of  Chios, 
who  was  executed  by  order  of  kmg  Antigonus^  with  Tlieo^ 
critus  the  poet  of  Syracuse. 

The  compositions  of  this  poet  are  disiinofuished  amon|;; 
the  ancients  by  the  name  of  **  Idyllia,'*  in  order  to  express 
th6  smallness  and  variety  of  their  natures ;  they  would  now 
be  called  "  Miscellanies,  or  Poems  on  several  Occasions. 
The  nine  first  and  the  eleventh  are  confessed  to  be  true^ 
pastorals,  and  hence  Theocritus  has  usually  passed  for 
nothing  more  than  a  pastoral  poet:  yet  he  is  manifestly 
robbed  of  a  great  part  of  his  fame,  if  his  other  poems  have 
not  their  proper  laurels.  For  though  the  greiuer  part  of 
his  '^  Idyllia^'  cannot  be  called  the  songs  of  shepherds,  yet 
they  have  certainly  their  respective  merits.  His  pastorals 
doubtless  ought  to  be  considered  as  the  foundation  of  his 
credit.  He  was  the  earliest  known  writer  of  pastorals,  and 
will  be  acknowledged  to  have  Excelled  all  his  imitators,  as 
much  as  originals  usually  do  their  copies.  There  are, 
says  Dr.  Warton,  *'  few  images  and  sentiments  in  the  Ec- 
logues of  Virgil,  but  what  are  drawn  from  the  Idylliums  of 
Theocritus :  in  whom  there  is  a  rural,  romantie  wildiiess 
of  thought,  heightened  by  the  Doric  dialect ;  with  such 
lively  pictures  of  the  passions,  and  of  simple  unadorned 
nature,  as  are  infinitely  pleasing  to  lovers  and  judges  of 
true  poetry.  Theocritus  is  indeed  the  grpat  store-house  of 
pastoral  description  ;  and  every  succeeding  painter  of  rural 
beauty  (except  Thomson  in  his  Seasons)  hath  copied  his 
images  from  him,  without  ever  looking  abroad  upon  the 
face  of  nature  thenns'elves."  The  same  elegant  critic,  in 
his  dissertation  on  pastoral  poetry,  says,  "  If  I  might  ven^ 
tore  to  speak  of  the  merits  of  the  several  pastoral  writers, 
I  would  say,  that  in  Theocritus  we  are  charmed  with  a 
certain  sweetness,  a  romantic  rusticity  and  wildness,  height- 
ened' by  the  Doric  dialect,  that  are  almost  inimitable. 
Several  of  his  pieces  indicate  a  genius  of  a  higher  class, 
far  superior  to  pastoral,  and  equal  to  the  sublimest  species 
of  poetry :  such  are  particularly  his  Panegyric  on  Ptolemy, 
the  fight  between  Aniycus  and  Pollux,  the  Epithalamiuia 
of  Helen,  the  young  Hercules,  the  grief  of  Hercules  for 


aSO  T  H  £  O  C  R  I  T  U  S. 

Hylas,  the  death  of  Pentheus,  and  the  kiiliog  'of  the  Ne^. 
mean  Lion.^*  At  the  same  tiaie  it  mus^.be  allowed  that*. 
Theocritus  descends  sometimes  into  g;ro8s  and  mean  ideai^. 
and  makes  his  shepherds  abusive  and  immodest,  which  isf* 
sever  the  case  with  Virgil.  •    /     ,     v 

This  poet  was  first  published  in  fo)io  at  Milan  in  li^3^. 
again  by  Aldus  at  Venice,  in  1491,  aiwd  by  {jienry.Ster 
phens  at  Paris,  in  1566,  with  other  Greek  pooip,./sod  withr% 
out  a  Latin  version  :  a  good  edition  also  in  Greeji  pnly/wai; 
printed  at  Oxford,  by  bishop  Fell,  .in  1676,  8vo.>    Th^rOt 
are,  since,  the  editions  of  Martin,   Lond.  1760,  Svo^  tbA. 
very  splendid  one  of  Thomas  Warton,  1770»  2  vols.  .4|o; 
and  of  Vjklckenaer,  Leydeu,  1773,  8vo.     Dr.  TbomaaJ&iW 
wards  also  published  a  very  correct  and  critical  editi«n;o|> 
^^  Selecta  qusdam  Theocriti  Idyilia,"  1779,  8va^  >  •;. 

THEODORE.ANTHONY  L  king  of  Corsica,  baroiv 
Niewhoff,  grandee  of  Spain,  bstron  of  England,  peer  of. 
France,  baron  of  the  holy  empire,  prince  of  the  Papal 
throne:  for  thus  he  styled  himself;  ^^  a  man  whoseclaiqir 
to  royalty,**  says  lord   Orford,   ^^  was  as  indisputable,  as 
the  most  ancient  titles  to  any  monarchy  can  pretend  to< 
be;*'  was  born  at  Metz  about  1696.     The  particulars  of 
his  eventful  history  are  thus  related.     In   March   1736^* 
whilst  the  Corsican  mal-con tents  were  sitting  in  council,]; 
an  English  vessel  from  Tunis,  with  a  passport  from  our 
consul  there,  arrived  at  a  port  tlien  in  the  possession  of  the 
inal-conten^ts.     A  stranger  on  board  this  vessel,  who  ba4. 
the  appearance  of  a  person  of  distinction,  no  sooner  wefii- 
on  shore,  but  was  received  with  singular  honours  by  thet 
principal  persons,  who  saluted  him  with  the  titles  of  exceU 
lency,  and  viceroy  of  Corsica.     His  attendants  consisted^ 
of  two  officers,  a  secretary,  a  chaplain,  a  few  domestics 
amd  Morocco  slaves.     He  was  conducted  to  the  bisbop*r 
palace;  called  himself  lord  Theodore;  whilst  tb^  chiefs^ 
knew  more  about  him  than  they  thought  convenient  to  de«>.v 
clare.     From  the  vessel  that  brought  him  were  debavkiedii 
ten  pieces  of  cannon,  4000  fire-locks,  3000  pair  of  sbpes^t 
a  great  quantity  of  provisions,  and  coin  to  the.amo^Mofi 
200,000  ducats.     Two  pieces  of  cannon  were  placed  before^ 
his  door,  and  he  had  400  soldiers  posted  for*.his  guards 
He  created  officers,  formed  twenty- four  companies  of  aol«3 

>  Votsius  Poet.  Grec^Fabric.  Bibl.  Grsc — Life  prefixed  to  Fawkes's  Traoc/^ 


THEODORE.  «l 

HetB,  dfsttibiited  among  the  mal-oonteots  the  arms  knd 
•boes  he  had  brought  with  him,  conferred  knighthood  on 
one  of  the  chiefs,  appointed  another  bis  treasurer,  and  pro«» 
fe^sed  the  Roman  Catholic  religion.  Various  conjectures 
were  formed  in  different  courts  concerning  him.  The 
^(dest  son  of  the  pretender,  prince  Ragotski,  the  dokje  do 
Ripperda,  oomte  de  Bonneval,  were  each  in  their  turns 
supposed  to  be  this  stranger ;  all  Europe  was  puzzled  ;  but 
tbe  country  of  this  stranger  was  soon  discovered  :  he  was, 
in.fiaict,  a  Prussian,  well  known  by  the  name  of  Theodore 
Antony,  baron  of  Niewhoff. 

Tlieodore  was  a  knight  of  the  Teutonic  order,  had  suc- 
cessively been  in  the  service  of  several  German  princes, 
bad  seen  Holland,  England,  France,  and  Portugal ;  gained 
tbe  confidence  of  the  great  at  Lisbon,  and  passed  there  for 
a'cbarg6  des  aflaires  from  the  emperor.  This  extraordinary 
man,  with  an  agreeable  person,  had  resolution,  strong 
natural  parts,  and  was  capable  of  any  enterprise.  He  wasi 
about  fifty  years  of  age.  Upon  his  first  landing,  the  chiefs 
of  the  Oorsicans  publicly  declared  to  the  people,  that  it 
was  to  him  they  were  to  be  indebted  for  their  liberties,  and 
that  he  was  arrived  in  order  to  deliver  the  island  from  the 
tyrannical  oppressions  of  the  Genoese.  The  general  assem- 
bly offered  him « the  crown,  not  as  any  sudden  act  into 
which  they  had  been  surprised,  but  with  all  the  precaution 
that  people  could  take  to  secure  their  freedom  and  happi<» 
nesg  under  it.  Theodore,  however,  contented  himself  whb 
tbe  title  of  governor-general*  In  this  quality  he  assembled 
the  people,  and  administered  an  oath  for  preserving  eternal 
p^ace  among  themselves ;  and  severely  did  he  exact  obe«* 
dience  to  this  law. 

He  was  again  offered  the  title  of  king :  he  accepted  it 
the  15th  of  April,  1736,  was  crowned  king  of  Corsica,  and 
received  the  oath  of  fidelity  from  his  principal  subjects, 
And  the  ^cUroations  of  all  the  people.  The  Genoese, 
iatarmed  at  these  proceedings,  publicly  declared  him  and 
bis  adherents  guilty  of  high  treason;  caused  it  16  bere«>' 
ported,  that  he  governed  in  the  most  despotic  'manner, 
even  to  tbe  putting  to  death  many  principal  inhabitants, 
merely  because  they  were  Genoese ;  than  which  nothing 
could  be  more  false,  as  appears  from  his  manifesto,  iu 
answer  to  the  edict.  Theodore,  however,  having  got  toge* 
tber  25,000  men,  found  himself  master  of  a  country  wberu 
Ih^  Genoese  durst  not  appear:  he  carried  Por^o  VecchiO| 


232  Theodore. 

ind,  May  the  Sd,  blocked  up  the  city  of  Bastia,  but  was 
soon  obliged  to  retire.  He'  then  separated  his  force,  was 
'  Buccessfttl  in  his  conquests,  and  came  again  before  Bastia, 
..  which  soon  submitted  to  hirn»  His  court  grevir  brilliant^ 
and  he  conferred  titles  of  nobility  upon  his  principal  cour- 
tiers. 

Towards  July,  murmurs  were  spread  of  great  dissatisfac* 
tions,  arising  from  the  want  of  Theodore's  promised  sue* 
cours  :  on  the  other  hand,  a  considerable  armament  sailed 
from  Barcelona,  as  was  supposed  in  his  favour.  At  the 
same  time  France  and  England  strictly  forbade  their  sub« 
jects  in  any  way  to  assist  the  mal-contents.  Sept.  the  2d, 
Theodore  presided  at  a  general  assembly,  and  assured  hid 
subjects  anew  of  the  speedy  arrival  of  the  so  much  wanted 
succours.  Debates  ran  high ;  and  Theodore  was  given  to 
understand,  that  before  the  end  of  October  he  must  resigrt 
the  sovereign  authority,  or  make  good  his  promise.  :  He 
received  in  the  mean  time  large  sums,  but  nobody  knew 
whence  they  came:  he  armed  some  barques,  and  chased 
those  of  the  Genoese  which  lay  near  the  island.  He  now 
instituted  the  order  of  Deliverance,  in  memory  of  his  de- 
livering the  country  fronrj  the  dominion  of  the  Genoese. 
The  monies  he  had  received  he  caused  to  be  new  coined ; 
and  his  affairs  seemed  to  have  a  j)romising  aspect :  but 
the  scene  presently  changed.  . 

In  the  beginning  of  November,  he  assembled  the  chiefs ; 
and  declared,  that  he  would  not  keep  them  longer  in  a 
state  of  uncertainty,  their  fidelity  and  confidence  demand-* 
ing  of  him  the  utmost  efforts  in  their  favour;  and  that  he 
had  determined  to  find  out  in  person  the  succours  he  had 
so  long  expected.  The  chiefs  assured  him  of  their  deter- 
mined adherence  to  his  interests.  He  named  the  principal 
among  them  to  take  the  government  in  his  absence,  made 
all  the  necessary  provisions,  and  recommended  to  them 
pnion  in  the  strongest  terms.  The  chiefs,  to  the  number 
of  forty-seven,  attended  him  with  the  utmost  respect,  on 
the  day  of  his  departure,  to  the  water-side,  and  even  on 
board  his  vessel ;  where,  after  affectionately  embracing 
them,  he  took  his  leave,  and  they  returned  on  shore,  and 
went  immediately,  to  their  respective  posts  which  he  had 
assigned  them ;  a  demonstrative  proof  this,  that  he  was 
not  forced  out  of  the  island,  did  not  quit  it  in  disgust,  or 
leave  it  in  a  maoner  inconsistent  with  his  royal  character. 


THEODORE.  25S 

Thus  ended  the  reign  of  Theodore,  who  arrived  in  a  few 
<}ays  disguised  in  the  habit  of  an  abbd  at  Livonia^  and 
thence,  after  a  short  stay,  conveyed  himself  nobody  knew 
v^bither.  The  next  year,  however,  he  appeared  at  Paris ; 
wak  ordered  to  depart  the  kingdom  in  forty*eight  hours; 
precipitately  embarked  at  Rouen,  and  arri^^ed  at  Amster- 
dam, attended  by  four  Italian  domestics;  took  up  his  quar- 
ters at  an  inn  ;  and  there  two  citizens  arrested  him,  on  a 
olaim  of  16^000  florins.  But  he  soon  obtained  a  protection, 
and  found  some  merchants,  who  engaged  to  furnish  him  with 
a  great  quantity  of  ammunition  for  his  faithful  islanders.  He 
accordingly  went  on  board  a  frigate  of  fifty-two  guns^  and 
150  men;  but  was  soon  afterwards  seized  at  Naples  in 
the  house  of  the  Dutch  consul,  and  sent  prisoner  to  tbl» 
fortress  of  Cueta.  This  unhappy  king,  whose  courage  had 
raised  htm  to  a  throne,  not  by  a  succession  of  bloody  acts, 
but  by  the  free  choice  of  an  oppressed  nation,  for  many- 
years  struggled  with  fortune;  and 'left  no  means  untried, 
which  policy  could  attempt,  to  recover  his  crown.  At 
length  he  chose  for  his  retirement  this  country,  where  he 
ifiight  enjoy  that  liberty,  which  he  had  so  vainly  endea- 
voured to  fix  to  his  Corsicans :  but  his  situation  here,  by 
degrees,  grew  wretched ;  and  he  was  reduced  ^o  low,  as  to 
be  several  years  before  his  death,  a  prisoner  for  debt  in  the 
King's-bench. 

To  the  honour  of  some  private  persons,  a  charitable 
contribution  was  set  on  foot  for  him,  in  1753;  and,  in 
1757,  at  the  expence  of  the  late  lord  Orford,  a  marble 
monument  was  erected  to  his  memory  in  the  church-yard 
of  St.  Anne's,  Westminster,  with  the  following  inscription  : 

Near  this  place  is  interred 
Theodore  king  of  Corsica ; 
who  died  in  this  parish  Dec.  11, 
■  1756, 

immediately  after  leaving 
the  King's-bench  prison, 
by  the  benefit  of  the  Act  of  Insolvency : 
In  cbnsequence  of  which, 
he  registered  his  kingdom  of  Corsica  « 
for  the  use  of  his  creditors. 
The  grave,  great  teacher,  to  a  level  brings 
Heroes  and  beggars,  galley  slaves,  and  kings. 
But  Theodore  this  moral  learn'd  ere  dead : 
Fate  pour*d  its  lesson  on  his  living  head  ; 
Beslow'd  a  kingdom^  and  deny*d  him  bread. 


} 


S5«  THEODORE. 

Theodore  had  a  son,  known  by  the  name  of  colonel 
Frederick,  who,  after  following  bis  father  into  £ugland^ 
entered  xinto  the  army  in  foreign  service,  but  appears  t9 
have  been  disappointed  in  his  bopes  of  rising,  or  acquiiing 
even  a  competence,  and  after  sustaining  many  distresses^ 
without  timely  relief,  put  an  end  to  his  life,  by  a  pistol^ 
near  the  gate  of  Westminster  Abbey,  Feb.  1,  1797.  He 
was  a  man  of  gentleman-like  manners,  and  accomplish* 
ments,  and  much  regretted  by  those  who  knew  him  inti« 
mately.  He  was  interred  in  the  church-yard  of  St.  Anne^a 
Soho,  by  the  side  of  his  father.  He  published  in  1768, 
**Memoires  pour  servir  a  THistoire  de  Corse,*'  12mo,  of 
which  there  is  an  English  translation ;  and,  ^  A  Descrip* 
lion  of  Corsica,  with  an  account  of  its  temporary  union 
to  the  crown  of  Great  Britain,  &c«"  8vo. ' 

THEODORE,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  was  a  ni^nk 
of  Tarsus.  He  was  ordained  bishop  by  pope  VitalianHa, 
and  sent  into  England  in  the  year  668,  to  govern  the 
church  of  Canterbury.  Being  kindly  received  by  Lia^ 
Egbert,  he  restored  the  faith,  and  promoted,  or  rather 
founded,  a  form  of  ecclesiastical  discipline,  which  he  ia 
•aid  to  have  exercised  with  great  rigour,  placing  and  dis« 
placing  several  bishops  in  an  arbitrary  manner,  particularly 
those  belonging  to  the  diocese  of  York.  He  died  Sepc 
19,  690,  aged  eighty-eight.  He  is  said  to  have  imported 
into  England  a  great  many  valuable  MSS.  Godwin  men«» 
tious  a  Homer,  extant  in  his  time,  of  exquisite  beamy. 
He  is  also  the  supposed  founder  of  the  school  celled 
Greekiade,  whence  arose  the  university  of  Oxford,  but 
this  isr  somewhat  fabulous.  What  remains  of  his  form  of* 
discipline,  called  the  ^*  Penitential,"  and  of  his  other  woiks^ 
has  been  collected  by  James  Petit,  and  printed  at  Paris^ 
1677,  2  vols.  4to,  with  learned  notes.* 

THEODORE  of  Mopsuestia,  so  called  from  his  being 
bishop  of  Mopsuestia,  a  city  in  Cilici^,  was  educated  and 
ordained  priest  in  a  monastery,  and  became  one  of  the 
greatest  scholars  of  bis  time,  and  bad  the  famous  Nestoriua 
for  a  disciple.  Be  died  iu  the  year  429,  or  430.  This 
bishop  wrote  a  great  number  of  learned  works,  of  which 
are  now  only  extant,  '<  A  Commentary  on  the  Psalms,*' 
which  is  in  father  Cordef  s  ^^  Catena,*'  the  authenticity  of 

>  Memoires  deCorse.— -Floyd  ■  Bibliotheca  Bio^.— Lord  Orford's  Works^  vol. 
I.  p.  151.— Gent.  Mag.  vol.  JLXVII.— Aanaal  Necrotofy  for  1797-S» 
*  Godwin  dt  Prsiiulibas.— Wb«rton*i  An^lm  Sacim. — ^Dupin. 


THEODORE.  255 

Which  WAS  verified,  iii  one.  of  bis  dissertations  by  the  dijike 
oFOrleansy  ^fao  died  in  1752,  at  Paris,  one  of  the  most 
teamed  princes  Europe  has  produced.  Theodore  left  also 
a  *'  Commentary*'  in  MS.  on  the  tweWe  minor  prophets; 
and  several  *^  Fragfmencs/*  enumerated  by  Dnpin,  which 
are  printed  in  the  ^'Bibliotheca^'of  Pbotius.  Those  parts 
of  his  works  supposed  to  contain  the  distinction  of  two 
personal  in  Christ,  the  letter  from  Ibas,  bisboj}  of  Edossa^ 
who  defended  him,  and  the  anathemas  published  by  the 
celebrated  Tlieodoret,  bishop  of  Cyrus,  against  St.  Cyril, 
i^  favour  of  Theodore  of  Mopsoestia-,  occasioned  no  little 
disturbance  in  the  church.  This  dispute  is,  called  the 
affair  of  the  ^*  Three  Chapters,''  and  was  not  settled  tilt  * 
the'Bfth  general  council,  in  the  year  553,  when  he  and  hid 
writings  were  anathematized.  His  confession  of  faith  may 
be  found  in  father  Garnier's  Dissertations  on  Marins  Mer* 
eator.  * 

THEODORET,  an  illustrious  writer  of  the  church,  wai 
tfaorn  at  Antioch  about  the  year  386,  of  parents  who  were 
both  pious  and  opulent.  His  birth  has  been  represented  as 
at'cotnpanied  with  miracles  before  and  after,  according  to 
his  own  account,  in  his  **  ReUgious.  History  ;*'  in  which  he 
gravely  informs  us,  that  it  was  by  the  prayers  of  a  religious 
man,'  trailed  Macedonius,  that  God  granted  his  mother  to 
toncef?e  a'  son,  and  bring  him  into  the  world.  When  the 
holy  anchorite  promised  her  this  i>lessing,  she  engaged  her* 
se^f  linher  part  to  devote  him  to  God;  and  accordingly 
Called  him  Theodoretus,  which  signifies  either  given  hy 
God,  or  devoted  to  God.  To  promote  this  latter  design,  he 
was  sent  at  seven  years  of  age  to  a  monastery,  where  he 
learnt  the  sciences,  theology,  and  devotion.'  He  had  for 
iHsfinttsters  Theodore  of  Mopsuestia,  and  St.  John  Chry«» 
sostom,  and  made  under  them  a  very  uncommon  progress. 
His  leartlifi^  and  piety  becoming-known  to' the  bishops  of 
Antioch^  they  admitted  him  into  holy  orders ;  yet  he  did  ^ 
n^  npon  that  account  change  either  his  habitation  oi*  man- 
oer  of-litiiVg,  but  endeavoured  to  reconcile  the  exerciser 
^f  a  religious  life  with  the  function  of  a  clergyman.  After 
Hie 'death  of  bis  parents,  he  distributed  his  whole  inbefit>- 
aneU  to  the  poor,  and  reserved  nothing  to  himself.  The 
Bt^hdprrc  of  Gyrus  becoming  vacant  about  the  year  420^ 
the  bjshop  of  Antioch  ordained  Theodoret  against  his  wiif, 

1  Dupia  io  Cave,  toI,^  I.  ,       .  . 


tS6  T  H  E  O  D  O  R  E  T. 

and  sent  him  to  govern  that  church.  .  Cyras  was  a  city  of 
Syria,  in  the  province  of  Euphratesia,  an  unpleasant  and 
barren  country,  but  very  populous.  The  inhabitants  coixi-» 
monly  spake  the  Syriac  tongue,  few  of  them  understand* 
ing  Greek;  they  were  almost  all  poor,  rude,  and  barbarous ; 
many  of  them  were  engaged  in  profane  superstitions,  or  in 
such  gross  errars  as  shewed  them  to  be  rather  Heathens 
than  Christians.  Tiie  learning  and  worth  of  Theodoret, 
which  were  really  very  great,  seemed  to  qualify  him  for  a 
better  see ;  yet  he  remained  in  this,  and  discharged  all  the 
offices  of  a  good  bishop  and  good  man.  He  was  afterwards 
engaged  in  the  Nestorian  dispute,  very  much  against  his 
will ;  but  at  length  retired  to  his  see,  spent  bis  life  in 
composing  books,  and  in  acts  of  piety  and  charity,  and  died 
there  in  the  year  457,  aged  seventy  and  upwards.  He 
wrote  ^^  Commentaries  upon  the  Holy  Scriptures  ;*'  an 
*'  Ecclesiastical  History  ;*'  a  "  Religious  History,'*  con-» 
taining  the  lives  and  praises  of  thirty  monks,  and  several 
other  things,  which  are  still  extant. 

Great  encomiums  have  been  bestowed  upon  this  wHter^ 
particularly  b}'  Dupin,  who  asserts  that  <^  Of  all  the  fathers 
who  have  composed  works  of  different  kinds,  Theodoret  is 
one  of  those  who  has  succeeded  the  very  best  in  every 
kind.  Some  have  been  excellent  writers  in  matters  of 
controversy,  but  bad  interpreters  of  Scripture;  others  have 
been  good  historians,  but  bad  divines;  some  have  hiad 
good  success  in  morality,  who  have  had  no  skill  in  doctrinal 
points ;  those  who  have  applied  themselves  to  confute  Pa-« 
ganism  by  their  own  principles  and  authors,  have  usually 
had  little  knowledge  in  the  mysteries  of  our  religion  ;  and 
lastly,  it  is  very  rare  for  those  who  have  addicted  them<* 
selves  to  works  of  piety  to  be  good  critics.  Theodoret  had 
all  the^e  qualities ;  and  it  may  be  said,  that  he  has  equally 
deserved  the  name  of  a  good  interpreter,  divine,  historian^ 
writer  in  controversy,  apologist  for  religion,  and  author  of 
works  of  piety.  But  he  hath  principally  excelled  in  his 
compositions  on  Holy  Scripture,  and  has  outdone  almost 
all  other  commentators,  according  to  the  judgment  of  the 
learned  Photius.  His  style,  says  that  able  critic,  is  very 
proper  for  a  coihmentary  ;  for  he  explains,  in  just  and  sig^* 
nificant4erms,  whatsoever  is  obscure  and  difficult  in  the 
text,  and  renders  the  mind  more  fit  to  read  and  understand 
it  by  the  elegance  of  his  style.  He  never  wearies  his 
reader  with  long  digressions,  but  on  the  contrary  labours 


T  H  E  O  D  0  R  E  T,  257 

to  instruct  him  clearly,  neatly,  and  methodifcally,  in  every 
thing  that  seems  hard.  He  never  departs  frotti  the  purity 
and  elegance  of  the  Attic  dialect,  unless  when  he  is  obliged 
to  speak  of  abstruse  matters,  to  which  the  ears  are  not  ac* 
customed  :  for  it  ts  certain  that  he  passes  over  nothing  that 
needs  explication  ;  and  it  is  almost  impossible  to  find  any 
interpreter  who  unfolds  all  manner  of  difficulties  better, 
and  leaves  fewer  things  obscure.  We  may  find  mnny 
others  who  write  elegantly  and  explain  clearly,  but  we 
shall  find  few  who  have  forgotten  nothing  whicji  needed 
illustration,  without  being  too  diffuse,  and  without  running 
out  into  digressions,  at  least  such  as  are  not  absolutely  ne^ 
cessary  to  clear  the  matter  in  hand.  Yet  this  is  what 
Theoddret  has  observed  throughout  his  commentaries,  in 
which  be  hath  opened  the  text  admirably  well  by  his  ac- 
curate  inqtiiri^s."     Other  writers,  however,  have  not  ex- 

Sressed  so  high  an  opinion  of  Theodoret.  Beausobre,  in 
is  History  of  the  Manichees,  says  that  "Theodoret  is,  in 
my  opinion,  one  of  the  most  valuable  of  the  fathers,  fle 
is  learned ;  he  reasons  well,  especially  in  his  dialogues 
against  the  Greek  heresies  of  his  times :  he  is  a  good  lite- 
ral interpreter  of  the  Scriptures.  I  cannot  help  admiring 
bis  prudence  and  moderation,  when  I  consider  that  he 
ended  bis  Ecclesiastical  History  at  the  time  when  the  Nes*- 
torian  quarrels,  in  which  he  was  so  deeply  interested,  be- 
gan. But,  I  fear,  his  zeal  against  heretics  imposed  upon 
him  almost  as  much,  as  his  admiration  for  the  heroes  of  the 
ascetic  life,  uith  whom  he  was  charmed.  Monasteries 
Ivave  undoubtedly  sent  forth  great  men  into  the  world,  but 
these  disciples  of  the  monks  contracted  there  in  their  youth 
a  superstitious  disposition,  which  is  hardly  ever  thrown  ofFj 
and  the  weak  side  of  this  able  man  seems  to  have  been  an 
excessive  credulity."  In  truth,  Theodoret  surpasses  all 
other  writers  in  admiration  of  monastic  institutions,  and  is 
creduldus  beyond  measure  in  subjects  of  that  nature.  Yet 
he  was  undoubtedly  one  of  the  most  learned  and  best  meti 
ill  the  Eastern  church.  His  pacific  conduct  displeased  the 
bigots,  during  the  Nestbrian  and  Eutychian  controversies, 
and  because  he  inclined  to  healing  methods,  he  was  con^ 
demned  at  one  of  the  synods,  and  was 'not  without  difficulty 
reinstated.  "  His  works,*'  says  Milner,  "  are  large,  on  a 
variety  of  subjects ;  but  they  speak  not  for  him  equally 
with  his  life;  and  it  will  be  sufficient  to  say,  that  his  the- 
ology, with  a  stronger  mixture  of  superstition,  was  of  the 

Vol.  XXIX.  S 


•% 


4W  THEODORE  T. 

same  kind  as  that  of  Cbrysostom.  But  his  spirit  iiras  humble,* 
heavenly,  charitable ;  and  be  seems  to  have  walked  in  the 
fiaith,  hope,  and  love  of  the  gospel,  a  shining  ornament  io« 
a  dark  age  and  country/' 

The  works  of  Tbeodoret  were  published  in  Greek  and 
Latin,  by  father  Sirmond,  at  Paris,  1642,  in  4  vols,  folio; 
a  work  not  of  much  pecuniary  value  unless  when  joined 
with  a  fifth,  which  the  Jesuit  Gamier  added,  in  1684^ 
consisting  of  other  pieces,  which  had  never  been  printed, 
before,  of  supposititious  pieces,  learned  dissertations,  and 
an  account  of  the  life,  principles,  and  writings  of  Theodo- 
ret.  A  new  edition  has  since  been  published  by  Schultze, 
Halse,  1768 — 74,  in  5  vols.  4to,  or  in  10  vols.  8vo.  The 
*^  Ecclesiastical  History^'  of  Theodoret,  which  is  divided 
into  five  books,  is  a  kind  of  supplement  to  Socrates  and 
Sozomen^  as  being  written  after  theirs,  about  the  year  45Q^ 
It  begins  where  £usebius  leaves  off,  at  the  rise  of  the 
Arian  heresy  in  322,  and  ends  with  427,  before  the  be- 
ginning of  the  Nestorian  heresy.  It  has  been  translated 
and  published  by  Valesius,  with  Eusebius  and  the  other 
ecclesiastical  historians,  and  republished  with  additional 
notes,  by  Reading,  at  London,   1720,  in  3  vols,  folio.  ^ 

THEODORIC.     See  THIERRY. 

THEODOSIUS,  called  Tripolites,,  or  of  Tripoli,  wa* 
a  celebrated  mathematician,  who  fiourished,  as  Saxius  seem« 
inclined  to  think,  in  the  first  century.  He  is  mentioned 
by  Suidas,  as  probably  the  same  with  Theodosius,  the  pbi« 
losopber  of  Bytbinia,  who,  Strabo  says,  excelled  in  matbe- 
roatics.  He  appears  to  have  cultivated  chiefly  that  part  of 
geometry  which  relates  to  the  doctrine  of  the  sphere,  oa 
which  he  wrote  three  books  containing  fifty-nine  propo- 
sitions, all  demonstrated  in  the  pure  geometrical  manner 
of  the  ancients,  and  of  which  Ptolomj*  as  well  as  all  suc- 
ceeding writers  made  great  use.  These  three  books  were 
translated  by  the  Arabians  out  of  the  Greek  into  their  owa 
language,  and  from  the  Arabic  the  work  was  again  trans- 
lated  into  Latin,' and  printed  at  Venice|.  But  the  Arabia 
version  being  very  defective,  a  more  complete  edition  waf 
published  in  Greek  and  Latin  at  Paris,  in  IS58,  by  John 
Pena  (See  P£Na)  professor  of  astronomy.  .  Tbeodosius'a 
works  were  also  commented  upon  by  others,  and  lastly  bj 
Pe  ChaJes,  in  his  <<  Cu^sus  Mathematicus.''     But  that  edi^ 


THEODOSIUS.  259 

tioti  of Theodosius's  spberks  which  is  now  most  in  use,  was  ■ 
translated  and  published  by  our  couutryman  the  learned 
Dr.  Barrow^  in  1675,  illustrated  and  demonstrated  in  anew 
and  concise  method.  By  this  author's  account,  Theodosius. 
appears  not  only  to  be  a  great  master  in  this  more  difficult 
part  of  geometrj',  but  the  6rst  considerable  author  of  an- 
tiquity who  has  written  on  that  subject.  Theodosius  also 
wrote  concerning  the  celestial  houses;  and  of  days  and 
nights  ;  copies  of  which,  in  Greek,  are  in  the  king's  li- 
brary at  Paris,  and  of  which  there  was  a  Latin  edition,  pub- 
lished by  Peter  Dasypody  in  1572.^ 

THEODULPHUS,  a  celebrated  bishop  of  Orleans,  one- 
of  the  most  learned  men  of  the  ninth  century,  was  born  in 
Cisalpine  Gaul.  Charlemagne  made  him  abbot  of  Fleury, 
then  bishop  of  Orleans  about  the  year  793,  and  chose  him 
to  sign  his  will  in  the  year  811;  Louis  le  Debonnaire  had 
also  a  high  esteem  for  him.  But  Theodulphus  being  ac- 
cnsed  of  having  joined  in  the  conspiracy. formed  by  Be- 
renger,  king  of  Italy,  was  committed  to  prison  at  Angers, 
where  he  composed  the  hymn  beginning  Gloria,  laus,  et 
honor,  part  of  which,  in  the  catholic  service,  is  sung  oa 
Palm  Sunday.  It  is  said  that  Theodulphus  singing  this 
hymn  at  bis  prison  window  while  the  emperor  passed  by, 
that  prince  was  so  charmed  with  it  that  he  set  him  at  liberty. 
He  died  about  the  year  821.  In  the  Library  of  the  fathers, 
d'Acheri's  "  Spicilegium,"  and  father  Labbe's  "  Councils,'* 
is  a  treatise  by  this  prelate  on  baptism,  another  on  the  Holy 

^Ghost,  two  **  Capitulariu,"  addressed  to  his  clergy,  some 
**  Poems,"  and  other  works  ;  the  best  edition  of  which  is 
by  father  Sirmond,  1646,  8vo ;  the  second  of  ihe  "  Capitu- 
laria"  is  in  the  ^*  Miscellanea,"  published  by  Baluze.  * 

THEOGNIS,  an  eminent  Greek  poer,  was  born  in  the 
fifty-tnintb  olympiad,  orabout  550  years  before  Christ.  Hq 
calls  himself  a  Megarian,  in  one  of  his  verses  ;  meaning, 

.  most  probably,  MegarH,  in  Achaia,  as  appears  also  from 
Ilis.own  verses,  for  he  prays  the  gods  to  turn  away  a  threat- 
ening war  from  the  city  of  Alcathous  ;  and  Ovid  calls  the 
same  Megara,  Alcatboe.  We  have  a  n^oral  work  of  his 
exta\;it,  of  somewhat  more  than  a  thousand  lines,  which  is 
licknowledged  to  be  an  useful  summary  of  precepts  an4 
leflactions;  which,  however,  has  so  little  of  the  genius  and 
' '  ' 

»  Voaslus  de  Scient.    Malth.-— Fabric.    Bibl.   Gi«c.— HuUon's    Diet.— Saxii 
OnoiDast. 
•  Ca¥«,  vol.  i. — Dupin. 

S   2 


S60  T  H  E  O  G  N  I  S. 

fire  of  poetry  in  it,  that,  as  Plutarch  said,  it  may  more 
properly  be  called  carmen  than  po'ema.  These  ''  Twfia$f 
SententisyV  or  **  Precepts,*'  are  given  in  the  simplest 
manner,  without  the  least  ornament,  and  probably  were 
put  into  verse  merely  to  assist  the  memory*  Athenscus 
reckons  this  author  among  the  most  extravagant  volap- 
tuaries,  and  cites  some  of  his  verses  to  justify  the  censure ; 
and  Suidas,  in  the  account  of  his  works,  mentions  a  piec« 
entitled  **  Exhortations,  or  Admonitions,''  which,  he  says, 
was  stained  with  a  mixture  of  indecency.  The  verses  wa 
have  at  present  are,  however,  entirely  free  from  any  thing 
of  this  kind,  whence  some  have  supposed  that  they  were 
not  left  so  by  the  author,  but  that  the  indecencies  were 
'  omitted,  and  the  void  spaces  filled  up  with  graver  sentences. 
They  have  been  very  often  printed  both  with  and  without 
Latin  versions,  and  are  to  be  found  in  all  the  collections  of 
the  Greek  minor  poets.  One  of  the  best  editions,  but  a 
fare  book,  is  that  by  Ant.  Blackwell,  Lond.  1 706,  12mo.  ^ 

THEON,  of  Alexandria,  a  celebrated  Greek  philoso- 
pher and  mathematician,  flourished  in  the  fourth  century, 
about  the  year  3 SO,  in  the  time  ofTheodosius  the  Great; 
but  the  time  and  manner  of  his  death  are  i/nknown.  His 
genius  and  disposition  for  the  study  of  philosophy  were 
very  early  improved  by  a  close  application  to  study ;  so 
tihat  he  acquired  such  a  proficiency  in  the  sciences  as  to 
render  his  name  venerable  in  history ;  and  to  procure  him 
the  honour  of  being  president  of  the  famous  Alexandrian 
school.  One  of  his  pupils  was  the  celebrated  Hypatia,  his 
daughter,  who  succeeded  him  in  the  presidency  of  the 
school;  a  trust,  which,  like  himself,  she  discharged  with 
the  greatest  honour  and  usefulness.  (See  Hypatia.) 

The  study  of  nature  led  Theon  to  many  just  |u>nceptiony 
concerning  God,  and  to  many  useful  reflections  in  the 
science  of  moral  philosophy ;  hence,  it  is  said^^  he  wrote 
with  great  accuracy  on  divine  providence.  And  he  seems 
to  have  made  it  his  standing  rule,  to  judge  the  truth  of 
certain  principles,  or  sentiments,  from  their  natural  or  ne* 
cessary  tendency.  Thus,  he  says,  that  a  full  persuasioa 
that  the  Deity  sees  every  thing  we  do,  is  the  strongest  in-^. 
centive  to  virtOe ;  for  he  insists,  that  the  most  profligate 
have  power  to  refrain  their  hands,  and  hold  their  tongues^ 
when  they  think  they  are  observed,  or  overheard,  by  some 

I  Vosftlus  dc  Post.  Qrec.— Fabric.  Bibl,  Grsca.— Saxii  OoaoMtt^ 


t  » 


y 


THE  ON.  261 

person  whom  they  fear  or  respect.  **  With  how  much  more 
reason  then/'  says  he,  *^  should  the  apprehension  and  be- 
lief that  God  sees  alt  things,  restrain  men  from  sin>  and 
constantly  excite  them  to  their  duty?"  He  also  represents 
this  belief  concerning  the  Deity  as  productive  of  the  great- 
est pleasure  imaginable,  especially  to  the  virtuous^  who 
might  depend  with  greater  confidence  on  the  favour  and 
protection  of  Providence.  For  this  reason,  he  recommends 
nothing  so  much  as  meditatioo  on  the  presence  of  God  ; 
and  he  recommended  it  to  the  civil  magistrate,  as  a  re- 
straint on  such  as  were  profane  and  wicked,  to  have  th^ 
following  inscription  written  in  large  characters  at  the 
corner  of  every  street :  **  God  sees  thee,  O  sinner." 

Theon  wrote  notes  and  commentaries  on  some  of  the 
ancient  mathematicians.  He  composed  also  a  book  entitled 
**  Progymnasmata,"  a  rhetorical  work,  written  with  great 
judgment  and  elegance ;  in  which  he  criticised  on  the 
writings  of  some  illustrious  orators  and  historians ;  pointing 
out,  with  great  propriety  and  judgment,  their  beauties  anct 
imperfections ;  and  laying  down  proper  rules  for  propriety 
of  style.  He  recommends  conciseness  of  expression,  and 
perspicuity,  as  the  principal  ornaments.  This  work  was 
printed  at  Basle  in  1541,  but  the  best  edition  is  that  of 
Ley  den,  1626,  8vo. ' 

THEOPHANES  (Prokopovitch),  an  historian  who  may 
be  ranked  among  those  to  whom  Russia  is  chiefiy  indebted 
for  the  introduction  of  polite  literature,  was  the  son  of  a 
burgher  of  Kiof;  born  in  that  city,  June  9,  1681,  and 
baptised  by  the  name  of  Elisha.  Under  his  uncle,  Theo^ 
phanes,  rector  of  the  seminary  in  the  B^atskoi  convent  at 
Kiof,  he  commenced  his  studies,  and  was  well  grounded 
in  the  rudijBents  of  the  Greek,  Latin,  and  Hebrew  tongues. 
Though  h^  uncle  died  in  1692,  he  completed  his  educa^ 
tion  in  that  seminary  ;  and  in  1698,  in  the  eighteenth  year 
of  his  age,  he  travelled  into  Italy.  He  resided  three  years 
at  Rome,  where,  beside  a  competent  Icnowledge  of  Italian, 
he  acquired  a  taste  for  the  fine  arts,  and  improved  himself 
in  philosophy  and  divinity.  Upon  his  return  to  Kiof  be 
read  lectures  on  the  Latin  and  Sclavonian  art  of  poetry  in 
the  same  seminary  in  which  he  had  been  educated  :  and, 
with  the  monastic  habit,  assumed  the  name  of  Theophanes* 
Before  he  had  attained  the  twenty-fifth  year  of  his  age  h» 

>  Hutton'f  Diet.— ^Saxii  Onomatt, 


262  T  H  E  OP  H  A  N  E  S- 

was  appointed  pwtefect,  the  second  office  in  the  seminaiy, 
and   professor  of  philosophy.     In    1706  he  distinguishj^ 
J:\imself  by  speaking  a  Latin  oration  before  Peter  the  Great; 
and  still  more  by  a  sermon,  which  in  I70y  he  preached 
before  the  same  monarch  after  the  battle  of  Pultawa.     Hav- 
ing once  attracted  the  notice,  he  soon  acquired  the  pro- 
tection of  Peter,  who  was  so  captivated  with  his  great  ta- 
lents, superior  learning,  and   polite  address,  as  to  select 
him  for  a  companion  in  the  ensuing  campaign  against  the 
Turks-;  a  sure  prelude  to  his  fuiure  advancement.    In  1711 
Theophanes   was  nominated  abbot  of  Bratskoi,  rector  of 
the   seminary,    and    professor  of  divinity.     His   censures 
against  the  ignorance  and  indolence  of  the  Russian  clergy, 
and   his  endeavours  to  promote  a  taste  for  polite  literature 
among  bis  brethren,  rendered  him  a  fit  instrument  in  the 
hands  of  Peter  for  the  reformation  of  the  church,  and  the 
6nal  abolition*  of  the  patriarchal  dignity.     He  was  placed 
at  the  head  of  the  synod,  of  which  ecclesiastical  establish- 
ment he  liimself  drew  the   plan;  was  created   bishop  of 
Plescof;  and,  in  1720,  archbishop  of  the  same  diocese: 
soon  after  the  accession  of  Catharine   he  was  consecrated 
archbishop  of  Novogorod,  and  metropolitan  of  all  Russia; 
and  died  in  1736.     Beside  various  sermons  and  theological 
disquisitions,  he  wrote  a  treatise  on  rhetoric,  and  on  the 
rules  for  Latin  and  Sclavonian  poetry ;  he  composed  verges 
in  the  Latin  language;  and  was  author  of  a  **  Life  of  Peter 
the  Great,"  which  unfortunately  terminates  with  the  battle 
of  Pultawa.     In  this  performance  the  prelate  has,  notwith- 
standing  his   natural   partiality  to  his  benefactor,  avoided 
those  scqrrilous  abuses  of  the  contrary  party,  which  fre- 
quently disgrace   the  best  histories ;  and  has  been  parti- 
cularly candid  in   his  account  of  Sophia.     P#ter,  from  a 
well-grounded   experience,  had  formed  such  a  good  opi- 
nion  of  the  talents  of  Theophanes,  as  to  employ  him  in 
composing  the  decrees  which  concerned  theological  ques- 
tions, and  even  many  that  'related  to  civil  affairs.     Theo- 
phanes may  be  said  not  only  to  have  cultivated  the  scienceS| 
and  to  have  pi*omoted  them  daring  bis  life,   but  likewise  to 
have  left  a  legacy  to  his  ecu  s  try  men,  for  their  further  pro- 
gress after  his  decease,   by   maintaining  in  his  episcopal 
y)alace  fifty  hoys,   whose  education  he  superintended  :   un*- 
'der  his  auspices  they  were  instructed  in  foreign  lawguagos, 
anJ  in  various   branches   of  polite  ki^owledge,   whieh  tiad 
bepn   hitherto  censure^d   by*  many  as  profane  acquisiiious  : 


THEOPHILE. 


263 


Ibutf  transmilting  the  rays  of  learning  to  illuminate  future 
ages  and  a  distant  posterity.  * 

THEOPHILE,  a  celebrated  French  poet,  surnamed' 
ViAUD,  was  born  about  1590,  at  Clerac  in  the  diocese,  of 
Agen,  and  was  the  son  of  an  advocate  of  Bousseres  Sainte- 
Hadegonde,  a  village  near  Aquillon.  Having  come  early 
to  Paris,  be  was  admired  for  bis  genius  and  fancy,  and  was 
the  first  who  published  French  works  with  verse  and  prose 
intermixed.  But  his  impiety  and  debaucheries  obliged 
bim  to  go  into  England  in  1619,  whence  his  friends  pro- 
cured his  recall,  and  he  turned  Catholic.  This  change, 
however,  did  not  make  him  more  regular  in  his  conduct, 
und  be. was  at  last  burnt  in  effigy  for  having  published  in 
1622,  ^^  Le  Parnasse  Satyrique.''  Being  arrested  at  the 
Chatelet,  he  was  placed  in  the  same  dungeon  of  the  Con- 
eiergerie  where  Ravaillac  had  been  confined  ;  but,  on  bit 
protestations  of  having  had  no  share  in  the  above  mentioned 
publication,  received  only  a  sentence  of  banishment.  He 
died  September  25,  1626,  in  the  Hdtel  de  Montmorenci 
at  Paris,  leaving  a  collection  of  *^  Poems'*  in  French,  con- 
taining **  Elegies,  Odes,  Sonnets,  &c.;"  a  treatise  "on  the 
Immortality  of  the  Soul,*'  in  verse  and  prose ;  "  Pyrame 
ct  Thisb^,"  a  tragedy  ;  three  "  Apologies ;"  some  "  Let- 
ters," Paris,  1662,  12mo;  his  "New  Works,"  Paris,  1642, 
«.vo;.^*  Pasiphae,"  a  tragedy,  1628,  &c.  * 

THEOPHILUS,  a  celebrated  patriarch  of  Alexandria, 
who  succeeded  Timotheus  about  885,  has  the  credit  of 
having  completely  destroyed  the  remains  of  idolatryv  in 
Egypt,  by  pulling  down  the  temples  and  idols  of  the  false 
deities;  and  be  also  terminated  happily  the  disputles  which 
bad  arisen  between  Evagrius  and  Flavianus,  both  ordained 
bishops  q|  Antioch*  He  zealously  defended  the  faith  of 
the  Catholic  church ;  but  quarrelling  afterwards  with  Chry- 
sostom,  caused  bim  to  be  deposed,  and  refused  to  place 
hi«  njame  in  the  Dyptics,     Of  this  violence  and  injustice 


*  Coze's  T/ay^ls  into  Russia,  rol. 
II. — Mr,  Coxe,  in  the  history  of  Theo- 
phaiMS,  fias  followed  implicitly  Mul- 
Ist,  whose  fidelity  and  accuracy  alwaya 
appear  to  him  unquestional^le.  Mons. 
JLe  Cterc  differs  from  Mr.  Mullet  in 
.relatioi;  tbe  earliest  part  of  this  pre- 
late's life.  lie  aUo  ioforais  us,  that 
Theophanes  persuaded  Peter  to  intro- 
4ttQa  iba  prokeatant  religion  into  Rus*. 


sia  ;  and  that  the  emperor  vras  iBcline^ 
to  follow  his  advice,  but  was  prevented 
by  bis  death.  This  important  anecdote 
Mr.  Coxe  would  not  venture  to  adopt 
(though  he  could  not  controvert  it),  aa 
the  ingenious  author  has  not  cited  his 
authority.  See  Le  Clere's  Hist.  Anc 
de  Russie,  p.  362;  apd  Hiit.  Mod.  p. 
65,  66.  '      ' 


•Diet.  Hist.— <Mortri. 


264  T  H  E  O  P  H  I  L  U  S. 

I^upin  thinks  be  never  repented ;  but  some  eompmictton 
he  felt  at  last,  on  account  of  bis  otber  failings,  for  on  hia 
death-bed,  reflecting  on  the  long  penitence  o(  St.  Arsenius, 
be  <t:xclaiii]ed,  *'  How  happy  art  thou,  Arsenius,  to  have 
bad  this  hour  always  before  thine  eyes."  We  have  some 
of  this  patriarch's  works  in  the  Library  of  the  fathers,  which 
seem  of  very  little  value.  Dupin  says,,  be  knew  better 
bow  to  nmnage  a  court-iutrigue  than  to  solve  a  point  in 
divinity.* 

THEOPHILUS,  of  Antiocb,  a  writer  and  bishop  of 
the  primitive  church,  was  educated  a  heathen,  and  after^ 
wards  converted  to  Christianity,  Some  have  imagined  that 
he  is  the  person  to  whom  St.  Luke  dedicates  the  ''  Acts  of 
Vhe  Apostles  j''  but  this  is  impossible,  as  he  was  not  or- 
dained bishop  of  Antiocb  till  the  year  170,  and  he  governed 
this  church  twelve  or  thirteen  years,  at  the  end  of  which 
be  died.  He  was  a  vigorous  opposer  of  certain  heretics  of 
bis  time,  and  composed  a  great  number  of  works,  all  of 
which  are  lost,  except  three  books  to  Autolycus,  a  learned 
heathen  of  his  acquaintance,  who  had  undertaken  to  vindi^ 
cate  bis  own  religion  against  that  of  the  Christians.  The 
first  book  is  properly  a  discourse  between  him  and  Autoly** 
cus,  in  answer  to  what  this  heathen  bad  said  against  Chris* 
tiatiity.  _  The  second  is  to  convince  him  of  the  falshood  of 
bis  own,  and  ti)e  truth  of  the  Christian  religion.  In  the 
third,  after  having  proved  that  the  writings  of  the  heathens 
are  full  of  absurdities  and  contradictions,  he  vindicates  the 
(joctrine  arid  the  )ives  of  the  Christians  from  those  false  and 
scandalous  imputations  which  were  then  brought  against 
them^  Lastly,  at  the  end  of  bis  work,  he  adds  an  historic- 
cal  chronology  from  the  beginning  qf  the  world  to  his  own 
time,  to  prove,  that  the  history  of  Moses  is  at  once  th^ 
most  ancient  and  the  truest ;  and  it  appears  from  this  little 
epitome,  that  he  was  well  acquainted  witii  profane  history. 
In  these  books  are  a  great  variety  of  curious  disquisitions 
^  concerning  the  opinions  of  the  poets  and  philosophers,  but 
few  things  in  them  relating  immediately  to  the  doctrines 
of  the  Christian  religion,  the  reason  of  which  is,  that  bav« 
ing  composed  his  woiks  for  the  conviction  of  a  Pagan,  be 
insisted  rather  on  the  external  evidences  of  Christianity, 
9.S  better  adapted,  in  his  opinion,  to  the  purpose.  .  His  style 
il  elegant,  and   he  was  doubtie^s  a  man  of  considerable 

I  Dupio,^<— Mosheim. 


T  H  E  O  P  H  I  L  U  S.  265 

|)afts  ahd' learning.  These' books  were  published,  with  a 
Latin  version,  by  Conradus  Gesner,  at  Zurich,  in  1546. 
They  were  afterwards  subjoined  to  Justin  Martyr's  works, 
printed  at  Paris  in  1615  and  16S6  ;  then  published  at  Ox* 
ford,  1684,  in  12  mo,,  under 'the  inspection  of  Dr.  Fell ; 
and,  lastly,  by  Jo*  Christ.  Woliius,  at  Hamburgh,  1723, 
in  8vo«  It  has  been  said,  that  this  Theophilus  of  Antioch 
was  the  first  who  applied  the  term  Trinity  to  express  the 
three  persons  in  the  Godhead.^ 

THEOPHRASTUS,  a  celebrated  philosopher,  was  a 
native  of  Eresiurii,  a  maritime  town  in  Lesbos,  aud  was 
born  in  the  second  year  of  the  102  olympiad,  or  B.C.*  371.. 
After  iome  education  under  Alcippus  in  his  own  country, 
he  was  sent  to  Athens,  and  there  became  a  disciple  of 
Plato,  and  after  his  death,  of  Aristotle,  under  both  whom 
he  made  great  progress  both  in  philosophy  and  eloquence. 
It  was  on  account  of  his^  high  attainments  in  the  latter,  that 
instead  of  Tyrtamus,  which  w'as  his  oiiginal  name,  he  was 
called  Theopbrastus.  During  his  having  charge  of  the 
Peripatetic  school,  he  had  about  two  thousand  scholars ; 
among  whom  were,  Nicomachus,  the  son  of  Aristotle, 
Erasistratus,  a  celebrated  physician  ;  and  Demetrius  Pha- 
lereus.  His  erudition  and  eloquence,  united  with  engaging 
manners,'  recommended  him  to  the  notice  of  Cassadder 
and  Ptolemy,  who  invited  him  to  visit  Egypt.  So  great  a 
favourite  was  he  among  the  Athenians,  that  when  one  of 
his  enemies  accused  htm  of  teaching  impious  doctrines, 
the  accuser  himself  escaped  with  difficulty  the  punish- 
ment which  he  endeavoured  to  bring  upon  Theopbrastus. 
,  Under  the  arcbonship  of  Xenippus,  Sophocles,  the  son 
of  Amphiclides,  obtained  a  decree  (upon  what  grounds  we 
ar«  not  informed)  making  it  a  capital  offence  for  any  phi- 
losopher to  open  a  public  school  without  an  express  li* 
cence  from  the  senate;  on  which  all  the  philosophers  left 
the  city;  but  the  next  year,  this  illiberal  legislator  was 
himself  fined  five  talents,  and  the  philosophers  returned  to 
their  schools,  and  Theopbrastus,  among  the  rest,  now  con- 
tinued his  debates  and  instructions  in  the  Lyceum. 

Theopbrastus  is  highly  celebrated  for  his  industry,  learn- 
ing, and  eloquence ;  and  for  his  generosity  and  public  spi^ 
rit.  He  i$  said  to  have  twice  treed  bis  country  from  the 
oppression  of  tyrants.     He  contributed  liberally  towards^ 


S««  THEOPHRASTUS. 

defraying  the  expence  attending  thd  public  meefctogs  of 
pbiiosopbers,  which  were  held,  not  for  the  sake  of  show, 
but  for  learned  and  ingienious  conversation.  In  the  pub- 
lic schooisy  he  comoionly  appeared,  as  Aristotle  had  done, 
in  an  elegant  dress,  and  was  very  attentive  to  the  graces  of 
elocution.  He  lived ,  to  the  advanced  age  of  eighty-five ; 
towards  the  close  of  his  life,  he  grew  exceedingly  infirm, 
-and  was  carried  to  th6  school  on  a  couch.  He  expressed 
great  regret  on  account  of  the  shortness  of  life,  and  com* 
plained  that  nature  had  given  long  life  to  certain  animals^ 
to  whom  it  is  of  little  value,  as  stags  and  crows,  and  had 
denied  it  to  man,  who,  in  a  longer  duration,  might  have 
been  able  to  attain  the  summit  of  science,  but  now,  as 
soon  as  he  arrives  within  sight  of  it,  it  is  taken  away*  His 
last  advice  to  his  disciples  was,  that  since  it  is  the  lot  of 
man  to  die  as  soon  as  be  begins  to  live,  they  would  take 
more  pains  to  enjoy  life  as  it  passes,  than  to  acquire  post- 
humous fame.  These  reflections,  and  this  advice,  do  not 
appear  to  correspond  with  the  character  usually  bestowed 
on  this  philosopher. 

Tbeophrastus,  although  he  held  the  first  place  among 
the  disciptes  of  Aristotle,  did  not  so  implicitly  follow  his 
master  as. to  have  no  peculiar  tenets  of  his  own.  In  seve- 
ral particulars  he  deviated  from  the  doctrine  of  Aristotle; 
and  he  made  some  material  additions  to  the  system  of  the 
Peripatetic  school.  He  taught,  that  the  predicaments,  or 
categories,  are  as  numerous  as  the  motions  and  changes  to 
which  beings  are  liable ;  and  that,  among  motions  or  changes 
are  to  be  reckoned  desires,  appetites,  judgments,  and 
thoughts.  In  this  opinion  he  deviated  widely  from  Aristo- 
.  tie  :  for,  if  these  actions  of  the  mind  are  to  be  referred  to 
motion,  the  first  mover,  in  conteinplating  himself,  is  not 
immovable.  He  maintained,  that  ail  things  are  not  pro« 
duced  from  contraries;  but  some  from  contraries,  some  from 
'similar  causes,  and  some  from  simple  energy  :  that  motion 
is  not  to  Ue  distinguished  from  action  ;  and  that  there  is  one 
.divine  principle  of  ail  things,  by  which  all  things  subsist. 
By  this  divine  principle  Theophrastus  probably  meant  the 
First  Mover,  without  whom  other  things  could  not  be  moved^ 
.and  therefore  could  not  subsist. 

To  these  theoretical  tenets  might  be  added  sefcral  moral 
apothegms,  which  are  ascribed  to  Theophrastus ;  but  thejr 
are  too  trite  and  general  to  merit  particular  notice,  except 
perfaapff'the'  following:  **  llespect  yourself,  and  you  will 


V 


T.  H  E  O  P  H  R  A  S  T  U  1S.  ai^T 

never  have  reason  to  be  ashamed  before  others."  "Love 
k  the  passion  of  an  indolent  mind/'  ^^  Blushing  is  the 
complexion  of  virtue.'* 

In  imitation  of  his  master  Aristotle,  he  composed  a  great 
number  of  works ;  and,  indeed,  we  do  not  find  that  any 
of  the  ancients  exceeded  him  in  this  respect.  Diogenes 
Laertius  reckons  up  more  than  two  hundred  different  tracts, 
and  the  subjects  of  which  they  treated ;  but  the  greatest 
part  are  lost.  Those  that  remain  are^  nine  books  of  the 
•*  History  of  Plants-,"  six  of  the  "  Causes  of  Plants;"  a 
bopk  «  Of  Stones  ;"  «  Of '  Winds  ;"  **  Of  Fire ;"  "  Of 
Honey  ;"  **  Of  the  signs  of  Fair  Weather ;"  "  Of  the  signs 
of  Tempest;"  <'  OH  the  signs  of  Rain;"  "Of  Smells;" 

^  ^  Of  Sweat ;"  "  Of  the  Vertigo ;"  "  Of  Weariness  ;"  «  Of 
the  Relaxation  of  the  Nerves;"  "  Of  Swooning;"  "Of 
Fish  which  live  out  of  water;"  "  Of  Animals  which  change 
their  colour;"  "Of  Animals  which  are  born  suddenly ;" 
**  Of  Animals  subject  to  envy ;"  and,  "  The  Characters  of 
Men/' 

In  his  botanical  works,  "  The  History  of  Plants,*'  and 
the  "  Causes  of  Plants,"  which  have  come  down  to  us 
almost  entire,  he  mentions,  and  endeavours  to  describe^ 
about  500  species ;  but  his  descriptions  are  very  imper- 
fect and'daubtful,  although  Sprengel,  in  his  "  Historia  Rei 
JHerbarisB,"  has  bestowed  uncommon  pains  in  endeavouring 
to  ascertain  them.  These  works  were  first  published  in* 
the  fourth  volume  of  the  Aldine  edition  of  Aristotle,  Ven, 
1497,  and  have  been  since  reprinted  separately,  particu- 
larly by  BodaBus,  1644.  There  is  an  edition  of  his  entire 
works  by  Heinsius,  1613,  folio;  and  there  are  editions  of 
his  tracts,  "  De  Igne,"  "  De  Ventis,"  &c:  But  the  work 
of  Theophrastus  most  generally  known,-  and  oftenest  re- 
printed, is  his  "  Characters,"  which  give  him  the  merit  ot 
having  been  the  first  who  drew  characters  from  common 
life,  anil  with  somewhat  of  what  we  might  call  modern  hu* 
mour.  Of  this  entertaining  work  the  most  ancient  editions 
contained  only  fifteen  chapters,  to  which  Camotius,  in  the 
Aldine  edition  of  1551,  added  eight,  and  the  remaining 
five  were  discovered  in  a  MS.  at  Heidelberg,  by  Marquard 
Freher,  from  whose  copy  Casaubon  inserted  them  in  his 
second  edition  of  1659,   which,  however,  is  the  least  cor- 

I  rect  of  the  two.  The  best  since  are  those  of  Needham^ 
Cambridge,  1712,  8vo  ;  Pauw,  1737,  Svo;  Newton,  1757, 
Oxou. ;  Fisdier,  Cobourg,  1763,  Svo;    Goezius,  Nurim- 


W8  THEOPHYLACT. 

b«rg,  1798,  8vo;  and  Coray,  Paris,  1799,  8fo.  There 
are  translations  of  this  work  into  almost  every  European 
Tanguajre.  * 

THEOPHYLACT,  archbishop  of  Acbridia,  and  metro- 
politan of  all  Bulgaria,  an  eminent  ecclesiastical  writer,' 
flourished  in  the  eleventh  century.  He  was  born  and  edu^ 
cated  at  Constantinople.  After  be  was  made  bishop  he 
laboured  diligently  to  extend  the  faith  of  Christ  in  hit 
diocese,  when  there  were  still  many  infidels ;  but  met  with 
much  difficulty,  and  many  evils,  of  which  he  occasionally 
complains  in  his  epistles.  He  was  bishop  in  1077,  and 
probably  some  years  earlier.  How  long  he  lived  is  uncer- 
tain. The  works  of  this  bishop  are  various :  1 .  *'  Com^ 
mentaria  in  quatuor  Evangelia,*'  Paris,  1631,  folio.  These 
as  well  as  the  rest  of  his  commentaries  are  very  much 
taken  from  St.  Chrysostom.  2.  <<  Commentaries  on  the 
Acts  of  the  Apostles,'*  Greek  and  Latin,  published  with 
some  orations  of  other  fathers,  Colon.  1568.  S.  ''Com- 
mentaries on  St.  Paul's  epistles,"  Greek  and  Latin,  Lond. 
1636,  folio.  4.  *' Commentaries  on  Four  of  the  Minor 
Prophets :"  namely,  Habbakuk,  Jonas,  Nahum,  and  Ho* 
sea,  Latin,  Paris,  1589,  8ro.  The  commentaries  of  Theo* 
phylact  on  all  the  twelve  minor  prophets  are  extant  in 
Greek,  in  the  library  of  Strasburgh,  and  have  been  de* 
scribed  by  Michaelis  in  his  '*  Bibliotheca  Orientalis."  $, 
**  Seventy-five  Epistles,"  published  in  Greek,  with  ndtes, 
by  John  Meursius,  Leyden,  16L7,  4to.  They  are  also  in 
the  Bibliotheca  Patrum.  6.  Three  or  four  smaller  tracts, 
some  of  which  are  rather  doubtful.* 

THESPIS,  an  ancient  Greek  poet,  is  entitled  to  some 
notice  as  the  reputed  inventor  of  tragedy.  He  was  a  native 
of  mount  Icaria  in  Attica,  and  flourished  in  the  sixth  cen- 
tury Bl  C.  He  introduced  actors  into  his  tragedies,  who 
recited  some  lines  between  each  verse  of  the  chorus,  where- 
as, till  that  time,  tragedies  had  been  performed  only  by  a 
company  of  musicians  and  dancers,  who  sang  hymns  in 
honour  of  Bacchus  while  they  danced.  Thespis  wrote  sa- 
tirical pieces  also,  and  Horace  says  that  this  poet  carried 
his  actors  dbout  in  an  open  cart,  where  they  repeated  their 
verses,  having  their  faces  besmeared  with  wine-lees,  or, 

^  Diogcnei  Laertius.— 'Fabric.  Bib!.  Grace. — Brucker.— I>ibdiD*t  Classics.— 
Thomson's  Hht,  of  tlie  Royal  Society. — Saxii  Onomast.-^Bruyere's  French 
Translation. 

*  DupiD.— Cavei  vol.  II.— Lardner's  Works.— Saxii  Oiomast. 


T  H  E  V  E  N  O  T.  26r 

r 

according  to  SuidaSy  with  white-lead  and  vermillion.    .His  * 
poems  are  lost.  ^ 

'  THEVENOT  (Melchisedec),  librarian  to  the  king  of 
France,  and  a  celebrated  writer  of  travels,  was  born  at, 
Paris  in  1621,  and  bad  scarcely  gone  through  bis  acade- 
mical studies,  when  he  discovered  a   strong  passion  for 
visiting  foreign  countries.     At  Brst  be  saw  only  part  of 
Europe;    but  accumulated   very    particular    informations 
and  memoirs  from  those  who  had  travelled  over  other  parts 
of  the  globe,  and  out  of  those  composed  his  "  Voj^ages. 
and  Travels."     He  laid  down,  among  other  things,  some 
rules,  together  with  the  invention  of  an  instrument,  4^or 
the  better  finding  out  of  the  longitude,  and  the  declinatiou 
of  the  needle ;  which,  some  have  thought,  constitute  the 
most  valuable  part  of  his  works.     Thevenot  was  likewise  a 
great  collector  of  scarce  books  in  all  sciences,  especially  in 
philosophy,  mathematics,  and  history ;  and  in  this  he  may 
be  said  to  have  spent  his  whole  life.     When  he  had  the 
care  of  the  king^s  library,  though  it  is  one  of  the  best  fur- 
nished in  Europe,  he  found  two  thousand  volumes  wanting 
in  it,  which  he  bad  in  his  own.     Besides  printed  books, 
he  brought  a  great  many  manuscripts  in  French,  English, 
Spanish,  Italian,  Latin,   Greek,  Hebrew,  Syriac,  Arabic, 
Turkish,  and  Persic.     The  marbles  presented  to  him  by 
Mr.  Nointel,  at  his  return  from  his  embassy  to  Constan- 
tinople, upon  which  there  are  bas-reliefs  and  inscriptions 
of  almost  two  thousand  years  old,  may  be  reckoned  among 
the  curiosities  of  bis  library.     He  spent  most  of  his  time 
among  his  books,  without  aiming  at  any  post  of  figure  or 
profit;  be  had,  however,   two  honourable  employments; 
for  he  assisted  at  a  conclave  held  after  the  death  of  pope 
Innocent  X.  and  was  the  French  king's  envoy  at  Genoa. 
He  was  attacked  with  a  slow  fever  in  1692,  and  died  Oc- 
tober the  same  year  at  the  age  of  seventy-one.     According 
to  the  account  given,  he  managed  himself  very  improperly 
in  this  illness :  for  he  diminished  his  strength  by  absti- 
nence, while  he  should  have  increased  it  with  hearty  food 
and  strong  wines,  which  was  yet  the  more  necessary  on  ac- 
count of  his  great  age.     "  Thevenot's  Travels  into  the  Le- 
vant, &c."  were  published  in  English,  in  i687,  folio;  they 
had  been  published  in  French,  at  Paris,  1663,  folio.     He 
wrote  also  "  L' Art  de  nager,**  the  Art  of  Swimming,  12mo^ 
1696.* 

« 

*  Vouitti  d«  Po€L  Grac. — Moreri.  *  Journal  des  Saraat,  to].  ^. 


ifO  T  H  E  V  E  T. 

I 

THEVET  (Andrew),  a  writer  of  son?e  note  in  the  16tk 
century,  swas  born  at  Angoulesme,  and  entered  the  Fran* 
ciscan  order,  and  afterwards  Tisited  Italy,  the  Holy  Land, 
Egypt,.  Greece,  and   Brasil.     At  his  return  to  France  im 
1556,  he  quitted  the  cordelier^s  habit,  took  that  of  an  ec-' 
ctesiastic,  and  was  appointed  almoner  to  queen  Catherine- 
de  Medicis.    He  had  the  titles  of  historiographer  of  France, 
and  cosmographer  to  the  king,  and  received  the  profits  of 
those  offices.     He  died  Nov,  23,  1590,  aged  eighty- eight,, 
leaving   **  Cosmographie  de  Levant,"   Lyons,   1554,  4to> 
*^  A   History  of  illustrious  Men,"    1671,  8  vols.  12mo,  or 
1684,  2  vols.  fol.  a  work  of  very  little  merit;  but  the  folia 
edition  is  esteemed  of  some  price  on  account  of  the  por- 
traits.    He  wrote  also  '^  Singularit^s  de  la  France  Antarc- 
tique,"  Paris,   1558,  4to,  and  several  other  books,  from 
which  the  author  appears  to  have  been  a  great  reader,  but^ 
at  the  same  time,  to.  have  possessed  great  credulity,  and 
little  judgment.  * 

THEW  (Robert),  an  excellent  engraver,  wa^rborn  m 
1758,  at  Pattrington,  in  Holderness,  in  the  East  Riding  o£ 
York,  where  his  father  was  an  innkeeper.  At  a  proper  age 
be  was  placed  as  an  apprentice  to  a  cooper,  at  which  bu«« 
siiiess,  on  the  expiration  of  his  apprenticeship,  he  worked 
some  time.  During  the  American  war  he  became  a  pri- 
vate in  the  Northumberland  militia  ;  at  the  conclusion  of 
which,  in  1783,  hie  came  to  settle  at  Hull,  where  he  coin- 
menqed  engraver  of  shop-bills,  cards,  &c.  One  of  his  first 
attempts  was  a  card  for  a  tinner  and  brazier,  executed  in  » 
very  humble  style.  He  engraved  and  published  a  plan 
of  Hull,  which  is  dated  May  6,  1784,  and  afterwards  soli- 
cited subscriptions  for  two  views  of  the  dock  at  thafe 
place,  which,  it  is  thought,  be  shortly  after  published.  He 
also  engraved,  while  there,  a  head  of  Harry  Rowe,  the  fa- 
mous puppet-showman  of  York,  after  a  drawing  by  J.  Eng- 
land. Another  account  says,  that  an  engraving  of  an  old 
woman's  head,  after  Gerard  Dow,  was  his  first  attempt,  and 
appeared  so  extraordinary,  that  on  the  recommendation  of 
the  hon.  Charles  Fox,  the  duchess  of  Devonshire,  and  lady 
Duncannon,  he  was  appointed  historical  engraver  to  the 
prince  of  Wales,  In  1788,  the  marquis  of  Carmarthen^ 
whose  patronage  he  first  obtained  by  constructing  a  ver^ 
curious  camera  obscura,  wrote  him  a  recommendatory  let« 

1  Moreri. — Diet.  Hist 


T  H  E  w.  m. 

r  *  * 

ler  to  Alderman  Boy  dell,  who  immediately  offered  bim  300 
guineas  to  engrave  a  plate  from  Nortbcote's. picture  of  Ed- 
ward V.  taking  leave  of  his  brother  the  duke  of  York.     He 
afterwards  engraved,  for  Boydell,  a  number  of  capital  plates. 
Crom  the  Shakespeare  gallery,  and  from  the  paintings  by 
sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  Shee,  Westall,  Smirke,  Fuseli,  North-; 
cote,  Peters,  &c.  all  which  are  very  extraordinary  speci- 
mens of  graphic  excellence,  and  have  been  highly  and  de-. 
served ly  approved  by  the  coni\oisseur,  and  well  received  by. 
the  public.    Of  Boydell's  Shakspeare,  nineteen  of  the  large 
plates  are  from  his  hand.     He  had  received  very  little  in- 
struction, but  depended  solely  on  native  genius^  aided  by 
an  intense  application,  by  which  he  suddenly  arrived  at  great 
excellence  in  the  art.     Almost  at  the  outset  of  his  career 
be  became  connected  with  Messrs.  Boydell  by  extensive 
engagements  on  their  Shakspeare,  a  work  which  will  long, 
bear  ample  testimony  to  his  rare  merit  and  talents.     The 
distinguishing  characteristics  <of  his  practice  consisted  in 
most  ^ithfully  exhibiting  the  true  spirit  and  st:yle  .of  each, 
master ;  a  most  minute  accuracy,  a  certain  polish,  and  ex- 
quisite delicacy  of  manner;  with  the  appropriate  character, 
given  to  all  objects,  while  a  mildness  of  tone  and  perfect 
harmony  pervaded  the  whole  piece.     The  Cardinal  Wol- 
sey  entering  Leicester  Abbey,  from  Westall,  is  certainly 
the  greatest  effort  of  bis  skUI,  and. is,  by  many  of  the  best-* 
informed  connoisseurs  and  artists,  held  to  be  a  first-rate 
specimen  in  that  style  of  engraving.     This  ingenious  artist 
died  in  July  1802,  at  Stevenage  in  Hertfordshire.  ^ 

THIERRI,  or  Theodoric  de  Niem^  a  native  of  Pader- 
born  in  Westphalia,  who  was  under- secretary  at  Rome  to 
Gregory  XI.  Urban  VI.  &c.  attended  John  XXIII.  to  the  , 
couiicil  of  Constance,'  as  writer  of  the  Apostolical  Letters, 
and  abbreviator ;  but  after  that  pontiff^s  flight,  wrote  a 
very  violent  invective  against  him,  and  died  about  1417,, 
leaving  the  following  works:  "A  History  of  the  Schism," 
which  is  very  curious,  and  ends  in  1410,  Noremberg,  1592,. 
fol.;  a  book  concerning  ^'The  Privileges  and  Rights  of  the 
Emperors  in  the  Investitures  of  Bishops,"  printed  in 
**  Schardii  Syntagma  de  Imperiali  Jurisdictione,"  Argent. 
1609,  fol.  3  «'  A  History  of  John  XXIH."  Francfort,  1620, 
4to;  and  ^^  A  Journal  of  the  Council  of. Constance."  Tbi» 
author's  styU  in    Latin  is   dry  and   unpleasant,  but  very 

>  Gent.  Ma|^.  1802. 


972  T  H  I  £  R  R-I. 

forcible,  and  bis  narrations  are  accurate  and  faithful.  Sofne 
attribute  to  him  tlie  treatise  '^  On  the  necessity, of  Refori^ 
Illation  in  the  Church,  both  with  respect  to  its  head  an4 
its  members,"  which  others  give  to  Peter  d'Ailli.'  • 

THIERS  (John  Baptist),, a  learned  doctor  of  the  Sor-t 
bonne,  and  a  celebrated  writer  of  the  seventeenth  century,| 
was  born  at  Chartres,  about  1636.  He  professed  belles* 
lettres^  at  Paris,  and  became  curate  of  Vibrty,  in  the  djo-* 
cese  of  Mans,  where  he  composed  several  of  bis  works^- 
and  where  he  died  February  28,  1703,  aged  sixty-five.  He 
left  a  great  many  works,  which  are  now  but  seldom  read^, 
though  they  are  very  learned^  and  very  often  singular. 

"  The   History  of  Perukes"  is  one  of  bis  most  known, 
and  curious  books.     He  designed  it  again&t  those  ecclesi- 
astics   who  were  not  contented  to  wear  their  own  hair,* 
The  year  1629  (says  he)  is  the  epoch  of  perukes  in  France.^ 
He  maintains,  that  no  clergyman  wore  a  peruke   before 
1660,  and  pretends  that  there  is  no  instance  of  it  in  anti-r, 
quity.     He  observes,  that  cardinal  de  Richelieu  was  the 
first  who  wore  a  calot;  and  that  the  bishop  of  Evreux  hav- 
ing prefixed  to  the  life  of  St.  Francis  de  Sales  (which  he* 
presented  to  pope  Alexander  VIIL)   a  print   wherein  that, 
-saint  appeared  with  a  leather  cap  on,  the  pope  bad  mucin 
ado  to  accept  that  book,  attended  witli  such  an  irregularity.^ 
M.  Thiers  exclaims  against  those  ecclesiastics,  who. powder, 
their  perukes,  and  wear  them  of  a  different  colour  from , 
their  own  hair.     He  answers  the  arguments  that  may  be, 
alledged  in  favour  of.  the  clergy.     As  for  what  concerns, 
their  beard  and  their  bands,  he  says,  no  ecclesiastic  wore, 
a  band   before  the  middle  of  last  century.     There  have, 
been  many  variations  about  their  beard.     Sometimes  sbav-  j 
ing  was  looked  upon  as  a  kind  of  effeminacy,  and  a  long  s 
beard  appeared  very  suitable  with  the  sacerdotal  gravity  ;  ; 
add  sometimes  a  venerable  beard  was  accounted  a  piece  of  ^ 
pride  and  stateliness.  When  cardinal  d'Angennes  was  about » 
to  take  possession  of  his  bishopric  of  Mans  in  1556,  he 
wanted  an  express  order  from  the  king  to  be  admitted  with 
bis  long  beard,  which  he  could  not  resolve  to  cut.     M. 
Thiers  acknowledges  those  variations  about  the  beard  ;  but 
he  maintains  that  the  discipline  has  been  constant  and  uni- 
form as  to  perukes  ;  and  therefore,  be -says,  tiiey  ought  to 
be  Uid  aside,  and  beseeches  the  pope  and  the  king  to  sup- ' 
press  such  a  novelty. 

1  Dupin.— MorerL 


T  H  I  E  R  S.  i7S 

Among  bis  otber  works  are,  2.  ''  Traill  des  Superstitions 
i|ui  regardent  lesSacremens/*  4  vols.  12fno,  a  book  esteemed 
agreeable  and  useful  by  those  of  bis  own  communSn.  S. 
^  Trait^  de  Texposition  du  ^aint  Sacrement  de  TAuteV 
1663,  12nio.  Some  have  esteemed  this  his  best  produc- 
tion. Miny.  other  articles  are  enumerated  by  his  biogra- 
phers,  but  few  of  them  interesting  in  this  country.  ^ 

THIRLBY  (Styan),  LL.  D.  a  very  ingenious  and  learned 
English  critic,  was  the  son  of  Mr.  Thirlby,  vicar  of  St. 
Margaret*s  in  Leicester,  and  born  about  1692*  He  re- 
ceived his  education  first  at  the  free-school  of  Leicester, 
under  the  rev.  Mr  Kilby,  then  head  usher,  from  which 
school  he  was  sent  in  three  years  to  Jesus  college,  Cam- 
bridge, and  shewed  early  m  life  great  promise  of  excel- 
lence. From  his  mental  abilities  no  small  degree  of  future 
eminence  was  presaged  :  but  the  fond  hopes  of  his  friends 
were  unfortunately  defeated  by  a  temper  which  was  na- 
turally indolent  and  quarrelsome,  and  by  an  unhappy  ad- 
diction to  drinking.  Among  his  early  productions  of  id* 
genuity  was  a  Greek  copy  of  verses  on  the  queen  of  She* 
ba*s  visit  to  Solomon.  Iir  1710  he  published  **  The  univer- 
sity of  Cambridge  vindicated  from  the  imputation  of  dis- 
loyalty it  lies  under  on  account  of  not  addressing ;  as  also 
from  the  malicious  and  foul  aspersions  of  Dr.  Bentley,  late 
master  of  Trinity  college,  and  of  a  certain  officer  and  pre- 
tended reformer  in  the  said  university,''  Lond.  1710.  This 
was  followed  in  17 12  by  ^' An  answer  to  Mr.  Whiston's 
seventeen  suspicions  concerning  Athanasius,  in  his  His- 
torical Preface  *,*'  and  by  two  other  pamphlets  on  the 
same  subject.  He  obtained  a  fellowship  of  his  college  by 
the  express  desire  of  Dr.  Charles  Ashton,  who  said  **  be  had 
bad  the  honour  of  studying  with  him  when  young  ;*'  though 
he  afterwards  spoke  very  contemptuously  of  him  as  the 
editor  of  '*  Justin  Martyr,"  which  appeared  in  17!23,  in 
folio  ;  and  the  dedication  to  which  has  always  been  consi- 
dered as  a  masterly  production,  in  style  particularly.  After 
Thirlby's  publication  of  Justin,  Dr.  Ashton^  perhaps  to 
shew  him  that  he  had  not  done  all  that  might  have  been 
done,  published,  in  one  of  the  foreign  journals,  *'  Some 

*  "  VTritten  by  one  rery  young,  tnffer  hira  to  bestow  upon  them."  Pre- 

an*!,  h«  may  add,  at  such  bniken  houri  face. — It  appears  by  another  tract  in 

as  many  necessary  avfcatiuns  and  a  this  controversy,  that  Mr.  Thirl  by  was 

very  unsatUed  ktate  of  health  would  then  *'  abojtiit  twenty  years  old." 

>  Moreri.— Oict.  Hist. 

Vol.  XXIX.  "  T 


«»♦  T'H  IB  L  B  Y. 

fioetidaUons  ofhtAty  passage^/'  wbieb  fvbenHiirii^jp  Avvr, 
1^^  said,  slighUDgly,  tb?t  **  ai>y  man  wfao  wauldi  might  bava 
made  jtbepiy  and  a  bundred  more.''  Tbiw  far  Mr.  Tbirlby 
Wfut  od  in  tbe  study. of  divinity;  but  bi^  FettatUity  led 
bim  to  cry  tbe  round  of  tbe  otber  learned  professions.  Hii 
next  pursuit  was  physio^  and  for  a  while  be  was  calledl 
**  Doctdn"  Wbile  be  was  a  nominal  pbysician^  be  liveA 
4Pipe  iime  witb  tbe  duke  of  Chandos,  ^as  librarian,  and  is 
reported  to  bave  affected  a  perverse  and  indolent  ipde* 
pendeQce,  sp  as  caplticio^lsly  to  refuse  bis  company  wbeii 
It  was  desired.  It  may  be  supposed  tbey  were  soon  weary 
of  escb  other.  ... 

Tbirlby  then  studied  tbe  civU  Htw,  in  wbich  be  lectueed 
while  the  late  sir  Edward  Walpole  was  his  pupil  ^  but  be 
v^as  a  careless  tutor,  scarcely  ever  reading  lectures.    Thm 
late  learned  Dr.  Jortin,  who  was  one  of  bis  pupils,  waa  very> 
early  in  life  recommended  by  bim  to  traiislate  some  of 
£ustatbius's  notes  for  tbe  use  of  ^^  Pope's  Homer,"  aodr 
complained  ^*  that  Pope  having  accepted  and  approved  bis^ 
performance,  never  testified  any  curiosity  or  desire  to  soft 
hinpl."    The  civil  law  displeasing  bim,-  he  applied  to  com«s 
m.oo  law,  aod  bad  chambers  taken  for  bim  in  tbe  Temple; 
by  bis  friend  Andrew  Reid,  with  a  view  of  being  epteredr 
of  tb^sQciety,  and  being  called  to  tbe  bar;  but -of  tbis^ 
scheme  be  likewise  grew,  weary.    He  came,  boweveri  to^ 
l^ndoo,  tO;thehous^  of  his  friend  sic  £dward  Walpole^: 
who  procured  for  him  tbe  oflSce- of  a  king's  waiter  in  bbei 
port  of  Londopy  in  May  17419  a  sinecure  place  worth  about» 
100/.  per  annum*    While  be  was  in.  sir  Edward's  house  hei 
kept  a  miscellaneous  book  of  memorables,  containing  i^bat- 
evex  was  said  or  done  amiss  by  sir  Edward  or  any  part  of  ■ 
his  family^    The  remainder  of  bis  days,  were  passed  in  pri-r< 
li^ate  lodgings,  where,  be  lived  in  a  very  retired  mannefy.: 
seeing  only  a  few  friends^  and -indulging  occasionally  in  < 
esccessive  drinking,  being  sometimes  in  a  state  of  intoxica- 
tion for.  five  or  sis  w<eeks  together ;  and,  as  is  usual  with 
siicb  ipeUf  appeared  to  be  so  even  when  sober  ;  and  in  his ' 
cups  be  was  jealous  and  quarrelsome*.    An  acquaintance 
Mrbo  found  bim  one  day  in  the  streets  harmiguing  the  crowd, 
and  took  him  home  by  gentle  violence,  was  afterwards 
highly  esteemed  by  Tbirlby  for  not  relating  the  story.     He 
contributed  some  notes  to  Theobald's  Sbakspeare;    and 
afterwards  talked  of  an  edition  of  his  own.     Dr.  Jortin  un- 
dertook to  read  over  that  poet,  with:  a  view  to  mark  the 


T  i!  I  R  L  ti  fi  i^* 

fmalBLgen  wheie  be  biid  either  ittiitatl^d 'Gf^e^  atid^  Latlh 
writers,  or  at  least  had  faUen  into  the  sannnfe  thoughts  and 
expresaidns.  Vbirlby,  boturerer,  dropped  his  design  ;*  hvtt' 
left  a  Sfaatep^re^  with  soitie  abusive  reniaHcs  on  Watbui'- 
ton  in  the  margin  of  the  fitst  volume,  aftd  si  Very  fe^v"  iit« 
tenvpts  at  emendations,  and  those  perhaps  all  in  the  first 
vohune.  In  the  other  volames  be  had  only,'  with  great  di-* 
ligenee,  ieoviiited  the  lines  in  every  page.  When  thisi  was 
told  to  Dr.  Jortin,  <<I  have  known  him/'  said  be,  ^*  amuse 
bimcielf  wi^h  still  slighter  emploiyment:  be  would  write 
down  all  the  proper  names  that  he  could  call  into  hTs-  me- 
mory.** His  mind  seem^  to  have  been  tumultuous  arid  d^- 
sfiltorv,  and  be  was  glad  to  catch  any  emt)Ioymdnt  that 
ifoigbi  ptfaduce  attention  witbouft  smxiety.  -  Tbe  copy,  such 
as  it  was,-  became  the  property  of  sir  Edward  Walpnle^tb 
wbom  be  bequeathed  ^11  his  books  and  pap^re,  and  who* 
lent  it  td  Dr.  Johnson  when  be  was  preparing  his  valuable 
edition  of  "  shakspeare**  for  the  ffress ;  accordingly  thd 
imme  of  Thirlby  appears  in  it  as  a  eomfhehtato'r.  He  died 
Dec.  19,  1753*  One  of  Dr;  Thirlby»s  coHoqtiial  tdpics 
may  be  quoted,  as  in  it  he  seeriis  to^  have  dfa^n  bis  own 
chatacten  with  one  of  those  Reuses  for  which  self-conceit 
H  never  at  a  tosi.  **  Sonfetime^,"  liaid  he,  ^*  Nature  sends 
into  the  world  a  man  of  powers  superior  to  the' rest,  of' 
quicker  intuition,  and  wider  comptehen^ioi^ ;  this  nian  has 
all  other  men  for  his  enemies,  and  Wotild  not  h6  sn^refd 
to  live  hh  natural  time,  biH  that  his  excellen^ctes  are  hi- 
lanced  by  his  failings.  He  that,  by  intellectual  exaltation, ' 
thus  towers  above  his  conteMp^oraries^  is  Smitkeft,  or  lazy^ 
Of  capriciom;  or,  by  some  defect  or  othter,  Is  hindered 
from  exerting  bis  soveVeignty  of  Aftrfd ;  Ke'  is  tlhns  kept^ 
upon.  <he  level,  and  thus  preserved  from  the  destruction 
which  would  be  the  'tiatuM  tioHsequence  of  i^iiiversai 
hatred'* 

Aa  the  edition  of  9  JPustin  Martyi*^  was  Che  magnum  opus ' 
of  Dr.  Thirlby,  and  be  is  a  wriferof  whom  little  has^evqr' 
hitherto  been  said,  this  article  may  be  enlarged  with  the 
opinions  of  some  eminent  scholars  on  that  performance. 

«  The  learned  Mr.  Thirlby,"  says  Mr.  Bowyer,  «  fellov^ 
of  Jesus  college,  is  publishing  a  new  edition  of  ^Justin 
Martyr's  two  Apologies,*  and  bis  ^  Dialogue  with  Trypho 
the  Jew.'  The  Greek  text  will  be  J^rinied  exactly  a:ccjoi*d- 
ing  to  R.  Stephens's  edition.  The  version  is  Langius's, 
corrected  in  innumerable  places.     On  the  same  page  with 

T  2 


270  T  H  IR  LjB  Y. 

the  ttxt  and  version  are  primed  tbe  notes  and  eiiiendttion» 
of  tbe  editor,  with  select  notes  of  all  the  foraier  editors, 
and  of  Scaliger,  Casaubon,  SaUnasius,  Capeilus^  Vale»iHs, 
and  other  learned  meor.  Tbe  most  selected  places  have^ 
been  collated  witli  the  MS.  from  which  R.  Stephens's  edi- 
tion was  taken,  and  the  variation^  are  inserted  in  their 
proper  places.  At  the  f  nd  are  bishop  Pearson's  notes  from 
the  margin  of  his  book,  and,  Drr  Davb's  notes  upon  the 
first  ^Apology  ;*  both  now  first  printed*" 

<^  You  are  much  mistaken,"  says  Dr.  Asbton,  inanun- 
printed  letter  to  Dr.  Moss,  *^  in  thinking  Tbirlby  wants 
some  money  from  you  (though  in  trtuh  he  wants) :  ypa 
are  only  taken  in  to  adorn  hiifr  tviumph  by  a  letter  of  ap- 
plause, though  I  think  you  may  spare  that  too;  for  be 
is  set  forth  in  his  coach,  with  great  ostentation,  to.  visit 
bis  patron.  I  have  not  bad  tbe  patience  to  read  all  his  de<» 
dication,  but  have  seen  enough  to  observe  that.it  is  stuffed 
with  self-conceit,  and  an  insolent  contempt  of  others,  Bent- 
ley  especially,  whom  he  again  points  out  in.  p.  18*.  He 
sticks  not  to  fling  scorn  upon- Justin  himself,  as  a.  trifling^ 
writer,  beneath  his  dignity  to  consider,  and  so  absurd  a 
reasoner  as  only  pemvfue  litura  can  mend.  I  have. read 
aboutsizty  pages  of  his  performance,  and^m.really  ashamed 
to  find  so  much  self-sufficiency,  and  insufficiency.  I  am 
almost  provoked  to  turn  critic  myself,  and  let  me  te^upt 
you  to  a  little  laughter,  by  promising  to  shew  you  some 
conceits  upon  Justin  \  wbich  aie  under  no  name  io  Thirlby'a 
edition.'' 

In  a  letter  from  Mr.  Clarke  to  Mr.  Bowyer,  dated  Mavch 
10,  17 6 8^  he  says,  <<  i  think  somebody  has  tokl  me,  thai 
*•  Justin  Martyr's  Apology'  has  been  lately  published  from 
Dr^  Ashton's  papera;  by  whom  I  know  not  His  *  Hie- 
rocles'  shews  that  Needbam  was  not  equal  to  that  vifoi^k  t 
has  this  the  same  view  with  regard  to  Tbirlby  ?  1'bat  man 
was  lost  to  the  republic  of  letters  very  surprizingly ;  be 
went  o£^  and  returned  no  more."  ^ 

^  He  treats  Dr.  Bentley  in  that  page  fuit,  neque  esse  potuit,  atpote  neque 

with  the  bigbe&t  contempt*  as  be  bad  ingenfe,  neque  judicir»,  neqae  si  ve- 

dooe  before  in  hit  prefiice.  •  He  treats  rum  dioere  licet  dtMtriod,  satis  ad  earn. 

Meric  Casaubon  and  Isaac  Vossius  in  rem  ioitructus."     How  different  i«  this> 

a  maDner  not  much  different^  and  of  from  the  character  given-  him  by  that 

Hbfi  learned  Dr.  Orabe  bespeaks  ill  bit  learaed  and  truly  good  man  Mr.  NeU 

preface  as  toltows:  **  Grabius  vir  bo-  son,  in  bis  **  Life  of  bishopBull/'  p.. 

nos,  nee  iodtx^tus  fuit,  et   in  scriptis  402. 
patrttiii  apprime  versatus,  criticus  noii 

1  Miebob'f  Bowyer— sad  Poems,  taK  VI.  p.  lU. 


THOMAS.  k7i 

*  * 

THOMAS  (Antony,  Leonabd),  '  a  member  of  the 
French  academy,  was  born  in  1732,  at  Clermont  in  Au-^ 
vei^ne,  the  country  of  the  celebrated  Pascal.  He  received 
from  his  mother  a  severe,  and  almost  a  Spartati  education. 
The  three  children  of  that  estimable  woman  were  brought 
up  chiefly  under  her  own  eyes.  His  two  elder  brothers 
died,  the  one  in  1748,  the- other  in  1755,  both  young  men, 
and  both  having  signalized  themselves  in  literature.  Jo- 
seph, the  eldest,  had  produced  a  comedy ;  and  John,  the 
second,  excelled  in  Latin  poetry.  The  death  of  bis  second 
brother,  impressed  Antony  very  early  with  a  strong  sense 
of  the  vanity  of  worldly  cares;  and  with  a  profound  piety, 
which  enhanced  the  value  of  fats  character.  He  had  a  de- 
cided taste  for  poetry,  but  was  designed  for  the  bar.  In 
obedience  to  the  wish  of  his  mother,  he  went  to  CJermont, 
to  follow  a  study  repugnant  to  his  taste;  but  going  with 
her  to  Paris,  waen  John  was  at  the  point  of  death,  his 
friends  offered  him  a  professorship  in  the  college  of  Beau-' 
vais.  This,  therefoi^,  he  accepted,  as  more  congenial  to 
bis'  feelings,  though  less  splendid  in  appearance,  than  the 
profession  for  which  he  had  been  designed.  He  was 
M>on'in  high  estimation  for  his  talents  as  a  poet  and  an 
onCtor ;  and  M.  Watelet,  a  rich  man,  and  a  man  of  letters, 
offered  him  a  pension'  as  a  tribute  to  his  merit ;  but  he' 
efabde,  vnth  becoming  pride,  to  owe  bis  subsistence  to  his 
'  own  talents,  rather  than  to  the  generosity  of  any  one.  He 
vras  afterwatxls^  secretary  to  the  duke  de  Praslio,- minister 
*  for  foreign  affairs ;  secretary  to  the  Swiss  cantons  (an  in- 
dependent place  in  the  gbveniment) ;  and  fihally  secretary 
to  the  duke  of  Orleans.  He  was  also  a' member  of  the 
academy,  though  it  is  said  that  he  once  refused  to  be 
chosen,  when  he  found  that  he  was  proposed  chiefly  out  of 

{lique  to  another  candidate,  M.  Marmontei.  Without  any 
ortune  but  his  pension  from  the  court,  and  the  trifling  re- 
ward he  received  for  his  assidnbus  attendance  at  the  aca- 
demy, he  continued  to  reside  at  Paris ;  and  latterly,  with 
a  »ister  who  superintended  his  domestic  concerns.  But^ 
bis  health  being  impaired  by  excessive  application,  he  was 
obliged  to  seek  the  more  favourable  climate  of  Nice,  where 
for  a  time  he  recovered  the  use  of  all  his  powers.  But  his 
lunigft  had  always  been  weak,  and  being  seized  also  with  a 
fef«r,  he  died  September  17,  1785,  in  the  house  of  the 
^  archbishop  of  Lyons,  and  was  buried  at  the  neighbouring 
village  of  Oalins«    At  the  time  of  his  death  he  was  em- 


^^t  >  S  O  M  A  S: 

ployed  10.  WEitiag.,a'po€m  or  the  e«ar  Petor  tiie  6fMt| 
styled  the  <^  P6trtode/'  which  has  never  bean  piibliriied.  - 
The  peraoual,  cbajracter  of  M.  Thomas,  was  held  sttU 
higher  tha^  ev«n  the  merit  of  his  wovks  couid  claini#  Vm 
had  that  amiable  simplicity  of  manners  which  prevents  a 
man  of  g^niop  ,fcom  offending  others  by  his  superiority^ 
He  was  just^  moderate,  gentle,  an  «nemy  to  noise  and 
ostentation,  a  good  firiend,  aiid  an  affeotionate  son*  H^ 
wa^  not  indifierent  to  commeodi^tion  or  censure,  hut  re* 
reived  the  .one  without,  vanity,  and  theoth^r  without  anger* 
It  w^s  in  1756,  that  be  first  appei^red  as  an  author,  by 

?ublishing,  1.  ^<  Refleixions  bistoriqeea  et  Iti^rai^es  sur  le 
otme  de  la  Religion  natnaelle^de  Voltaire,''  ISmo,  hv 
t^ts  able  tcaot  h^  defended  revalaiion  wilhont  bigotry ;  a^d^ 
aUowing  t^^  great  ti^lenta  ol  bis  anMigpaistv  lamjaoted  hia 
^rrofs,  and  treated  him  with  pc4itenesf»  2>  Iq  lli9  he 
iprrote  and  pfV)npunced  his  '<  Elpge  du  Maresehal  de  $axe,'' 
1^  pertbrmance;  whici^  gained  him  the  crown  from  tbeacat 
demy,  and  the  credit  of  uniting  the  prepiaion  of  Tacitua 
with  the  elevation  of  Bossuet.  He  pjMlueed  i^t^ward^ 
similar  orations  in  praise  of  d*  AgueMeai^  da  Guai  Trouin, 
Sully,  and  Descartes,  whieb.  wer^  equ^^Uy  admired ;  and 
with  aq  additipqM  eiiloginm  on  Mi^nsiis  Anretms,  pnlilishcid 
together. by  him^f„  with  very  valuable- notesr  5;  Ii^  17?9 
l|.e  piwtfluced  his.  *^  JE^ssai  suf  le«  caraqtdre^  l0s.  moears,.  et 
I'esprit  di^s  Fjpmmesr '  ft^mu  This.  19  not  esteeiped  oqcialiy 
jodicipos.  ^  4p  ^^E^Bi  sor  le%  Eloges^"  1773,  2  vob.  Bvo* 
This  is  A  wofk  .of  g^eat  geniiis;  and  dloquefice ;  and  oontaina 
many  able  pprtri^i  of  iUiistrious  persons*  He  produced 
4^so,  >.  Several  poem^^;  a%  ><  Epitre  au  Feup]^,*'  ^'  Ode 
aur  ks  temps,*'  a^dv<<  JumonviUe,"  with  some  others.  ^ 
A  ballet  ii>  three  actSf  called  ^Ampbion;^'  but  thi^  is  not 
reckoned  one  pf  the  best  powers  in  .hi»<  orewn.  :  It  was 
played  in  L767.  His  prpse^wprks  were  published  eeUec^ 
tively  m  1773 ;  and  form  4  vols^  12mQf  but  a  B^ore  caau 
plete  edition  appeared  in  I18O2,  7.  vols,  dvo.^ 

THOMAS  (Christian),  a  modern  philosopher,  was  bora 
at  Leipsic,  in  1653,  and  was  well  educatedi  Brst  under  bit 
father,  and  afterwards  in  the  Leipsic  university^  At  fiffst^ 
he  acquiesced  iu.the.  established  doctrines  of  tbe» schools; 
but,  upon  reading  Puffendorrs  <^- Appleby  for  rejecting  tbe 
ScjlioliMStic  Principles  pf  Mprals^  and  Law^"  hOi  detenpiueA 

!  Diet*  Hist.— Europ.  Mag.  1792.— Life  by  Deleire. 


T  tt  a  SI  «  s:  fif  I 

thi^EMbimoe  all  implioit  defenehce  tb  ahtteftl'dognills'  I^i 
reid  iectores  upon  tbe  iubject  of  nattiral  law^fifrt  frotai  tb^ 
text  of  Grotius,  and'  after\^l^rd8  from  that  of  Puffendorf, 
flatly  exercising  his  own  judgment,  and  bbldly  adTsCncing 
/new  opiniM8*  Whilst  bis  father  was  living,  pater^af  pru[4' 
(denee  »iid<  modectttion  restraiif^d  tbe  natural  i^eb^menci 
end  acrimony  of 'the  yoiing^nian'fi  temper,  which  v^as  too 
apt  to  break  otts^  Men  in  his  public  lectures.  But  wbeii 
iie  was  teft  lo  himself,  tbe  bdldtess  with  which  b^advahcel 
unpopular  ttoets;  and  ibe  severity  with  which  be  dealt  out 
his  satirical  censures,  soon  brought  upon*  hitri'  the  violeTft 
reftentment  of  theologians  and  prdfestoirs; 

An  <<  lotrodtietadn  to  Poffend6rf^''  wbich^  Tbbortas  pbU- 
lisbed  in  1687,in  whiob  kededUb^  thl^  obligation  of  mehiHtjr 
from  mrtuMl  principles,  ocbaiioned  gr^t  ofiFeilce,  #btich 
be  increased  in  tbe  folidwing  yeaf,' .  by  commencing  a 
inouti»ly>  journal  wbicb'  be  cf ailed  <*Fre^  Tbbnglits:  bt 
Monthly  Diaioguea  on  varioUH^  bookis,  chiefly  ildw^^'  ifi 
urtkich  be  attacked  many  of  bl^  tontemjdoraH^i^  with  such 
severky,'  and  probably  with  sueb  injustice,  thatf  bti  heit^- 
rowly  escape  pitni^ment  from'  the  ecofledastldt)  cbbii  df 
DresdetK  A  chai^  also  of  content^  df  t'ellgrmi  wah 
brought  against  him,  but  niras^  dot  prbs^ctkted.  ^  A  sMtiriciA 
review,  wfaicb  he  irrote^  of  a  tr^alis^'  <<  Oh'  tbef  Diririe  rigKt 
of  Kings,"  pabli^ed  by  a  Danish  divine;  <<  A  De^ce  ctf 
the.  Sect  of  tbe  Pietists,^'  «Ad  otb^r  ^afeiridal  pi^blieattonii^ 
at  lafrt  e>kciti5d  tbe  resentment  df  the  clei^y  aj^instTbomaif, 
and  be  ftittud  it  neeessary  to  leave  L^sic,  a^d  by  the 
pttirmisfii^n  of  this  dlector  of  Brtndenburgb^  read  privatb 
feetureHi  ih  tdie  eity  of  Hall.  After  a  sb(^'  interval,'  be  was 
appointed' pubHc'pix>fes^dr  of  jurisprudfehce,  first  in  Bei^- 
Itd,  atid  aftehvards  at  Hal4.  In  tbese  situations,  hi^tbouglft 
bimselfat  fulitibert^  to  indulge  bis  satirical  bmhour,  and 
to  engage  4n  the  controversies  of  tbd  times ;  and,  as  Ibng 
as'be  lived,'  be^ohtitiued  to  tttake  uto  df  this  liberty  in  i 
manner  wbitsh  ilttbje<ited  hini  to-much  odium.  He  died  at 
Hrflin'l/728i 

Be6idi;a  i^e  satirical  journal  already  mentioned,  Thomai 
wrote  seV^rat  treatises  oh  logic,  morals j  and  jurisprudence; 
in  Wbicb  be  advanced  many  dogmas  contrary  to  received 
opinions.  In  his  writings  on  physics,  b^  leaves  tbe  ground 
<rf  expetiment  ahd  rational  invest^tidn^  and  appears 
among  tbe  mystics.  His  later  pieces  are  in  many  particu- 
lars intonsiSteAt  wit)^  the  former.    His  princtpar  pbiloso* 


ta»  rmouAifSk 


watkM  ire  <<  Ad  lotKodaotnm  to  Avlk  Vmomphfi  «r 
^iltlines  to  the  An  of  Thiiikieg  and  Reasoning;**  ^^In^ 
trodu^tiou  to  Rational  PiiiloBopby  ;*V  <*  A  Logical  Pmxts;*^ 
<<  Introduction  to  Mpral  Pbibsophy  ;'*  ^  A  Core  for  Ivre* 
gular  Passions,  and  the  Doctrine  of  Self-Knowtedge;^^ 
^  The  new  Art  of  disooTOciog  the  aeofet  Thoughts  of 'Men  ^^ 
<^  Divine  Jurisprudence;''  ^' Koulddations  of  the  Law:  of^ 
>Iature  and  Nations ;"  ^^  Dissertation  on.  live  Crime  of  Ma« 

fie;".  <*  Essay  on  the  Nature. and  Essence  of  8pitfit»  ot 
rinciples  of  Natueal  and  Moral  Science ;'-'  <<  History  of 
Wisd(^m  and  Folly.*' 

Brucker  gives  the  following  brief  apeoimefi  of  the  more 
peculiar  tenets  of  this  bold,  eccentric^  and  inconsistent 
philosopher.  *^  Thought  arises  firom  'images  inspr^ssed 
upon  the  brain;  and  the  action  eftbiinkiiig  is  perfonned  Vk 
the  whole  brain.  Brutes  are  destitute  of  sensation.  '  Mall 
is  a  corporeal  substance,  capable  of  thifiking«and  nio^iit^^ 
4>r  endued  with  intellect  aiMl  will  Mao^  does  not  always 
think.  Truth  is  the  agreement  of  thought  with  the  natuffe 
of  things.  The  senses  are  not  deceitful,^  but^all  %lhicy  Is 
the  effect  of  precipitatioa  and  prejudice.  ^  Fn^m  percept 
lions  arise  ideas,  and  their  relations ;  and  from  these,  rea^- 
aonings.  It  b  impossible,  to  disco¥er  troth'  by  the  syllo^ 
fistic  art.  No  other  rule  is  necessary  in«  reas^niRg,  thah 
|h«it  of  following  the  natural  order  of  investigation ;  be^ 
ginning  from  those  thiaga  which  are  best  known,  and  pro- 
ceeding, by  easy  ateps,  to  those,  which  airie  more  difiicult,^ 
**  Perception,  is  a  passive  affection^  produeed  by  some 
external  object,  either  in  the  intellectual  sense,  or  in  th^ 
iuqlination  of  the  will.  Essence  is  that  'without  which  a 
thing,  cannot  be  perceived.  God  is  not  perceived  by.  the 
intellectual  sense,  but  by  the  inclination  of  the  will:  for 
creatures  affect  the  brain ;  but  Qod,  the  heart.  All  crea^ 
turesare.in  God  :  nothing  is  exterior  tohim.  Creation  k 
extension  produced,  from  nothing  by  the  divine  power- 
Creatures  are  of  two  kinds,  passive  Und  active ;  the. former 
is  matter ;  the  latter,  spirit.  Matter  is  dark  and  cold,  and 
capable  of  being  acted  upon  by  spirit,  which  is  light,  warm^ 
and  active.  Spirit  may  subsist  without  matter,  but  desires 
a  union  with  it..  All  bodies  consist  of  matter  andrspirii, 
and  have  therefore  some  kin  J  of  life.  Spirit  attracts  sfiirk, 
and  thus  sensibly  operates  upon  matter  united  to  spipt. 
This  attraction  in  man  is  called  love ;  in  other  bodies,  sym- 
pathy.   A  finite  spirit  may  .be  considered' aa, a  Umiteni 


T  H  O  M  A  Si 


St» 


• 

«|i)KNPCf ;»- wMcb  fay V  himinous^  wmnta,  ani  ftbdve,  fliMf 
ffom  a  centra*  Spirit  is  tbe  regtoo  of  the  body  to  wbich  it 
isuDitecl.  .The  region  of  finite  spiriis  is  <70d.  The  hu-i 
m^n  soul  is  a  ray  from  tbe  divine  nature;  whence  it  de- 
sires union  with  God|  wbo  is  love.  Silioe  the  essence  of 
spirit  consists  in  action,  and  of  body  in  passion^  spirit  may 
Insist  without  thought:  of  this  kind  are  light,  ether,  and 
other  active  principles  in  natu>e.'*  .  Fortunately,  says  4 
^€ry.  >udiciuus  writer^;  this  jargon. is  aa  uninteiUgihle  aa  tb^ 
^ategori^s  of  Kant,  and  the  blasphemies  of  Spinosa*^  i 
THOMAS  (EUZABETH),  known  to  tbe  world  by  th€ 
same  of  C^rinoji,  with  which  Dryden  flattenrd  her,  was 
born  in  1675;  and,  afeer  a  life  of  ill  health  and*  varioiai 
disappointments,  died  Feb.  3,.  1730,  in. her  fifty-sixth  yeai^ 
jsnd  was  buried  in  tbe  cbuccb  of  St.  Bride.  Among  ber 
jather  misfortunes,  she  laboured  under  the  displeasure  off 
Popje,  whom  she  bad  offended,  and  who  took  care  to  place 
Jier  in  bis  /^  Duociad.''  He  oooepaid  her  a  visit,  in  conv^ 
jiany  witb  Henry  Cromwell,  esq.  whose  tetters,t'by  some, 
accident,  fell  into  her  bands,  with  seme  of  Pope's  answers. 
As.  soon  as  that  gentleman  died,  Curll  found  me^tns  tb 
wheedle. th^o^  from  her,  and  immediately  coi;amitited  theiH 
.to  tlie  press  9  whieh  so  enraged  Pope^  tbathe  never  forgave 
ber»  Corinna,  considered  as  an  aiitbor,  has  very  few 
claims  to  notice :  she  had  not  so  much  wit  as  Mrs.  Behn  dr 
JMUis*  Manley,  nor  so  happy  a  gift  at  intellectual .  painting;; 
but  her  poetry  was  once  thought  soft  and  debcate,  and  her 
letters  sprightly  and  entertaining.  Her  poems^  were  pub« 
Jished  after  her  death,  by  Curll;  and  two  volumes  of  le^ 
ters  (under  tbe  title  of  <^  Pylades  and  Corinna,'')  which 
passed  betiireen  ber  and  a  Mr.  Gwynnet,  who  was  to  havte 
,been  ber  bjusband,  but  died  befoi:e  matters  could  be  atf* 
^ompliiifhed.  ..  In  this  last  publication  she  gives  ah  account 
Qf  her  own  life,  which  has  been  abridged  in  Cibber's 
^*  Lives,*'  and  other  collections ;  but  which  Mr.  Malone  h^s 
proved  sucfb  atissue  of  improbabilities  and  falsehoods,  that 
,a  mere  reference  to  it  may  be  thought  sufficient. ' 
,  THOMAS  (John),  bishop  of  ;Rochester,  the.  eldest  of 
three  squs  of  the  rev.  John  Tuomas,  many  years  vicar  of 
Brampiou  in  Cumberland,  was  born  at  Carli&le  Oct.  14, 
.1712.     Many  of  bis  ancestors,  both  on  the  paternal  and 

*  Brncker^-^Suppl.  to  the  Eocycl.  Brit. 

•  Life  as  aboTe.— Malone^s  Dryden,  vol.  I.  p.  347.  II.  p.  9S,  108.— iJowlM's 


T  HO  H  AS. 

«atenml  udi^  were  re«»rkable  fer  Aeir  longief i^';  sd^tkfilt 
iie  migfat  .be  cdnsidered  as*  <^  born  with  sooaeiihat  Hkis  ei^ 
liereditary  claiAi  to  leogtb  of  daya^/'  Being  designed  for 
tfav  church,  at  a  proper  age  be  was  plac^  in  tbe  gram* 
ttiar-'school  at  Carlisle,  whence  he  was  sent  to  Oxford^  \h 
173(V  ^aady  on  tbe  I23d  of  November,  i«as  adiiiitied  a  edm- 
ittoner  of- Queen' t^eoU^e.  Soon  after  bis  admissiciU' be 
had  a  ^i^rksbip*  given  bitti  by  Dr.  Smitb,  then  prbtost 
'Having  discharged  tUsoffioe,  and  ooosplet^  bis  terms^ 
he  put  on  a  civilian's  gown,  and,  leairtpg  Oxford,  becatail^. 
SMt  assistant  at  tbe  olassical  academy  in  Sobo^square.  In 
this  situation  be  acquitted  bisMelf  so  weU,  as  to-be  r^oem^ 
mended  lobe  privaife  tutor  to  ibd  younger  son  of  sir  Wil*' 
liam  Clayton,  bart.  a  charge  which  led  to  his' future  cAe^; 
'vatian.  How  longbe  retnainedanit,  is  not  precisely  known, 
but  probably  till  he  had  completed  bis  pupil's  educilion'. 
His  conduct,  however,  was  so  well  approved^  that  shortly 
aftep,  with  the  consent  of  sir  William  Claylori,  the  sisteir 
of  bis  pupil,  on  the  death  of  faiev  first  busbftndy  sir  Cbarteifr 
Blackweli,  of  Sprowston-hall,  Noifolk^  beearme  bis  l^^ife. . 
Mr.  Thonaas  lived  in  habits  of  tbl§  closest  friendship  with 
bis  brother-in-law,  until  about  1784,  when  tbat  gemle^ 
nan  n^et  a  premature-  death,  occa^oned  by  a  fall  from' bis 
horse;  .    ^ 

On  the  ^7tb  of  March,  1 7  »7v  Mr.  ThoAlas  Wilis  ordained 
a  dea<^>n,  by  sir  George  Fledfing,  bishop  of  t^arlisle,  at ., 
a  special  ordination  bolden  in^  tbe   thapeV  of  John  the 
Baptist,  within  the  preokicis  of  tbe^ Savoy;  In  the  Strand-;  :> 
and,  on  the  25th  of  Sepcembet,  in  the  samls  year,-  be  wak\ 
ordained  prieit,  by  Dr.  Joseph  Wilooehs,  bishop  6f  Rb^ 
Chester,  at  a  general  ordination  bolden  iti  tbe  parish  c^Beb 
of  Bromley,  in  the  xM)unty  of  Ketft,    The  prooiotitfn  of 
Dr.  Herring  (afterwards  archbisbop  of  Ganterbtiry)  in  tbii, 
same  ycj^r  to  the  see  of  Banger,*  occasiensid  a  vacancy  iik 
the  rectory  of  Blechingley)  to  wtridh  Mt»  Thontas  wIBk?  ^e- . 
sented  by  bis  majesty,  Geoi^  IK  •  through  tbef  ititerest^-  of ' 
sir  W.  ckyton,  and  was  instituted,  on  tbe  27tb  of  Janui^y',  f 
by  Drv  Benja«mn  Hoadly,  bishop  of  Win<:faester.    Durmg 
his  incumbency  00  this  preferment,  wbich  Was  tfalrCy-stx 
years,^  Mr.  ThoiAas  chiefly  resided  in  tbe  rbctbifiaKbou^t^ 
wfaiob  he  enlarged,  improved/  and  enibelilsb^  afr  a^  V^jr  " 
considerable  expence.     In  the  discharge  of  his  parx>cbiai  ^ 
duties,  in  wbicb  he  never  omitted  any  thing  whidi  he  con- 
ceived might  conduce  to  the  ti^poridior  spir^iud  interest!  z 


THOMAS:  i0» 

bif*  |»ar)ifai0j9ei!8)  he  vma  fotr  some  tiitia  HM&sted  %y  hb 
bfot^h^ ;  and,  afiev  his  pmMnotion  t»  a  vicavag^  in  Nor* 
folk,  by  Ibe  rev»  WiUiam  Tbompsoo,  the  poet. 

On  tba^5tb  o£  Bfoy,  174^»  ACr.  Thomas  took  the  degrae 
of  D*  C»  L« ;  in  tbe  year  following  hismairriage  took  placed; 
on  the  idtiiof  January,  I748|  be  was  appointed  oii^)laiii 
in  ordinary  to  bis  late  majesty,  George  11. ;  on  tbe  d3d  of 
Aprils  1754,  be  was  made  prebendary  ol  Westminster; 
4MI  the  i2tibof  Deeeodber,  l7€eQ,  he  was  appointed  chaplain 
tto^  bis,  present  ma^esly,  by  the  king*S:  o^er,  and  withont 
any  applieatton^  Xn  1*76(2^  he  wafr  appointed  snb^aiinoneY 
to  tht  ardbbisbcip  :<rf  York,  an  oflke  rather  bonorary  tfaaii 
Incnutive;  »nd  in  I766v  was  instituted  to  tile  vicarage  df 
3tk  BrideS  in  London,  oH  tbe  presentation  of  the  dealt  and 
ebapter  of  Westiminster.  In  176^^  be  socceeded  Dr.  Pearee 
as  dean^^' Weatminster,  atKl  soon  after  was  chosen  thearefa^ 
bishop  of  Canterbury's  prolocutor-  to  the  lower  *^house  of 
Doa^oca^om  In  4772,  he  met  with  a  severe  shock  m  tbe 
death  of  bis  wife,;  and ,  in  1774,  lost  bis  valuable  friend 
Dr.  Peafce.  fa  November  foMowing  be  succeeded-  him, 
^<  aceondUng- 1»  bis-  (Dr;  Pearce'?)  most  eam^t:  wish;*'  ih 
the  bishopric  of  Rochester.  On  the  anaient  palace  at 
BiTomley^  which  be  fonnd  in  a  ruinous  and  dilapidatad  con- 
dtticih,.  be  expended  upwards  of  three  thousand  pounds'; 
displaced'  gfvat  oMinifioetiGe  in  repahring  anti  rebiiildiftg 
k^,  and  in  dispoatng  and  embelliabing  the  epi^c^pal  de- 
meanea;  and,  fddni  bis  regard  for  social  wersbtp,  a  little 
before  bis  death  he  gave  BOOL  towards  enlarging  the  parish 
4Bbiiiiei»  at  ByomkiF. 

The  bishop  added  one  to  tbe  many  instances  bf  men  \yfae 
baviO'  bee«  peculiarly  fortunate  in  their  first  mahriagie/andv 
deeply»>c0«eemed  at  ita  dissoiutiony  seek^f^g  ^^nselaition  in 
a^seeondw  SuebeensoliHiikMidid  bis  V>irdahip  seek  in  ase?- 
cendaaaertage- with  lady  Etiaa^etb  Yates,  relict  of  air  Jot- 
aeph  Yates^  late  one  of  tbe  judges  of  the  court  of  King^s*-. 
benob,  to  whom  bewaemanried^  by.  speciaMicence,  on  tbe 
ISlh  ef  January,  1<775,  at  Westminster^abbey.  In  this 
oniony  be  waa  aa  happy  aa  the*  great-  disparity  of  age  would 
permit*  Though  twice  msurried,  he  had  no  issue;  but 
eaebt  of  bis»  ladies  bhmgbt  him  a  son  and  a  daughter  by 
tbeif  foMser  husbands^,  and  to  these  he  shewed  a  parentsd 
effseiiom 

.    Agfir  and!  its.  natufal.eoacomitants^  for  some  few  years 
before- bis  death,  almost  incapacitated  the  bishop  from  any 


au  THOMAS. 

bborious  chity ;  ^tit,  so  zealous  was  he  in  the  discharge  bf 
hk  function,  that  he  held  a  general  confirmation  not  long 
before  his  last  lingering  and  fatal  illness,  and  continued  to 
preach  both  at  court  and*  at  Brooiley,  till  near  bis  eightieth 
year.  He  expired,  in  great  composure,  about  eleven  o'clock 
on  the  mortiing  of  Thursday,  August  22d,  1793,  having 
completed  his  eightieth  year  on  the  preceding  14tb  of  Oc- 
tober, 1 792.  The  manner  of  his  death  was  perfectly  agree- 
able to  his  wish,  expressed  in  a  letter  written  to  bis  brother 
on  the  death  of  his  first  lady,  **  without  a  sigh  or  a  groan.'* 
Tbe  bulk  of  bis  fortune  wa»  bequeathed  to  bis  relations,  in 
such  proportions  as  corresponded  with  the  proximity  of 
kindred,  and  the  expectations  which  he  had  encouraged; 
bonds  and  notes,  from  diiFerent  friends  and  acquahitances, 
lo  tbe  amount  of  5000/.  were  cancelled ;  legacies^  mourn- 
ing, 8cc.  were  presented  to  his  servants ;  and  several  sums 
were  appropriated  to  charitable  purposes.  In  bis  last  wiH 
and  testament,  the  bishop  had  made  no  provision  for  the 
manner  or  place  of  his  interment :  but,  in  a  cancelled  will, 
made  as  far  back  as  1774,  he  had  directed  his  remains  to 
be  deposited  by  those  of  his  first  lady,  and  this  direction 
was  conseqtiently  carried  into  effect. 

In  1803  a  valuable  collection,  in  2  vols.  8vo,  of  his  <*  Ser- 
mons and  Charges,'*  was  published  by  the  rev.  G.  A,  Tho- 
mas, bis  lordship's  chaplain  and  executor,  with  a  Memoir  >^ 
of  his  Life,  to  which  we  are  indebted  for  the  preceding 
particulars,  as  well  as  for  tbe  following  sketch  of  bis  cha- 
racter. ' 

*^  His  lordship  was  in  stature  above  tbe  middle  height, 
standing  about  five  feet  eleven  inches.  In  the  early  part 
of  his  life  he^was  slender,  and  of  so  delicate  a  constitution, 
that  bifr  father  used  to  say,  he  was  propped  up  by  art  and 
medicine.  But,  as  he  advanced  to  maturity,  his  constitu- 
tion acquired  strength  :  yet  be  never  increased  to  any  de- 
gree of  corpulence.  His  figure  was  elegant  and  manly, 'and 
Its  dignity  comported  with  die  natural  elevation  of  bis  mind : 
at  all  times  inspiring  respect  and  veneration,  but  particu* 
larly  when  he  was  engaged  in  any  of  tbe  sacred  offices  of 
religion,  which  he  always  performed  with  such  a  devotional 
ardour  and  fiMrvenciy,  as  seemed  to  add  a  peculiar  sanctity 
and  spirit  to  the  native  gracefulness  of  bis  appearances 
His  countenance  was  the  faithful  index  of  his  soul,  opeuy 
platcid^  and  benevolent.    His  features  were  regular^  and 


TH  O  M  AS. 


2»$ 


geMrmlly  softened  with  tbe  most  gracioas  smile  of  com- 
plaeeucy  and  benignity.   . 

^^  His,  intellectual  abilities  w^re  above  mediocrity ;  and 
ibe  endowments  of  nature  were  improved  by  tbe  appliea* 
Jtion  of  art  and  ;study.  He  had  a  lively  and  chaste^imagt'^ 
nation,  a  qnick  apprehension,  a  sotind  and  penetrating 
judgment,  and  a  retentive  memory.  He  excelled  equally  , 
in  learnings  science,  and  the  polite,  arts.  He  was  an  adept 
in  niusic,  and  a  connoisseur  in.  painting.  He  was,  in  his 
^arliei;  days,  perfectly  acquainted  with  the  practice  as  well 
as  the  theory  of  music ;  having  been  a  performer  on  two 
difficult  instruments.  For  this  agreeable  art  he  entertained 
s^  passion  to  his  latest  days.     He  was  a  great  lover  of  anti* 

3uity,  and  well  skilled  in  the  knowledge  of  coins  and  me« 
als,  and  of  these,  as  also  of  prints  and  paintings,  be  left 
valuable  collections.  There  was  no  feature  more  promi- 
oent  in  ^his  good  bishop's  character,  than  a  zealous  and 
uniform  attachment  to  our  unrivalled  constitution.  It  was 
the,  warmest  wish  of  his  heart,  to  see  our  excellent  and 
happy  form  of  government,  both  in  church  and  state,  pre*> 
served  free  from  ^  the  contagious  influence  of  superstitious 
tyranny  on  the  one  hai\d,  and  licentious,  anarchy  on  tbe 
other." 

It  is  somewhat. singular  that  there  were  three  prelates  of 
tihe  saine  nadnes,  John  Thomas,  who  ran  their  course  nearly 
together ;  Dr.  John  Thomas,  successively  bishop  of  Peter- 
borough apd  Salisbury,  who  died  in  1766  ;  Dr.  JohnTlio^ 
mas,  successively  bishop  of  Peterborough,-  Salisbury^  and 
Winchester,  w1m>  died  in  17&i  *»  and  the  sabjedt.of  the 
preceding  article.  * 

THO^JLAS  THE  RHYMER.— See  LERMONT. 

THOMAS  (Willum),  a  learned  writer  of  the  sixteenth 
century,,  was  born  in  Wales,  and  was  at  least  of  Welsh  ex» 
traction,, and  educated. at  Oxford.  Wood  says  that  one  of 
both  bis  names  was,  in  1529,  admitted  bachelor  of  canon 
law,  but  does  not  say  that  it  was  this  person.    In  1544, 

1  Life  as  above. 


*  *' There  were  at  that  time  two 
Dr.  Thomas's,  who  were  hot  easily  clis- 
tipguisbed;  for  fiomfbody  was  .speak- 
ing of  Dr.  Thomas.  It  was  asked^ 
which  Dr.  Thuroas  do  yon  mean  }  Dr. 
Jobo  Thoma*: — ^Tbey  are. both,  named 
John.  Dr.  Tboma&  who  has  a  liviof 
in  the  city,— They  hare  both  livings 


in  tbe  city.  Dr.  Thomas  who  is  chap- 
lain to  the  king.-— They  are  both  chap- 
lains to  tbe  klof .  Dr.  Thomas  who  is ' 
a  very  good  preacher.— They  are  both 
very  good  preachers.  Dr.  Thomas 
who  squ iDts.^-They  both  sq u I nt  They 
were  afterwards  both  bishops."  Bi^boyt 
Newtpn's  Life. 


«t  ^  THOMAS; 

h^fh§  ObJiged  to  quit  tbe  kiogdofli  on  aecouftt  of  80m«(  iiifN^. 
fortune,  he  went  to  Iialy^  and  in  1546  was  at  Bologne^  and 
affterwards  at  Padua.     1»  l$4f9^  be  wu  again  in  Lon<i^6t^ 
aod  on  ac^^ounl  of  bit  knowledge  of  modern  languages,  wui 
made  clerk  of  tbe  council  to  king  Edwurd  VI.  who  soon' 
aft^  gave  him  a  prebend  of  St.  Paiit\  and  tlie  living  of 
Prestbend  in  South  Wales.    According  to  Strype^  be  teted 
yery  ui^iairly  in  procuring  the  prebend>  not  being  a  Vpi* 
ritual  person ;  and  tbe  same  objecsioir  undoubtedly  resta 
against  bis  other  promotion*.    On  the  accession  of  queen 
Mary,  be  waa  deprived  of  bis  eoployaseDt  at  eouft,  and  i^ 
said  to  have  meditated  tbe  death  of  tbe  queen;  init  Bale 
says  it  was  Gardiner  whom  be  formed  a  design  of  murder^ 
iDg.    .Others  think  that  be  was  con<ierned  in"  Wyat'a  re<^' 
I^lHon.  .  It  is  certain  that  for  someof  these  charges,  be  was 
committed  to  the  Tower  in  1 55S,  together  with  Williaih' 
Winter  and  sir  Nicholas  Throgmorton.     Wood  ssys^  *^  He^ 
was  a.  man  of  a  hot-  fiery  spirit,  bad  sucked  in  damnable' 
principles  by  his  frequent  conversations  with  Cbristopber 
Croodmau,  thai  violent  enemy  to  tbe  rule  of  women.'*    It 
appeara  thaA  be  had  no  rule  over  hinrsetf^  ^r  about  a  week 
a^ter  bb  coimmitmeaty  be  attempted  sutdde,  but  the  wonud^ 
not  proving  mortal,  he  was  arraigned  at  Guildhall^  May  9,^ 
1553,  ahd  banged  at  Tyburn,  on  tbe  IStb.  * 
'  His  works  are,  1.  ^^he  History  of  Italy,'' Lond.  15^9, 1 J6!/ 
4lo,     2.  ^  The  principal  rules  of  tbe  Italian  Gramihiar,  with] 
a^dictiQuary  for  the  better  understanding  of  Bbecacce,  Pe- 
tfareht  and  Dante,''  ibid,  1550,  1561,  1567,  4td;     S.  <^Le* 
Peregrynne,  or  a  defence  of  king  Henry  VIII.  to  Aretine 
tbe  Italian  poet,"  MS.  Cott.  Vesp.  D.  IS,  and  in  Bodl.^ 
Library.    This,  Wood  says,  was  about  to  be  -  published  in 
the  third  volume  of  Brown's  ♦*  Fasciculus."     4.  "  Comnron 
Places  erf  State,"  written  for  tbe  use  of  Edward  VI.  MS. 
Cott     5.  *^Of  the  vanity  of  the  World,'^  Lend.  1549,  8vo. 
5.  ^<  Translation'  of  Cato's  speech,' and  Valerius's  answer, 
fj[om  the  4th .decade  of  Livy,^'  ibid,  155  f,  12m6;     Re  aiso 
made  some  translations  from  the  Italian,  which  are  still  in 
manuscript. ' 

THOMAS  (William),  bishop  of  Worcester,  was  son  of 
Mr.  John  Thomas,  a  linen-Klrsper  in  the  city  of  Bristol,  who 
Kved  in  a  house  of  bis  own  on  the  bridge  in  that  tQwii,  where 
the  bishop  was  born  on  Thursday,  February  2,  1613,  and- 

1  Sale.— TaiHier«^^4b.  QSi  ToK  L  nesr  €dit.  .   .      .  -» 


THOMAS  Mf 

lyap^i^ied  there  in  St.  Nicholases  ohnrch,  on  the  Friday  fol« 
lp,\f]ag^  H^:  was  of  a  very  aBcieot  and  noble  «fainiiyi  m 
^l>pears  by  a  pedigree  taken  out  >  of  the  iieralds'-qffice  by 
Wiliimn  Tbomfas  lord  bishop  of  Worcestf r«  in  16as,  to 
prove  bis.  right  to  the  Herbert  arias.  His  osotfaer  was  £U« 
l^i^belb  B(oiU)t,  descended  from  tbe  Blounta  of  Eldersfieicly 
in  the  county  of ,  Worcester*  His  grand&tberi  WiHian^ 
Tbon»as^  was  pe^ordi^r  of  .Caermarthea,  where  lie  and  his 
£a,9)ily  had  for  a  long  time. lived  in  ^reat  credit;  and  the 
eai"!  pf  NortbamptODy  then  lord  president  of  Wales^  g^^^ 
WfB  this  character,  ^'  tbat^he  was-  the  wisest  and  most  pniw 
deo^  person  he  ever  knew  member  of  a  codrpdration  9^  tfaie 
geatlejoaao^  after  the  death  of  their  son,  undertpok  the  cani^ 
^f  hi^  graedson ;  which  trust  he  eseeated  with  the  greatest 
c^e  atid  attention,  placing  him  under  the  taition  of  MrJ 
Morgan  Owen,  master  of  the  public  school  at  Cdermai^heny' 
^terwards  bishop  of  Landaff:  iiere  he  continaed  tiH  he: 
went  to  St  John's  college^.  Ox^ord^  in  the  eaxteeath  year 
of  his  age,  iu  Michaelmas-  term,  1629;  from  hence  he  res 
moved  to  Jesus. college,  where  he  took  liis  degree  of  B.  A. 
1632^  and  soon  after  was.  chosen  fellow  of  the' college,  andt 
appointed  tutor  by  the  priocipaL  Here,  aecoidtng  to  tbw 
fashioa  of  the  times,  he  studied  mweh  achool  philosophy, 
and  divinity,  epitpaiiziag  with  his  own  band  all  tbe  worksf 
of  Arisiotle:  be  took  his  degree  o£  M.A.  Feb.  12,  ier34„ 
was  ordained  .deacon  by.  John  Baaeooft,*  bishop  of  Oxford^ 
at  Christ  phurcb,  Ji^ne  4,  1637,  and  priest  in  the  year  fbU 
luwihg  at  tbe  same  place,,  and  by  tbe  same  bishop/  Soon 
aftes  be  was  appointed  vicar. of  Penbryn,  in  Cardiganshire, 
and  chaplain  to  tfaeearl  of  Noitfaumberland,  who  presented 
him  to.  tbe  vicarage  of  Laugharn,  with  tbe  rectx)«y  of  Lan«: 
s^durnen  annexed.  This  presentation^  being  disputed,  he 
determined .  to  give  it  up;  but  the  earl  encoutaged  htm  to- 
persevere,  assuring  him  that  he  would  be  at  all  the  ezpence 
and  trouble;  inconsequence  of  which^  the  dispute  was  soon* 
ended,  and  Mr.  Thomas  instituted :  here  he  determined  to^ 
reside^  having  no  other  thought  but  how  best  to  perforin  bis 
duty;  and  that  he  might  be  more  fixed,  and  avoid  the  in- 
conveniences of  a  solitary  single  life,  be  resolved  to  marry. 
The  person  he  chose  was  Blanch  Samyne,  daughter  of  Mr.* 
Peter  Samyne,  a  Dutch  merchant  in  Lime-street,  London, 
of  an  ancient  and  good  family^  by  whom  he  had  eight  child- 
ren ;  William,  who  died  young,  feter,  John,  Blanch,'Bridger, 
William,  Sarah^  and'  Elizabeth*    Here  he .  religiously  per-^ 


SH  T  H  aMik& 

fofttied  areiy  duty  of  a  parbh  prietly  eilMMAg.kiii«M4 
pbyjiioit  not  a  timde,  lint  a  triMt,  lill  about  1644^  a  fiairl|r 
of  the  parliamem  borse  came  to  La«iglparii|  and  ifN|«ifMBf4 
whether  that  popMi  priest  Mr.  Thomas  was  stUI  .thiiii^ 
and  whether  he  contitoed  reading  the  liturgy^  mtAmnftgrn 
iag  for  the  queen ;  aod  one  of  them  adding,  tint  he  afaotild 
go  to  church  next  Sunday,  and  if  Mr*  Thomiw  perswvwre4 
in  pra3ring  for  that  drab  of  the  whore  of  Bal^loii,  be  wuiid 
certainly  pistol  bioi.  Upob  this,  M«^  Thooias^s  fnMdi^MMNr 
nestly  pressed  bioi  to  absent  himself ;  but  be^rsftisedf  Mkitfp 
ing  it  would  be  a  neglect  of  duty.  '  He  no  sponer  liegam 
tbe  service,  than  the  soldiers  came  and  placed  'tbemsemHl 
in  the  next  pew  to  him,  and  when  be  prayed  for  tim*qMlHi| 
one  of  them  snatched  tbe  bode  out  of  bis  band^  «n1  tfardw 
it  at  his  head,  saying,  *^  What  do  yon  meaa  by  pray  iag*  fbt 
a  whore  and  a  rogue  V^  The  preacher  bore  it  with  pattsnue 
and  cmnposure;  but  the  soMief  who  bad^coounitted^tlie 
affiront  was  instantly  seized'  With  muAi  ansciety  am^ea<N 
punction,  that  bis  compacioBS  were  forced .  to  emfry^atik 
away.  '  Mr.  Thomas  continued  the  sfrviee,'  and*  dflivwiM 
tbe  sermon  with  his  -uiual  emphasis  mid  pvepiie^^^  uatf 
when  be  returned  to  his  house,  he  there  feutid  dfteusotdtem 
ready  to  beg  his  pardon,  and  desiring  bis  prayers  to  CM 
for  them.    When  this  happened,  he  was  about  tbirly-dfree 

J  ears  old.  Soou  after,  the  parlisuttent  eemmitcee  ^deprtredt 
im  of  tbe  living  of  Laugharn;  and  theogh  a  piftnoipa| 
member  of  that  body  bad  been  bia  pupU  and  patticubRr 
friend,  yet  he  refused,  to  shew  him  any 'fawur,  aaying,  ^*tf 
be  was  bis  father,  be  would  do  him  no  service  uutosa  h# 
sNiold  take  the  coreoaut.'*  From  this  time  tiH  ^tbe  restora« 
tiou,  Mr.  Thomas  endured  great  ba^dshipsv  being  •  suf* 
hater -to  the  amodnt  of  above  fifteen  hundred  pounds,  and^ 
for  the  support  of  his  family,  obliged  to  teaefaa  private 
sebool  in  the  country;  and  though  bis  frienda  often  made 
bim  liberal  presents,  yet  his  wife  and  nomeroua  family 
were  firequentiy  in  want  of  common  necessaries. 

At  the  restoration  Mr,  Thomas  was  re-instat^d  in  bis 
living,  and  by  the  king's  letters  patent  made  chanter  of  StC 
David's.  In  this  year  he  took  bis  doctor's  degree  in  dirt«» 
ntty,  carrying  with  him  a  letter  from  the  chancellor,  who 
said  thus  of  him  :  ^'  I  have  beard  o^  his  great  worth  and 
deserts,  as  well  in  respect  of  his  learning  and  orthodox 
judgment,  as  of  his  most  exemplary  life  and  conversation.^' 
In  1661,  be  was  presented  to  the  rectory  of  Lladbtder  itf 


tUeUKSL  |8» 

flw^Viiey;  in  ifat^c^My  ^»mihmlti^  Uy  fen*  dbtJktOht 
Uf4$9  uilf*ifti(t  «btpWti  to  %te  dtike  <^  Yoiik,  w|m>«i  h^ 
ininiirf  fBJib^ifiij^^^  lo  SMiairkyiii  wh0ie  f««ilj^b^  coik 
#mtd  MMie  Mi^  iin4  Math:  wlMHibe  twis  in  one  of  xht  m^ 
#Wgt|<«i»f> agakiil  tiie  !)iiiitii.>  By  the  interast  of  ibd 
^iriB«  Aiul  dHietaMe#tto»f  h«  nm  {MrDttoied  to  ifae  ilMiierjr 
#f  Mnhmmm^  Nw*  H^^  l#60^  tn.lbe  worn  oi  Dr.  ThMioii 
lATiraMvit^  40M^^.  iieroi  though  a  straogev,  he  he^ 
Iit«t4  MMelf  w  Mcli  «  nuMr  u  lo  g«in  the  «ffectaou»  of 
dft  iiN(  ||«aii«fii*a  of  the  county,  pwrttculariy  th«  dnW  of 
8iii»|pfi»  lord  WI»(kof,  mfiservmrdhi  creMd  carl  of  Ply:, 
iiomb^  and  ^r  J#kii  PaJMagtw :  the  l«st,'  ^at  he '  might 
(fmfii^y  meee  of  hia-  etm^m^  ppeeeotcMi  Um  tt»  the  reeiory 
^  Hanjieoii  Lo«6t  m  the  haftniiHig  of  lOTO.  Upon  thia 
4mi  Milled  his  limg  at  L4nfhani,  and  re»eved  hisfcinily 
W  mmmpumk,  He«e  he  ei^eyed  an  eaayiaed  pleasant  m- 
Meeieni,  mui  he  was  «fteii  h^^d  aa  tay  that  this  wai  th^ 
|rieeeeaee9ti pact  of  4Ha  Ufe^  ahd  (hat  here  he  had  vaoi^ 
4|iiiM  eed  aatiaiMtieK  whbitt  hiniell  4tee  when  he  waa 
«Jher«Mds  mh  thw.  h^{heat  ooAer  ^t  the  xdnuieb.  Jiere  also 
km  fiae^Md  ^fa>w>  ta  aetreh  tteiat  aiiti^Mkyt  to  «)tevgebia  aftied^ 
indr leeMRsh; it  wifeh faeilfial  hoowledge :  butliSa pieattt^ 
mece  «M  wiihwiitidlaf,  ^9'  dmoglw  naaidenoe  hene  ia 
4$7f,  hii  hetaneid  wiie'<yed,  juid  wa^  buried  hi  onwof  the 
eidi  iilet  ^  the  ^aihedaai  wbuvoh  of  Woreeaten  ^  In  thia 
Mw  9im  he  ffea-preaaottd  to  the  seaof  St.Di|vid'ay  wd 
weld  the^aawtrfi.ef.  Weroe«Mr  ia  coneieiidaiD*  He  waa 
wry  wpeaplaMe  to  thwi  geetry  awd  clarf^  of  thati^liotfeie^f 
km  had^hwe•  hiwd  ap  mmtmg;  thfrai,  apake  their  leageage^ 
ami  had  heee  m  hilhi  w  iaflhitif  with  mmoj  jof  «beaii  it  tthf^ 
ieie  tjeehtiwinwft tiaieai  liia  jbalneiqwDoanfirawd  tfa#r  ws- 
fiaelatiieeii  hia genefenateief ei i^teed  edth.theiva,  biithip^ 
thief >^aecer»./aMa  «at  to*  mmch  .to<ipleaie  4faeir  hipjomn^  «t^ 
t»  OBr«ett  Aek  «Meal%  ^eod  aal»e  theiri'SeiiU ;  to  fvumofm 
i|poefiitl|F^taid^oda«f%eed  to  aew  the  ■etda  ef  holkieia 
amooff  ^eai^-  iici  hegna  to  jrepair  the  palicici  al  Biwek* 
aochiamd  dkbwrgwi%i*  he  paeached  Ineq^^^y  i^  aetfend 
pMia*  aif  hia  diteeio  aa.<tbe  latgaafw  of  the  opantry^  and 
waa  very  iaalru«iettal:ia piweriagtbe  twuadatiou  of  the 
BiUe  into  Webb;,  HeewdetiMKired  all  he  could,  to  remove 
the  eathedaal  aanrioe  froai.St>  David*a  to  Caenaactbea ;  the 
|Qnatr<heia9.a  plaoeofaa  trader  little  fraqa^tted^  situated 
ia  a.  ooraer  of  the  kingdom,  twelve  Jong  miles  from  any 
ipwrtwv  tflgtOf .  Ifae  eattedral  ruinous,  the  bishqp's  palace 
Vol.  XXIX,  U 


«W  T  010  MAS. 

^n4iniK»  ^ceptjiajreceine  (their  r^vaottAs^  and/ bdI;  oui».iiMI^ 
icing  Uii  ottt»iii  r«piHriiig.Uie6albhc4i»Vaft9r>^eJ'e4torAt}aii. 
.Oil the cpntiwry, Gaermaiibaobe  kA^«v4o.4»eia.K«i9h;iHHl  p^^t^ 
{^diIqiis  i««vp  i  th«  .gi'Mt  church,  cdf^^ble^  of  hcingfOiade:  da^ 
psnt  and  handsome,  and  the  epUcefpai/boAue  jȣ  Aberg^uiUjr. 
\0Xy  near,  where  the  bUhop  conMaptliy  iresid^iM  .-QfiplhaBe 
«K»tives.be  set  abQut  the  work  very  bearuAjr^bi^t  avei  wHh 
llie  fiuaoe  aucciess  as  bishop  Bariow  hadidona  t^^afere. 

Having  been  bishop  of  Ht.  Davcid's  M  jf^eawio  be  ii«as 
iranslated  to  ,the  see  of  Worcester,  in  the  fd^i^^i  hM^^p 
f  l^etweod.i.  As  seen  as  he  knemr  9i  tt^iappoinliiMiil^  ^bp« 
Jeiidsbip»  .livlio.jseyer  waa  a  ioves'  ^  .ioQ.My,><deBisted|qeisi 
any  further  ireaty  with  several  .ieisi^iitsr^f'tbd'bil^opi?ic<of 
St.  David'sy  aed  refused  .Ti^y.cxie^iidbsiwULer. finest. e&erv 
iwards>  xeoeived;by  bishop  Woiiiark.  .  fb^fSftn^itoWofnam*' 
tex  in  August  4683,^  and. was  condAiafted  iio  :biaipalaM<'i99^ 
tfaip  gentjry  and  clergy  of  ^ts  dibces^  wbiire  -  they :  w««e  4»lr 
t^tainedvery  bandaocaelyy  and..«ver  .s£ier  ifi^sndtiarpliMkr 
ti/ol  table  aud.  hearty  welcome  ;<  he  being.  aiwagNBi<of 'Opit- 
;aipa  that,  in  order  to^amend  the.niorqAs#£)!^he.pebpi|a9iliie 
Axst  step  mis  to;g^iii  iheic  iaoyN^inianne  ,^nd^  ^affectieifc 
.Upon  this  prineipl% lite  was  a  great  leyeff.o£4aofq»iUdily 
Md  charity^  the  poor  of  theneigbbo9rh.oMi)iMMre<daiiy>fed 
etJbisdoor,  a;id  be  sent  pravisioiiaJtwii)0>a.we^k^;tOTiMi(e 
MtnOAon  prison,  besides  <very  large,  sttiest^gtve^  ,^heria>jpi^ 
aaw  occasion.    &iMae  may  tbiuk  that  hO'.oasffied^ibis  feeftr 

ter  to  excess^  for  thongh  be  fnequesiAly'^vas  be#i44iO'8ejn 
,M  be  dreaded,  debfe  m  a;iin,"  through  bis  ttxteosiife  ^harii^^ 
fod  the  necessary.  oaUs  oS  a  naeieMHis  fiiflMiiyy  he  a9iMli«sei 
brought  bioMelf  to  theveiige  of  it,  be  laMk|io|ruprfoeifaiiaifr 
aelf  or  bis  children )  and»  when  "cbargediby  S6»)eral  S»n  ne^ 
jirQvidftng  for  bis  jown  honsehoU,  hm  a^siaeff  alwifips  jwafi 
^'^  that  no  bishop  or  priesfe:waa.4o  «einiiieb  hiaisel^ieilii,  or 
jraise  his  iaBiily  out  of  the  revenuea'  of  ^bei  cbtveb  i  tha& 
ibe  sacred  cauoaf  fonbade  (it ;  ^and  that  S^f  bis^part  ij^waa 
taKdved  that  none  of  his  sboidd  be  tberiri|?r  for^eai,  as 
ke.was  only  6od*» steward,  and  bouadto'^pease  tfaeOEiJf 
bis  glory  in  works  of  obaidty  andpiety*'^  He  mm  eictveoiely 
<€ar«€fil  wbat  persons  be  ordained/;  bis  cefMur6»«irere  siisb 
«:qpi;essed  ia  the  softest  words^  anditiv'kh'aa  bomM^mr^i 
such  tenderness  and  brotherly  compassion  as  always  gainedf 
the  more  iDgenqoua,  and  left  the  incorrigibie  without- es^* 
cttse.     H|e  oiMstantly  attended  six  o^elock  praQFcnrs  m  the 


T  ti  O  H  A  S.  tM 

tfMkednili  io>4tiifg^  M  bid  faeft1ifar#&iiM  permiii  ihdtifMn 
oooiplHint  froitiniH5fabhftn>p  Sheldon,  dated  Jiine  4, 1670)tfanBt 
the^dlilies  of  teMJingthfe  chureh'service  and  adoiinkfesrhtf^ 
tdi^  Mcrameivts  were  too  ttodh  -he^etmi  by  dignified  p6v» 
ifMtff  ^  the  d«an^  i^d  ^Hnonsy  ai  if  ifc  m^e  an  office  bele# 
ttiM^  and  lefe  fof  tto  WIum  paril  te  be  perfomed  bj  theit 
¥teaf9drpeUy€atTdns',  totheo^noeof  the  cburcb's  frieiild% 
ahll  the-  advantage  of  sectaries,  And  tbetr  own  jaet  r^t* 
proach  ;?*  hCf  tifgethpt^  with  the  prebendertet,  so  orleKed^ 
lAie  ^eiid^ee,  that  one  ov  two  of  tb^m  genecaily  officiated 
At  Ihd  cemiiilitii<»n.  The  bishopi  at  bis  iirst  visitation  Af 
tte  dtftfM^iandeltaf^ler;  b^  bis  own  autberity,  and  their  ceni 
%«Mehel»,-  firoommd  a  chapter  act  to-be  nide,  to.  oblige  tiie 
|^«b(^ttries  to  be'  rc^sident  two  ata«ime  in  every  a9ontb( 
ttii4'be^4oiM'wM>^eeo|Hmrrenc«  of  Dr.  Hlckvsy  tbeil 
ttotttiy  iod^Dh  Hoptiins,  si  wonby  pi^bendary  of  tbef  cbirrdi) 
fAs£^dd'^#4tfap(Hlt'  the  'foMt  appearance  ef  uneasiness  in  anf 
«M  lii«ttibtfr  of  the  society.  The  money,  which  at  fotnet 
Vliib|tidnA%as^usyal(y  eapended  ^m  entertaining  the  bkbo^} 
lia^rtleWd  fe^  be-Md  out  in  books  for  tbc^  library,  and  tmi 
aiM»tgiin#d'|btt '^b«^ttfhf  at  his  own  charge;  be  was  besides  a 
tlM^sldll#ab^1>eifefaMiirto  the  library,  the  boots  about  tilft 
thMibetAfr  bt*oi}gbt<  from  an  inconvenient  room  err  the  sotitik 
bide  0f'lh(S  chui^y  and  placed  in  the  chapter-bouse/a  vet^ 
%(^gat)t  room^  capable  of-  containing  a  noble  collection  6{ 
^f^dkif.  The  blstop  was  often  pre^^ent  in  the  Consistory 
cotfvt,  ^hereby^be  much  prevented  the  frHrolous  suitto,  ank 
expedited  the  di4ato¥y  proceedings,  which  at  that  time  wera 
muefe 'Odnf ptainetd  of.  in  1683,  arcbbisbop  Sancroft  wrott 
tt'tettetf'to  tb^bvshop,  complaining  ef  a  custom  wbicfa  tbdk 
aMd  for4iWny  years  a#ter  continued^  of  preaeMng  Ib^  sdr^ 
moii  in  the  body  of  tbv  cathedral;  the  prayers  being  read  ill 
tile  choir:  tbe^rigin  ef  this  costom  wasi  that  as  third  waa 
tio  s^mon  in  the  pariah  ebnrcbes,  «he  several  parishioners 
might,  after  their  own  prayers,  attend  the  sermon  of  som# 
eonnemtpteaeher  in  tbe  cathedrals  fie  was  a<  great  patrod^ 
of  thO  French  proteatants^  and  contributed  largely  totb^ 
•apport.  In  l6iS7,  when  the  king  made  his  progjress  tbfougft 
part  of  England,  tbe  bishop  aent  his  servant  to  Bath,  to  in- 
vite bis  majesty  to  bis  palace  at.Wbrceste/:,  wiiere  hd'had 
the  taenonr  of  entertaining  bim  on  tbe  23d  day  of  Augtls^ 
th6  eve  of  St.  Bartholometr.  He  met  him  at  the  gattd  oi 
Jiis  palace,  attended  by  bis  clergy,  and  in  a  shorts  Latia 
speech,  welcomed  bim  to  the  eity.     fii#  msges^  waHiad 

u  2 


titm  T  H  0  ni  li  «. 

at  m^  caif;  all  aiMv«d.ilBtth:;Aow#f$>'ii^J?  Yea(^il(/i(^ 

«s  be  went  along,  be  Mdd|.^  My>fUM^  ibt»  k»oli9  Uke  White- 
ti»lLr  Haviiqf  mfMshei^  4ii9Mi& after^  M^jo^meiy , .  hfi  jiyent 
to  tee  the  4»Kheilral^  tbefcloaQ'«lfcM)dtiig.iM$  Kti«j^y  Mi^ilbr 
ooUege  gstr,  froi&ivb^Dce^  w0iilil^/$6e  ibei  ^rip«i(i<MMf 
Ike  iHyvD,  and,  ataxMig  tl^««8ty;«i«i9be«Ma,>¥i^€(C9fl^bj%  b^lije 
jvas  fougbi  Jbe»re«B>  Oliver /and  Jkis  «<ljr#l  :b«#l)^:  **>ui  i-  .' 

•The  next mrning  being  the  feaHt  of<.$lt.,S^|h^4^«^ic^ 
the-'kiog  weiHvta Uear  maaa^  tlMS: papi|ibt.qbeMlaKb'i|))M* 
iii«aooeMidn  to  ibe  oro^Niy  Q&^^ik^(fi^a$c^^fllMx¥^§!SfM^ 
mmetf  attended  by  tfa^^mayoaatid  aidtMaeni  Yfkfmi  Wbf^ 
tlieyi  cametto  the  gM0;<rfl  iIm  ebapet^.ibt^  9HU«^)iiaM|9|d4)if 
tibej  wouldnotf o  ia  iwifh  hiqi ;{  Hoi  i«bicb  tbe^iUftj^  fii^l^ 
beMwi^g^piric  refriied^  '^  Itbtiikfiir^iia«r9(a|l)w4ied.^Mr 
Bftajetty  too  iar  alfead{jr.M»  ThiajvKortbf  ^.umgistrft^  ^bo 
f>fiefenred  hisTeligiaay^atididtttjr  loubaiKMUPtsyjy  Mi^Wfy 
other  MBiidec«tton>  shooU-faaMa  hiatMine  jr^pcNrdfidcJ^ffotr 
ter0  of:  geld  c-Dn  Hasti^  took  pai*f  Xm  Sodi^mt^  Y^bOiit:  «HPi9» 
aaid  beluEvedcft  todbe  eitbertTb9ui«i(9ea«ieiDoft.i:ir  lib^ntM 
Sharwia;  tlie!fbiniw«ra»«lectod]by /tbe<  iie^Vsf^d)^ 
latver  by:  the  «oldi  tbataer  wMtoised^  Upon:  ibia  ^nf^^er.  Bm4t 
hy-the  m9j6ri  tbe  kiQ^jwentiintd  the  popiah  ^topft^  ta||d 
$be  Diayorv ^itb aUthe^preteicaiita  wJliq atA«i)(i^d .bifpK.netot 
%o'lbe  eollege  tdwroh,^  vnhere,  wben  dm^iS^i^iofi^.}  9*^ 
endedE,  this  bishop  waited.ai  .bi»\inaje«ty:'t*114i<H)«r<^me 
in;  and  the  ^eati^eing.teton  tbe  table  be, 'OjSer^  M^^/ifyr 
gtaee;-biit  the>kiiig  vni$  pleaaed  to  aay.tbat^m  v(p94d:«^# 
bim:  that  trouble, :& be  ^ad  aiohtplaintoftbm  avvq^  ijip^ 
i^bioh  theffoad^old  oMUfr.aritbikew^:  iiot,wkivH»A:lfWrs  ii\  bia 
ij^ear'  As^Boo^'as'tbe'iliBficrwaa^weri'AliU.ii^^estjt^fjFi^ 
eeeded  ia  .hiaf>ffogreu  te.Ladfew»  jkariog  i»^pME^^Bmi  -  bifiir 
ielf  weU'|>leaBafd  With,  the  aatendanoetolotb^tgi^oMw^Ap  .5^ 

^Wcoimiy,  and  his  enaertaiaifliefil  by- tb«*  b}#b9M  Yii^^fi^ 
lus lordriit]»^iaya.in  afmaaeiaitliea t«i.a  &iMdi.tj|^l)  wiy 
diargeable  ^te.  bini^  yethe  did^notgfttdgeriif' ats  ji§.4^f|i 
be  .bad  done  the  ^hoaelraaiiieiCredktW'it«  .llberwbit&Mqiifl 


f.      ^ .    ')''j<  j{ 


*  Tbe  kiog*g  escape  after  the  Je-     ont  his  own  horse  ready  saddled,^  upon 
feat  in  this  battle  U  thus  rerated :  hit     yg^im  As  nrajesfy  fled'lHroti^  Si  iMf- 

la^jesty  beiag  forctd'tft  alight  fhssl.  ^lia^s.gaic^.aEiitf'av' I^JiM^Al^Ti^* 
hisiiomlofpit  jstoSi4b«ry>gate,.a|K|[  Tbomaf,  when.d^.p4  JVorpfst^ 
a  cry  being  made  for  a  hcirse  to  Vje-  married  his  eldest  son  to  i.  dnij^fer 
monvlt  the  k%,  a  Mr.  WiMtam  9ag.     ol^hia  Mr.'  BifvAU    -    »'    ^:il>.  ^1 


t  fl  %)  M  A  S.  t9i 


tlie^  skkfrd  leBtdfni^ttl  tiM^gntat^liKUy  «eit  Us  Iwi^ip  ^t. :  it 

^  ''  WiiMethe  feing'  wa^'li^  WiMWftiit^^t/tb^iieigbbottrin^  4i»* 
«ehe^»of  ftH  djdnlifoiiiMlmii'stetrdheir'iRikliresses  t&<hkD^ 
WbieU  the  Mri  df  f^lyiAdotly$  hitim^^  lafd-dieiit«wiiit,:^wa*.y> 

two  first  tlHi  liiHg'Aihtd  iiiw-^wiiat  ireiigicm  ibemen  mho 
iwmfgHt  ^iheki'i^eht  ^  *t  ^.lU^^oedy  ain,"  .replied  ttmJosd^ 

tM^;lai«6%iMth^r^yt»«f;i^etigiga|'Qcnr  qiiiiew>'     But  oow  the 

hhts  kirt^:^tmi%t^d1:Uittf/  lMlshopGiitoUtikei>Qa^&  ttiat  ;bi»  deoI»* 

^^  £€M}  <illtd^«27|(iri0i^thei^baid  imoiV-afii  in  all  ^Qtfaer 
Cteij^b^  atUllbi^ekiitto  Sifdi^nAiLbtk  of, Jbh^  Tiie  erob* 
4iM)5p^^ild'^lc;4<Mi6p»*  pN^eilt^d.a  petittonagaitist.U; 
cRiir  cbifiii^u^li^e^t^  whicii  i«a%  ^  ib«t  tbej  ^were  sf  nt  to  the 
^I^fii^;  ^ifaUMvlrWb^a^mit  g^ief ^^t^  ciio  ftN«b«py>  not  ibat.fao 
*«i^<idli^^^(bit>iiiiy'fau^64a-Miii»^lwm  bia  brethi- 

^^efi',  oV'A^l!bl^id4l«tm|ty  tbatiiadlMefollflMihem,  forbeoftoft 
^isfacld't6A9  l|i«'i|ttd  4)0leo  with  theo^ .  la  boar  his  iirsbittOAjr 
i^'^cx^gb^i  d^a^vkstf  ^fid  toiimvmB„siaAjre  wiibtbfiin  io  tbcte 
1kMiWiiibl«' 800ctibg0^  bcit  be  iftM  thiubkil  tp  tbink  0Q:tb«i; 
1ftlf>^hdibg'«<Mit(,wbi«b^be  fotssaivr^iQi  tho  choiobc 

bbW^er^  iiJMi  >he'  aivd  the  deafi*(Drj  Hiokea^  resolved  Tiqt 
;i4]^d4spe^e  cbe^d€^l«nKtioi»^.«od 'dignified  to  ^^11  the  dtrgy, 
tA^:  nti^r  disUtte  iif-'itw  ^iBteii  after  ^e  MC^i«ed  « letter  from 
*tb\HtfiMiMi^i^'*^^'flspnmi^  obejpiqg  the  king^fl 

OiiAers ;  tbie^aMlWer'Vi^vidricbsviis^  as^ohieia^  witbMt 

sifiy-tlritstiivei'trf  fiottoisioe^  Jibt  dediaratpry  of  bis  finn:ne^ 
Vbluttoti  lidtnoiboibpijftj  u.Vpotfe  img'WfiUiafBtfl  acoeasiQiiy 
JK^'ill  btiiibh^'WiMlldYdol'aiUiMPV'haar^'aittead  tl|e  oonven^ 
iiad;  .^Mfifidwd'  4)o  aei^  ^Bfipfmed  lof  the  prince  of 
lOmnge^b  Vei%ii<eobMrodtkbig/>and  nuicb  lets  of  that  act 
Vbkb'*dbKge>IUl^ipef^iia^lati»keiOtttbs  of  allegiance  H^ 
king  William  and  queep  Mary,  or  to  forfeit  their  offices^ 
tfaiaif  IivMig^^Vnd,ibeir  Wmpor^l  subsistence.  .For  his  gWa 
part,  be  #as»  resolved  to  forsake.  aU,.ratheir  tbain  actjco«K 
txijy  Xo  bis  forcoer  oaths,  and  boo^age,  which  he  had  paid 
to  king  Jaine8;:iADd«aUhoMgb  j»e  writer  to  KettIeweU>  an4 
9ajr8|.  ^*  If  R>y  heart  do  not  deceife  me,  and  God's  gr^ae 


«f  4  THOMAS. 

4^  not^  h\\  mfif  t  think  I  coold  suflRtr  at  a  stake  rather 
dian  tak({  tbb  oath,**  jret  it  doea  not  appear  that  lie  aitfd 
any  persuasions  to  prdvent  others  from  taking  it,  '\otfiy 
freely  gave  his  opinion,  and  advised  tlrem  sincerely  to  ttM-^ 
suit  tbeiif  own  consciences.  This  was  what  he  said  to'the 
elergy ;  and  when  a  grandson  of  his,  Dr.  William  ThcV'* 
Afasy  of  whom  we  shall  /speak  hereaftei^,  theti  a  student  iif 
Trinity  «dl^lege,  Cambridge,  consulted  hitn  on  this  erftibat 
pdtnt,  he  left  him  to  his  own  liberty,  and  thie^fedin'gs'<yf 
hW  own  eenscience«  In  one  of  his  sermons  he  s«ys,*  -"Am* 
Btimble  man  submits,  suspects  hfs  own  jtfdgment,  lilith  a* 
l^nerable  esteem  for  bis  superiors;  if  startled  by  any  cofnT-' 
sfeitutions  in  church  and  state,  he  frequently  prays)  sen^iou^ly 
fKscourses,  modestly  counsels  with  others';  if  after  ^lesif-  . 
pedients  be  remains  dissatisfied,  ifhe-caiinDt  siftDtwichrh^ 
Stream,  he  will  not  trouble  the  waters."  *     /  * 

'  The  limited  time  for  taking  the  oaths  drawing  n^at,  he 
prepared  himself  for  leaving  the  pahce,  and  «nieathi|^'  tbb' 
see.  He  had  agreed  with  Mr.  Martin,  then  vtcai^  bif  WM.; 
i»erly,  to  come  afnd  live  with  him ;  and  fa^  wrote  to  {>r.'^tili' 
lingfleet,  telling  him  that  he  would  use  afi^his  tntereit  *tMM' 
he  might  succeeci<him.  White '  be  was  thiis  preparing '  ilf 
sbings  for  bis  retirement,  God  was  pleased  t6  pr^p^e  better 
ht  him,  for,  about  the  20th  of  June,  afker  W't^ry  sei^reflt  tf 
the  gout,  he  grew  contitiuaUy  weaker  and  weaker/ tbon^k- 
kk  friends  did  not  think  htm  in  any  immediate  dangeyj- 
The  bishop,  however,  p^ceiving  himself  decaying;  err 
Stfnday  the  23d,  received  the  sacramene  in  his^own  cbapieAv 
4n  Monday  all  his  servants  were  called  in^  tfnd*iie  gav^ 
^ery  one  of  them  his  blessing ;  that  uight  hreendeavt>ured. 
io  sleep,  but  in  vain ;  his  daughter-in-law,  Mrs^  Annt^ 
't'-homas,  sat  up  with  him,  and  was  much  edified  by  hiln,' 
fcPt  the  most  part  of  that  restless  night  be  spent  in  cja^u}«^ 
liG^s,  and  prayer  to  God,  that  he  would  be  pltesed  to  t€^ 
tease  him  from  his  miseries,  and  the  troubles* of -Miis'  vai^ 
#orld :  there  was  no  weight  or  clog  on  Ws  conseienee'f' 
death  did  not  appear  at  all  troublesome  to  him,  tfae'stii^g^ 
was  gone,  his  earnest  desire  wais  to  depart,  ud  'be  wii&' 
Ohrist.  Thus  he  passed  the  few  remi^intng  boors  6f  b\9 
Mfe,  being  senHible  to  the  last;  bul,  growing  still  weak^t^- 
arid  weaker,  about  three  o^clock  the  next  day^  bel«>g  «h*r 
if^th,  he  patiently  submitted  to  the  stroke  of 'death,  iM A' 
resigned  bis  spirit  into  the  handa  of  God  that  gave  ic  "  ' ' 
^-U^  died'-io 'the  aeventy-sixtb  year  df  Ws  4ge^ -and  flSK- 


T  1&  O  M  i,  a  M4L 

cpfcUng  tQ  IkU  ^n  4|^piot|n^.at;  liefti  t](ii^;r^4<i4^iihie  p^b-^tst 
coHi^t  of  t^c^ojoi^lers  q|  Wpr^i^^tev  ^^(f^tbe^r^lf  ai  tb« 
bot(/9in  of  thp^t^ps.iif&r  t)^e.  agtuth,  dooti  being  Used 
to  saj.Uisu  )b^»c)4UJriqj;iiWiss.,£or.  t^e  livings  ^^^  hot  for  the 
deadr  *  pi^  ^^ueral  was  (;u:^dre4..bv.  ,bi(n$e}f,  as  manj  old 
ia<^p  goJ,Mg  b^fo^e  bis  cQr.p9Q,,€;W,tWl  in.  black.. as  corre« 
9pp^4^!wj(h  tbey^ar^.qC  bisage  wben  he  died.  Tbe  in<^ 
sQrjg(i^j9i:derie(}^Uy  hijipse^f,  wa$  agreeably  to  his  ex^raor^ 
^io*ry  .MmnUii*^i4..V  D^positum,  QuUeloai  Thoinasy  S.  T,  PI 
c^^xl^Dqc^I  ,Wigo|-^psis  indigQi,  postea  Episcopi  MincM 
Tei^i|^.in4i§oiorM|,t{|ndeafi  Episcopi  Wigoriiiensis  indigpia-» 
^iff^f^  W^ri'^if  t^fit^Q  Cbris.ti.i:esurrectk)nis  ad  vitam  sterw^ 
Q^^.x^f^^didati.''  ,  Siow^lJiiogjfartber  was.  added  afterwards 
kSr  44#tt.  ,lSi<Jh«s^  w4  ^  .iparWei .  ippauineot  was  plaoe<f 
lyitbio;  tbe.cbyrckby  .bi^young^l.sony  Mr.  WiUiam  Thomai 
Qf:  Hackney.  ' ., , 

,j)yU.;i^ii^o|d.^t^t^;ifll9uaj^  to  butSOO/.  He  left  behind 
Up^  t9JH9  ^^kh  Jlpbn  w4  William  ^  atd  iiveigvand-childi^^ji 
fviy^y.biA  d^gbti^r  Elisabeth^  who  married  Mr«  Jopathao 
AndFe.Wb  (9f.3arA^«-baU  neiir  Worcester,  and  one  by  hii 
s<|f|.  fTohm:  vKb9 'fi^aft  .tb&  Wojocest^sbire  antiquary,  of  wboin 
Wft  &b9M.  Pf  ^i^nidy;  sp^ 

^«  ^bli^b^d  i^k^  iii^  life-tioey  *^An  Apoktgy  for  tbe 
<;rJ^^ncb.pfJ;t)g^nd,,^67S-99"  avQ.  '^  A  Sermon  preached 
;^  (^a^^ikiC^e^.  A^izes^''  pointed  to  1657.  ^^  The  Mam*- 
n^K^  pf  U^^bteoufi^spi,''  a. sermon  preached  at  the  cathe^ 
dkftl  cbur.ixb  of.  W9rceater  when  be  was  in  a.yery  languisbiB^ 
stf^^^f  >i9^>tjt)r  Hisk  <<  Letter  to  tbe  Clergy r"  and  an  im<« 
l^feci.wfi^j^,  ^titlj^d  ^^  Roman  Qracles  silenced/'  were 
published  after  bis  death.  All.  these  shew  bim  to  have 
M^/^  tW^  bi^bop  and  industrions  divine,  but  nob  a  writer 
qI  p^rtA4)r  geniua;.  bis  style  is  barder  and  more  antiquated 
tb9^.  tbfkl  of  mosit  waiters  of  bis  time ;  but  bis  matter  shewil 
tbfPr  sivaplioi^y  and  bmrnility  q£  bis  he;itrt ;  for. meekness  asd 
i^ij^iQieAtftd  tbunpiiity  ^4re  hi^  ehiel  ornain^nts.  These  ^en^ 
dared  bim  peaceable  avid. quiet,  yifumit  of  contmdiciion^ 
a^  coi^tented  in  all  conditions,  tbe  same  eaay  man  when 
ap^(ifest#red  $»  wben  bishop ;  and  with  the  same  easy  tran- 
qip^llifg/!  a4id  cheerfulness  of  mind  he  prepared  to  lay  down^ 
bis^bisb^ipfric,  aa  in  bis  younger  years  be  had  done  hia. 
^If^rage^  •  He  waa  never  known  to  have  been  in  a  passion, 
Wjl^n  be  was  deitn  of  Woiicester,  one  pf  the  prebendaries 
in«chapter  fell  into  a  sudden  and  violent  emotion  upon  no 
gre^t  provocation,    which  made  the  d6an    ^^y  to  bim^ 


a^e  THOMAS. 

which  tb^ftOf^-genilMiaii  DepHed,  -^^Mil  Pcltfl;  MrJiDesiH 
.Ood  gir^  y^tt^iMre.fi^kro/f  Tile  gMA^ibaafiUlUIS^iio 
xe]g\ff  hut'hf  a  v^mite.  lb*  meniofy  «i«m  very  good/  ftr 
thougb^h^  p^Qntdl^i9.»^rinPD9^Hii»itb  t^he^^dearaEcjTy  yei4ie 
ilwwyn  delivered  t^iem  memcriUr.  He  fwairi«£  a  tiaedre 
■oibevHba^  ^H  ^nd  $lend^rf  iof  a  loiigTi6iig9^::htf  foteb^ad 
brip,  his  o9|wt^4ime^riMsefuU  aiMi  his  aipebti>vi8ii«v«bld 
jbe  co9D«titOitipii,of  .:hi»  body  to  ki^.  yolniger  ^eirn'  wtn 
«trong  and  b^lthful,  tbMgh  af leciiwdiil  hm^  bmkeir^bif 
{requeiu  infirouti^i  p^ma\%riy  the' gout;  t^  frequiEOii  \kni 
yioienit  .iito  of  which  be  was  ^objecfc  for  opvrardvdf  fo«ir)«tid 
twepty.yeara:  apd -that,  dittorder  v<Hiid  nnch  soobd^iwre 
brought  him  to  an,<^,  if  it  had  not  beefn  cfaettted^ijr  iiii 
gi»at  t^a^^ec^j^e^-aad  rep^t|)d  abftineiice.  ^'  'i  '*^^'^'-  ^ 
,  TUO^lA^ii  (ViLUAM),  boro  in  i&70,  wm  grandaeoi^tMi 
the  bisbpgai  ^aiid  only  ac^ipr'  John  Thoono'  and  Mnry(Bi|^ 
^V  d^i^ghtef  to  .Mn  90gnaU»  n)«»tionediify<tfae  txremdfaig 
ai:tic^6..,rVYfi,Uian]i4/)h0rUed  hot  iitlleiVM)  his  gmiidatMi 
H^.W^aa^edncaied  .iit  Westmin»ter«8oboolv<irDfii>»»bi^iici^''h% 
.ijfdkel^ed.iQTrim^^  Cambridge,  Jw^e^M^'^i€9i^ 

being,  t^ysn  ^venteea  y^ars  aid,  as  appeartLfc^  the  aeoemib' 
a£  aim^i>49as  ill  that  coilegte. .  Here/  he(/to6t ;  insr  •mauaer'a 
degre^:  :f^4i9on  after  ii»e»t  into  ordetfs^  lie  bed  tbe^iimg 
of  £xal  in  Warwickshire,  given  bimby  theiiiitefeatraf  ^onl 
l^om^i]pj^  :to  who8a:he.«es  distantly  nehrted  ^«tlA%berslbanill 
t^  iiaa^rXouQtyV  he  had  a  coo»iden»ble«0tAt^  a»>be<(bitt 
Iib9wi^.^\th4.  G^  i^ar  Toddiiig!M»  rndSiomihOMirl 

iiakey^^^^ijm^jf;  p^me:  %o  biip  by.hia  wjf^> thedatnir  hy 

..'C^ae^D^^^UfiwasweU  disppteduc^hliqi  and  oiaidr'ftieny 

]bq^i/f^^.aft^ihin|y  hi»/g^n^  Itonfiag  %>^eh 

fbrmeriy  her  prec^to^^^ut  hfedi^|iQ^t(ni^inuit^w^ 

j;i^sM)^:«t  icoifit;  rBei  ijia^i^d  r^^l^f^U^iifeaQyi^kl^)  4knly 
idajB^^r  of  Qiporg^.Qa^r^  es(||^Aofr3|nitl^in,ihe!eDdnC9ru)f 
%pl^f  yi^bjMil^bm  b©>haA*  ^cMp^idi^bkiior^naei '  %»*« 
h(^  IM^  a^iMp^i^ikx&iip^iyir -nipe-.  daj^gh^ini'Mid  ^e^'soai'; 
pf  the latf^i^.on^  qnl^^u rvivfd  M^- ah4mtf>eigbi ijtears^ -lind 
cjied  nntn^^iie^  vtf^jtbi?  f^ga^^iiii^ 
P^,  Tfho^as, W48j^ed^,|q  gg.ip,  Wjttfc#fltni^. ,iri»flbihir^^ 
qgljf  did  ,111  oj  a  }^  ajjd)  Jim .  ^Tj^  t^as-^^iiimenl^.  ie  >t|eiof«<i- 
t<?r)t.i3>f.^  $^^9^oft«  il^  t^a|K,€ity,J^y ?bij4mp^Hougbi.^ii:s^^ 


>  Nafb'f  Worct8^]^i;9|^iif^^^pa[-i«i|li«^4;^.  Ox.  vol.  ^I, 


T'H  O  fit  A  S.  «T 

hW  detjMl»d&if!f  AMfquftjCites'Piiomm'  miliar  Mtrlverne/' 
fMBteCid^  IQM4  JiM«tiifiM  of  <'iBisgilllte'«l>W&r^ick8hire 
imif Bi9^r BBdiiftwmseiils  ^'Survey ^f  theCft^edftiiebtirch 
idi  >^Koo«9eaf«rf'V^inrti^>  t(i   t^36  :  to^'Ditgdale  be  macle 

*  tTlMnkQ^'goeariyrra^  '*     «^ 

.^^iridfait  ]r0bi|fpE^^yea|9^<  niifTtely  in  170CT,  he  travelled  to 
JS^ihf#ceiivdriiak^  ^uRhiwcp  b<»  ddAtmcted  a  partiisufar  tnti^ 
mmcykiMi/Blii  m^Jvkopf  B^'itfi^toiii  ^  he«^as  wetl  skilled  in  tire 
^eirklmd  liainv  iMgwogeti^  06  whi^eh  be  added  the  Prefvcb* 
iMid  Itidi«i&''{  fie:likefri9^nfiiide  himself  nva^er  of  the  Saxon^ 
Ac€a8h<e.t  tha^iimciiifioosaiei^y  as*at  pt^esenty  when  we  have 
#v|^d'.dhrtiatrffr5r^  nk^M  gdOti^gfandtiiar  v  the  former  would 
iti^ereavBiil JEtJctft  gveat  laboiiv,  ais^  Dr.  Naah^w  one  he  made 
himself  for  hi^  oamvuie^:  whiefa <-cost  him  gr^ar  pains:  his- 
4i9diBatH^^viQdeed»  dirasiaibiaaiiig ;-  as  he  hardly  allowed  htsi^ 
sjj^:!  time  ier*  istnapy^hleacay  oranMvsement.  ti^'foUy  in^ 
^ded^if  Ptovidenceiiad spared  bis  life,  to  have  pablished 
t(h«(5Jlislory  of 'Worce8terdh4re9  and  with  '  this '  view  had 
^reMfyexaaihied  and-  transcribed  many  of  the  registers 
|)& (be  ;i)iisliops,  and  the  church  of  Worcester.  To  these 
iihwifs  >  Dn.  Nishv  owns  himself  indebted,  and  says,  he 
sheidd  beMgUy  ungratefal  if  be*  did  not  take* /every  oppor-* 
ta»ity  of  hekhroiwledging  his  obligations.  He  visited  like- 
Jml^)«^ry?ishur6fa  in- the  county  about  fifty  years  ago, 
MhidHi^ogether  wttte  the  eburch  gatherings  of  old  Habing- 
ikiii,^were  crf^gniait  service  to  Dr.  Nash,  by  expbining  de<- 
teittA  avmsjaad  aMf^eraied  inscriptions :  indeed  the  accoant 
el  tto^paiinedrgiass  is  chiefly  taken  from  their  MS&  as  it 
is  now,  by  time  and  other  accidents,  almost  all  broken,  or 
f<NideKdDkii!niMelli^ble,  by  the  glaziers.  He  died  July  26; 
!J.fM»r:BgaRlsisty«eight,  and  is  buried  in  the  cloisters  of 
•^Woacestcvcatliedral,  iiear  his  grandfather. ' 
V  THOMA8SIN  (Lewis)^  a  learned  French  divine,  was 
^msAc^.iM,  1619,  at  Aix  in  Provenoe,  of  a  good  and 
igditftit  famiy^  and  adihitied  at  the  age  of  fourteen  into 
thfioeoBg#ega«ioft  of  the  oratory,  where  he  bad  been  edu- 
ealedi  -After  teaching  ethics  in  his  congregation,  and 
phiksopiKf,  be  was  appointed  professor  of  divini^  at  Sau« 
miirymslifitwiduced  in  his  school  the  method  of  treating 
tkecdogfcal  subjeets  according  to  the  scriptures,  the  fathers, 
asukeoimciti*    ^Beiog  invited  to  Pans  in  1654,  he  began 

',  ^       *^  Nasli't  HJttory  of  W&rcesterfhi?*. 


tat  *        T  H  O  M;AtS.gi  N. 

t6  boU  ooafetfMMs  of  fiosiiive  >ibtplpgy  mi  thiumimay  ol 
St  IVbgloirfef  aqcoflding  ta  theflBieibbo^  be;  hud  ^dopU^dm 
fl^uaHiTy  4ilicl  oQotittueci  ibe»iil^  1668,  •%%  .wbi<^  time.  ))i«r 
»op0i\ioft  and  several, eminent  prekte^.  p^rfttnid^d  him  W 
give  tke  fruilt  of  bi0  laboufft  U)  tbe  public^  HeiCiooipiHwW 
aod  afterwards  became  so  celebrated  hy  bia  wqi)i%  tktt^ 
|Mipe  InomcDt  XI.  endeavoQced.  to  dravr  .btsa*  to  ^itie« 
wi^  an  iBleQiiop  of  giving  hm  ^  «ardHiar$  ba^  and 
iMkiDg  use  of  biaulena;  but  tbe  king  q6 '¥r9i»^»  rmffiieiA 
that  so  leameda  mail  i^as^  oeceawry  io  Ins  d«BHiioii«v  ^Tiie 
Freaab  clergy  gave  hiia  a  pensioii  af  l^OQCK  Uvjies^ .  wjiikib 
the  poor  always  shamd  with  bioi-^  He  iiaa  oiild^  m<^e»t^ 
active,  agreeable  in  his  manners,! and  very  assiduous  ia^ftl^ 
kU.  panutiis.  Ha  died  December.  2.^^  IW^  skff^dmf^en^^ 
saveoi  iHJs  principal  works  are:  !«  A<.  large  NHaalis0  on 
*>  Ecclesiastical  Diaoiplioef"  reprimed  I72jf,  d^y^ln*  fek.kt 
Ffieneb;  of  which  be  made. a  Inatm  ttaaalaaoii^  veprintied ' 
iTso  ID  1706,  3  vol««iol .  Thia  work  is.  highly  praised  b$» 
pciaoaa  in  ibe '  catbollc  coaununiiy.  2.  ^^  TJi^eoiogiml' 
Dogmas,"  l6ao,  3. torn*  foi.  itk  Latin.  8.  '^  Tracm  on  ^lie 
Siviaecffice,  isro;.  on  the  Feasta,  8ve^;  <N»^  Fast^,  8vo^  Q» 
TfutMand  Falaeheod,  $vo;  oa  A\mh  ^^9  ooiU^Hdenad'Oii 
Uaavy,>  8vo;  .4.  ^^  Tr.  doi^niatique  des  Mpyens  dwirOBfa'tfiii 
servi  daea  tpm  les  ^ma  pour  maintenir  Taail^.  ditPJCg^ise^'V 
1 703, 3  yoh^  4lo«  Tatbese  may  be  addedy  ^'  DireotioaariiDa 
sludying  anditeaebiag  pbilosopby  in  a  Cbiisiitaa  maiwAr^^. 
8iro ;  the  sancie  ^^  for  the  pnofane  bistorkiaa)"  Svasi  ^  piaa 
o£ tbeaaoie kinAior gsamnar  or  tba ilwigiiagesbW^ mfhitr 
tion  tot  the  Uol)p  S^splures,  2  vols*  Hwr  ^^  AUniversfdr. 
Hebaew  GlossMy*'' .  priaiied  at  ithe  Loa«re^c|^97^^^EBiL;^^ 
f*'IHftaartaliaisi</on  ;4lie  Cottocils^''  'mhMfh  ]S^7y  lii^l 
4lo;  ^^JMomotresaurle  Grace,''  1682,  ^to^x.&Oo' jllis  Life^t 
wriUen  by  fadiec  Border*  is^pfft fixed  to  ists  BbbireDrdbak 
aaay.**  .■•:.,  K^i.;  :  j 

Iffeaipiia  pktkisophfr^  waa  born.ini  hl^i  iQ^iipiA  Ammittm  ? 
Biiafaaiilyy  ^  finglk^  o>rigini  bad.ioi^il^en-fttliriedr  ioj 
New  HaaqpsbtDe,  at:  the  plaeei  formeidyealledt  Bum^Medi  .- 
aad^naw  Goaoardt;  aad  posaeseed  there  8itmfi;laiiid  pcevtom  i 
#0  the  war  o£  the  revolotion.  Fik)bi  bis  HiAwoy  bis-atkaaH| 
^iott.f^peara  to  bair^  lasen  directed  toivwrda  ri)^e«ttt«.i>f 
aeigaaei.  Tbfci  Ailhiir  aioae  of  bit  ^ly  efiM^amona^  a  clant  f 

*  Nic«roDy  Tol.  III. — Sensolt^i  lias  ItauMt  lUustveflk— AforerL—Dlct,  Hist.    . 


THOttfS  O.  N.  in 


fblrrlMt),  M4llMi  made  «lifitpiMt  progr^a  it^  tbii  bfmabi»f 
sliriiy'tobe  oble^  without  aMMttnoe^  to  cakubM  and  t<^ 
tjemi^  gmiibiMUyiibe  phases  of  a«i  eolifMe  of  ibe^Q.  Ha 
bad<baeii ^deatified  to  busiuesa  $  but  from  tbe  p^rfod  of  tbii 
little  etattt bi»'pa9^n forleamin]^  beeaoittarraMlibUiy  ind 
hi»49aiatd  apply  hkifts^M  to  iiotbf  ng  ban  to  U»favMrii«  objwM 
ofaibdyi  'H«fiWtefi4kdt(]^ie684»tt»^afDf.  Willie  aftar^ 
vr^Ytshr  tbtEfie  o#  Oh  Winthorp>  at  ibe  oaHega  of  HavanI; 
aisd  tiaele^  ftot^^abW-maiiar  howiado  ooa^idawible  prb^ 

>He  "appmtf^,  ^ow^ver,  to^hat^  beetle  oarfy  atsquainied 
^tih : mttlbnade^  Soon  affce^tha  iteadi  of  Mis  "Wittier,  bio 
nyidtber  eotitraot^d  a  second  marriage^  Mritha/<^i»ai»  wbo 
tunned  him  away  from  her  while  yataobild;  aod  an  u»eie^ 
wbb  survived  bis'  fnth^t  only  i  few  aAOtufas^  aoarc^ly  left 
Uiffi'  whevebn  to  M?e.  He  was  tbtis^  in  a  very  <early  periody 
launched  into  a  world  wbicb  waaalmoit  imkDawn«te  iiiiad^ 
and  k;  became  iiecetsai?y  for  bif»  to  acqitii^  tbebabit  of 
fe|itehi4tg  and  aatflng^  fdl:  bitnaelf,  and  of  li^ng  0a  bis  own* 
acqtiirefheftii;  **>  My  ideas/'  said  h<s  to  a  faend^  <<  wera 
not  yei'fiiced';  otie  aabedie  succeeded  another,  aivd  per^^- 
bap»  I  >ibou)d  bave  acquired  a  babit  of  ii^eeisioA  aad  in^ 
cOfittianey^  pa«kapa  I  should  ha^e  lived  poor  and  aoiserable 
t<»  tfaie  endof  oigrdaj^y  If  a  vromati  bad  not  loved  me,  if  sfae^ 
had  not  given  me  Jiatateoce^  a  babitalion>  aad-  an^mdepen^ 
daat  fortikoe.  itodka  wife,  or  vatbev  sbe  took  »«,  at 
ninleteflo  yeas9  o#  age»*  I  married  tbe  widows  of  ootooeli 
iieife^  ^e'  ditugbter  e<  the  reiuerend  Mr.  A¥albery  a  mokt; 
reapectabte  olei^ym^u^  and  onei  ol^  the  ^first  iiibahiiCiant&  of 
R«oi&rd»^  Hb  bad  ^inade  three '^Hoyaged  lo^Sngbind^  isM 
trusted  with  public  business ;  he  was  well  informed,  aud  m 
most  lih«r4iMeSifi^dcd  nian^  Hei  heamly  }a|^prov^  of  tbe 
cbifias»'^  fafied^ght^ dndbioMelf> united  lour UMidaaod . 
cMir  desiMiest .'  ^fa^it  cxceUeiit  i»af»  was-  situ:el[«ly  ^aiasehed 
to>^me;  hedintpatsadi^  rstudies,  i|e  ^foriaed  ^y  tai*^^  »bA 
my  aJxtiMfieii  arasi  >fii  avwy  Tespee%  ftbe'bappfostwhiehdtta-^ 
pwdlle-to  eoaebivet/'^  '»•  ^»'  ■  ''    ^*  -•  "•*>' 

-'UudterestenreieraiBstaiicesMrittadvciw  bim  lionr  bis  peaces' ' 
firf  setseaty  and  from  'the  faroifrita<atitdiee'whldvprobab^ 
would  have  formed  the  chief  occupation  of  bis  Ufe,  to  maka 
bimsK^^  oil  ibt  theatre  of  the  great  irorFd^  1^  pari  £br  wMois. 


Apparently 'he  yrii  not  prepstrbd.''  AV  tbe  c6ihinencetB6p$ 
at  ibe  trmbleft  dPAtti^ticvL^  which  pTt!ce&eAwA  brought  toA' 
ifhe  war  of  the  ifidepfeml^nce,  llibrnpson,  timn  t^mitV 
jemti  of  iige,  wattisrtUed1>y^friend^bip'witb*tbe^bveh!ior't^ 
the  prbifine^,  nhd  attmched  to  tbe  ^vernni(eht.  ^-  ^bedrri^' 
«iid  DDitilMry  «tnp1oyiiiet)t6,  v^b  wbttb,  l!h«tfgb  stAf  yotmg; 
h^  «vtis  invested^  iiatoraltj^  drew  hith  to  tbelroyali^^d^^} 
and  wh«/i  iftie  opporite party  icqtnredtlfae^seelidant^b^Vfi 
prevtnee^  be  wm  fereed  to  ^baiidon' hM^bM^) '<«cYid  to  s^^K 
an  asyiom  at  Boston^  theti  t>dc6pt^  l^'lfccf'Eii^l^''trt^(ifli 
It  was'ioMitl  tbr^end  df  th«  tio^W  df  Kd^^!^  YTtrdf 
that  be  tfecretly  quitttKl' iitt  babhkttbh,  Wfi^'U^^Uffif'fitl 
wife,  ^tb  a  daughter,  of  trfroiti  sbe'  Iftd'tiiit^IaltyW^deli 
deli^red:  He^eVer  agidn^awrtbeVoriiiirpftba^tb^U^ 
lo^d<5Mld  ^om  ftbe^  bad  ^ttiftt*  fittti  f^eH^^da  t^BVtlA 
twenty  years  after,  wb^'  kbe  niame*  i6  tiYp W It^^ffiiibief i'^ft 

Tbompson  wa^  retr^Ved  iHth  d&t?6dti<Ar*  lyf  ^b^"^  c&ii^ 
nfiinder  ifi  dttief  oP  tbe  Bt^tt^  army';  irn'd  ii^l^d  tp  fillS  i 
regimenli  for  tbe  service oftbe'ldHg.'^Bdttb^eV^i^ b^Wi 
war  baling  dccasioned  the  evactnrtSdiy  Ytf'fib^iityi^/i^^Bit 
spfH^goF  1776,  be  tfaen  tepkired  t6%hj|f^ttd;^^iiB'iiil^ifi 
beaf^of  ittiportaot  dispatches  to  kdveti^ehfS'^'l^tiH^n 
soon  atb<}atfed  tbe  eorrfidenee  of  the  secftikkf}r  ol'^ti^ 
thiT  ci^totiiiesy  aM  ^oitie  d^ys  after  Ms  ^iVtf  ifi^^i^M'Bg 
Kiwi  appomtcfd  ^secfelkry  of  tbe  prdvittce  of  iQ^giilf ^^  3ri 
gee  vhi^h  be  Wextt  esreneised:  tie  te^afii^ W^bjldbtt: 
contieaeed  fvith  tfie  offiere  of  the  coloiilei.J  '"^'  '^^\  "-^'^  '] 

DuHiig  the  iltilttK^n  of  the  year  l^tT,  hia  U^SlBy^m 
nring'disordered/  he  Went  tb  Baffi  to'  take^hirSeHtt^^^'"  f  " 
there  resufhed' bis; 'favourite  pordtihs,  ;^bd''bllrf^i^;^ 
iiitereniin^  set  6^  estperhneiits  oir  thfe  ii<^Mn ^iffdWHk 
bedieft.  On  bb  reMrn  to  tolidbn  ^6  cdfoiiiUbltJl^tl  ^''f^ 
Aifti  of  tbem  to-»r  Joseph  Siltikk;^Tid''frt^tliate^^ 
ttseMi  to  date  tbe  intimate  IHendidii^  ^iii(£VUn^sd6si^ea' 
between  Mm *iitid  the  iilnstyibns  president  (^^tbejBte^ai^Sb-^ 
ciety  of  Lpndoti.  In  \tf%  he  was  adikift<4d  aiitelbb4)r'or' 
the  sdetety,  tod  he  made,  k)  the  sadie^j^eir,  nit  fiVsre:r.*t 
perimettts  on  gnn-povMey.  The  reshltswhiebhii  obtained: 
grestly  extdted  bis  cvriosit^,  and  raised  me  de^i^i  oif_re^ 
pMtiVig  tHe  same  expeiiments  wit 
^Aitftte(ngtHatt6ccasi6n  to  sfiidy  atsb 

•Hshitecture.  •With^ttt^^ie'*^,*'^'^ 
wMt  dii  Voard  Yh^  Vitti»vTt  x^hi 


T  ti  0  VF  ^O  N.^  301 

I^e^pf^^se4  ,t^»t^,wUcU^r^fiq9pa^igtt.  with  ti^,  jff^nA  fleet  frf 
•»»4tiplx%  -bis  .^isjpfuripp^aiif , , ami »r^e*,tv]^  the^i  oq,  4tfr 

§ji^^)r.<,9fi^ii|>IP^ffMif^,,j^Hl^  the  folMmg 

Q^y^^^j^i,^^  p^blUljetJ, ,.  Seeing  appointed 

-mi^\*fJ^i  ^fi ^^f^ .«» ^  begif>^tig;.9f  i^^.year  1789, 

comfpandaiit.  Tliis  circumstance  determined  fai[n..>^Qvr0«. 
VHfj^  t^,4ini?fi<^^jj»^?r^  yif\}i^  ^j^  ^^/nfiP|. ; .  aft«l  wjafii  at 

P|§fi<e|t9^Q;  ^?  W  *PJW^^  of  tb^iw- 

Wftif^  gfj.t^  qftifiajr*.  in  jtbp^rpyal.aripy,  ,theni.u|>dei;  tbe  0«- 
lf§p  H^f  M^tpfl«V^8P?^wl  Jl^sli^r  r  Xbif  P<>»V  .wUh^  «fsia 
|B?***%i?/?^W»«'^  35f^t9nWiLsp^ily,;j  9^  g#ip^4  itsc«ri».. 

W^S"?'^  i^i^d.i4Efii^Qft^i^.%t^j^ei^^W^^^  Ha- 

8|?Hi?3L^ttt^.  iib9^q|t^9^,of.  the  a|r«y*,^^/uriu#b^d  w* 

^ecpnpajMdeir^y^  Tiipmp*(3mspf.i?|i*t4ii  ib^^pr^^g 

of  1782  for  New  X^if}^,  wh^p  )i^  |i§if«gpi^4,t^e i;o|d;Miay^ 

?^>  ,^a^4yj4f5»ftr6^^  tU.^4^iR^d^gftt 

p«»5l/jwve4nf»ofl^^ 


ir  •  -• 


Mt  TB0Mf>80  9. 

r 

*ttdr>faei»o-lfarMNHU«  BDMgbta  obcaki  fctllMM  victiint>tf 
their  attachnieiit  to  the  metropolMiui  ctoaiilry^  tbeeemiKet^ 
iMitkiDi  whidi  febeif  taoriiseip  had  tiesen^ed/  By^a  adtoin 
aet  of  the  iegiBiatare  an  koooarable  proviiion  was  snoored 
to  amnehmdredB  of  brave  ofikeni^  notwttbtftanditi^  a  jMFectjr 
•fipofig  oppoiiiioni  wfaidh  nendeeed  thofSMite  of  idak  MtfgKy-^ 
tialton  ver^  doobtful ;  and  gerrersl  €4riuwi  bifrhtg  ttien^ 
turned  Thonopsbn  in  bit  diapatcbes  lai"aa  officer  ot- extra- 
ordinary merit,  the  king,  upoi  tbit  teoooimeiidaiioii)  aiade 
hin  iiakm«]y  though  it  if  at  but  two  years  amee  Itehadbtea 
aaade  Nent^nant^cotoneh 

<  Wbenr  tbe  American  wiar  tevminaied^  Tbdmpton-  t<Ai>^ 
eitedto  be  employed  wib  bit  regitaient  *i»  ttie  Eaat  lodiea^ 
but  the^peaiee having  oooifctidned  tbereddoiion  of  tbit  oorpf^ ' 
togetber  ^aiiith  dmt^sevttffal  otber%'bie  'oboiined^  frotii  tbe 
king  fiermiation  to  travel  on  tbe  continent ,  *  wb^e, » sttiiio*' 
iated  at  be  then  atiU  %«aa  by  tbe  military  patsien,  be' hoped 
ao  find  ani  opportmiity  of  terring  at  a  volunteer  in- tbe 
Austviaor  araty'  against  the  Tui^t.  ^  I  owe  it  to  a  beaief^ 
-ioent'  Stvittity/'  said  be  to  bis  biographer,  ^  that  i  was 
elf  ed  in  tieMP  of  that  martial  folly.  I  met^  at  the  'priHee 
de  KaiinitE'«i  with  a,  bidy  seventy  years  of  age,  ami. en w 
4owed  with 'great' senceaod  knowledge;  She  was  tber wife 
elgisaerfcil  de  Bor^bansen;  and  the  ^emperor  Joiefib  li. 
often  eaine  to  ^pendLthe  evening  with  her.  ^Tfaat -eireei- 
leapt  {lerson -ibtxied*  an-  fmaebmetit  to  me;  she  j^aveme 
wise:  «d Vices ;  Mi^  imparted  a  new  turn  to.  my^ideais,  by 
preteiittng  ^of  ase^ifl.*'per9pective  otherspeciei  of  glory  than 
•that  df  ciMtqtieFfog  in  batttet.*^  •    ' 

Otf  qilftting  £ii^and  in  the  month  of  September  1783^ 
kelanded  at'-Bbnlogite^'  along  with  tfae'celdbratdd  Gibboni 
who  .^deacvibes'^bim  by  tbrte  vpitlieta'.frbich  skew  bow 
quickly^' be  bad  been 'able  to  appreciate,  him.  He  calls 
•llith'^^tbeaoMkar,'  phflosopfa^r/stateflman^TbohipsoR'.'''  He 
'afterwafda  arrived  at- Straaborg,- where  the  prince  Maxi« 
ittliian  do  Denx-Ponts,  iiow^Iidctor  of  fia variety  tbcsi  mares^ 
chal  du'^aatjiln  the  serrtce'of  -  France^  vms  t»  garrison; 
cl^t  priffcey  ^co^mmarrdiiig  tbe  parade^  diccdvered  aJonong 
idbe  tpectiuors  anx>fieef  in  a  foreign  trntfornfi,  motrnted  on 
a 'findEn^lsb  horse;  atid  aceoart^  him  ;  Thompson  infermefl 
Irtm  that  be  bad'jmrt  been*  employle^  in  tbe  Atoeriean  war^ 
tibwpftikee^  pointing  oiht  to  jjum  several  officers  wbo  snrv 
fotindedhiiif^  ^^Tfaese  ge^ttemefij^^^  said? he,  ^  flferved^ih  tb6 
aame  w&r,  b^i  against  you.    They  belonged  to  tbe'  royil 


T  H  O  M  P  &  <&  ir.  808 

t 

itrgiinent  Beua-pcmtsy  sdDt  co  cAmcriea  tnider  liuer  eofnoiaiid 
of^^be  eoiMit  deiiocbaaabi^aq."  .       .< 

p  Th%  coiiters^ian  became  close  and  anittiat^d.  Coionei 
ThooipscMi,  invited,  in>  ^eonsequenccy  to  *dtii6  with  tbe 
frntee^  feutid  tberera  number  of  French  ofikers  agaitiA 
^rhoia  ike  bad  fmight  hi  America.  The  convertation  turned 
ot^the^erents  o£  that  vrar.-  The  colonel  setit  lor  his  porN 
foVtor^  whieb  o^otained  exact  fAwnw  of  all  the  principal  a*c^ 
tmns,  o£'tke  strong^places,  of  the  siege»,  and  an  evceUent 
eoUedticMi  wi  maps ;  ^^veryone  irecognized  the  places  wherfe 
events  interesting  to  himself  had  happened*  The  conver>- 
saibienftiasced'  a^  grbat  while,  and  they  parted,  promising  to 
see  bne  an  ether  again.'  The  prinde  was  an  enthusiast  iii 
bb>  prdlession^  ^and.  passfouateiy^fond  of  instrnetion.  Bte 
kohrited^the  eoloilel  »^ict  day*  They  resumed^  the  e^nver'*^ 
satton  of-  th^''evefmSk^g''W«th  die  same^ ardour;  and'wfa^n  cba 
IbraveHei)  atf^kat^took  bi^  4eai^e,'  the  prhioe  eaf;aged  him  t6 
pissithreogh  Mianich^  and ^avebimik letter  of  recommeni* 
dfUtioD  to^  his  utroie*  tile  elector  of  Bavaria*.  The  season  was 
far  aklva^ced,  and  be  was  in  haste  to  arrive  in  Vienaa;  Hk 
ioteuded'to  stop  ab  Munich  t\vo  or  three  daysatmost.  ttt 
remlNined  itfikeiNi,iifi'd  qml^ted^  not  without  regret,  thatcity^, 
wheve^tbe  <te8talertonie$  of  the  favour  of  the  sovereign,  and 
the  pavtidlities  tif  the  different  classes  of  society,'  baid  bete 
lifviaiied'tipon  him^HKith  that  cordial  frankness,  which  a9 
emi»eotiydistingtii^es  the  Bavarian  charaeter.  At'Vren^ 
tia,  in  the  san»e  manner  he  met  witb  t^e  most  ftattetlin^ 
reception,  and  wis  presented  at  court,  and  rn'  the- first  com^ 
panics.  He  spent  there  a  part  of  the  winrer;'  and,  team* 
ing  chat  the  wai^  against  the  Turks  would*  not  take  place, 
he  yiislded  tO'the  attraction  of  the  reeoHeotibnts  of  Mtinicb^ 
mod  passing  through  Veniee,  where  hestoppedipme  Week^ 
ai>d  thixiugh  the  Tyrol,  be  returned  to  th^t  residence  to« 
wdrd  the  end  of  the  winter  of  1 784.  Henflwrteceived  ffoiii 
the  elector  a  positive  invitation  to  enter  into  his  setrice^ 
and  instead  of  returfiing  to  Vienna,  be  sM  oat  for'London 
with  tbe  intention  ofsoliciting  permission  froofr  the  king  ti^ 
accept  the  oflers  of  the  elector  palatine.  Not  only  was^  thidi 
favour  granted  him,  but  the. king  joined  to  it  an  faRHiourabte 
distinction,  hy  creating  hhn  a  knight.  He  accordingly 
returned  to  9avaria  ^r^Beftjamin' Thompson  >  and  was  6ik 
his  arrival  appointed  colonel'  of  the  horsey  and'  general 
aid-d^»ca«ip  lo^ttal^  sovereign  who  waiited  to  secure  HH 
Mrviceft  ^  .... 


304  THOMPSON. 

Sir  BQii}4o)io  employed  tbe  four  fimt  years  of  his  nbode 
at  Munich  in  acquiring  the.poiitioal  and  stati^ticai  know^ 
ledge' necessary  for  realising  the  plans  which  his  philan- 
thropy suggested  to  him  for  improving  the  condition  of 
tbc^  low^r  orders.  He.  did  not  neglect  in  the  mean  time 
his  faVoui^ite  stodie^i;  and  it  was  iu  1786,  in  ajc^urney  to 
Manheim^  that  bemade  his  firstexperiinecHaon  heat  Po*- 
Jitic^l  and  literary  honours  poured  in  upon  bim  during  that 
inlerval.  In  1785  be  was  made,  chamberlain  of  the.elec- 
.tor,  i^nd  admitted  a  member  of  the  academies  of  science  of 
Munich  and  Manheim.  In  1786  he  received  from  the  king 
of  Poland  the  order  of  St.  Stanislaus ;  in  1787  be  made  a 
journey  io  Pru^^^ia*  during  which  he  ivaa  elee^  a  member 
x>f  th^;  a<^ad^nny  of  Berlin.  In  1788  be  was  i^ppoiated*  Mar 
jorTgeQeral  of  cavalry  and  privy  counselkn'  of  state.  He 
wvas  placed,  at  the  head  of  0e  war  department^  and  parti* 
x^Jarly.  charged  with  the  execution  of  the  plans  which  he 
liad  propoiieu  fpr  improving  the  stsne.o^'  the  Bavarian  army. 

At  last,  the  foIIcMving  y0?ii'  (1789)  ivitnessed  ibeaccom^ 
plisbtneot  of  ^e  Dunver^us  prp}ects  meditated  during  those 
which  preceded.  The  b/9U($e  of  iinltistry  of  Manheim  was 
established;  th.e  islands  of  Mulbao  aear  lilanheimy  wbicb 
iill:  that  time  had  bi^n  nothing  but  a  pestiiietitiaimomss, 
•usel^sis  for  cultorcy.  and  perniciQu^  to  ibe  health  of  the  in* 
liabitantp  of  the  city,  were  joined  togetiher,  surrounded  by 
a  mquud  and  ditch,  and  transformed  i^to  a  fertile  gsrden> 
eonsecrated  tp  the  industry  of  tbe  garrison*  The  tiffiie.es« 
tablisbmeot  of  tbe  military  academy  of  Muiricb  was  found- 
.ed;  a  scheme  of  military  policy  was  formed  to  deliver  the 
eouatry  from  the  n^meTous  gangs  a£. vagabonds,  i>obbers, 
and  beggars,  wbo  infested  it;  schools  of  iad^wcy,  beloogr 
ing  to  evei'y  regiment,  were  estabUsbed^  tp  erilploy  tbe 
wives  and  cbildren  of  the  soldjers;  >  veterinary  school  was 
institmed^aild  astud^of.ho^es  provided  fpr  imprpyin^  ^ 
breed  of  tbe  country,  ^t  the  beginuingof  17,^.  the  boose 
of  industry  at  Munich,  that  fine  establishmegost,  wbicli  the 
eotint  himself  tms  described  at  lengths  in  hi»  essays,  was 
formed,  fpr  bettering  the  cbnditioii  of  the  ppor^and  men^ 
dicity  was  compile ly  abolished :  nor  b9s  it  again  made  its 
appearance  in  Bavaria,,  siiK^p  that  me.m^ri4>Ie  ^epoeh.  Tbe 
beautiful  EngKsb  garden  pf  Manieb  W?s, begun;  aed  military 
gardens  establisbied  in  ail  tb^.garrispniSv;  The  sovjex^gpn  ex- 
pressed bispbl^ation  for  th^se  numerous;  services^  by. con«r 
ferring  on  sir  Benjamin  the  rank  of  lieutenant* gene^l  of  bis' 
armies,  and  giving  him  a  regiment  of  artillery. 


T  H  0  M  :P  8  O  N.  $05 

In  J  79 1  be  WAS  crated  a  couot  of  the  holy  Rocnaii  em^ 
fiire,  and  honoured  with  the  order  pf  the  wbit^t  €agl?«  He 
tempioycsd  that  year  and  the  foUQwiog  in  completing  hi$  pr(h- 
jectf )  «nd  ia  removing  the  obstacles  by  which  attempts  ware 
made  to  interrupt  their  progneais.  This  species  of  labaKr^ 
and  the  anxiety  of  miiid  inseparable, from  it,  impaired  bis 
health  to  such  a  degree,  that  bis  physicians  declared  ^at 
bis  life  was  in  danger,  unless  he  r^tlited,  for  some  time, 
from,  business,  and  .had  recourse  to  a  change  of  qlimate.  He 
obtained  pern^ission  from  the  elector  to  take  a  journey  into 
Italy ;  and  before  leaving  him,  communicated,  in  a  de«- 
tailed  account,  the  principal  results  of  his  four  years  ad- 
ministration, compared  with  the  four  years  which  bad  pre*- 
ceded  his  entrance  into  office*.  After  having  travelled  oyer 
all  Italy,  and  a  part  of  Switzerland,  he  returned  to  B9^ 
Taria  in  the  month  q{  August  1794.  He  bad  been. attacked 
with  a  dangerous  illness  in  Naples,  iand  his  slow  recovery 
did  not. permit  him, to  resume,  on  his  return,  the  tranwi^'- 
tion  of  the  business  of  bis  department,  over  which  he  con'- 
tented* himself  with  exercising  a  general  snperiutendaniQe. 
He  laboared  in  bis  closet;  and  it  was  at  this  time  that  be 
prepared  the  first  five  of  the. essays  which  he  published. 

In  the. month  of  September  1795  he  returned  to  England, 
after  ^tt  absence  of  more  than  eleven  years.  The  prinQi^ 
pal  object  of  his  journey  was  to  publish  bis  essliyd^  and  to 
direct  the  attention  of  the  English  nati(m  towskrd  the  plan« 
of  public  and  domestic  cBconomy  whicb  he  had  c<>nceiired 
and  reidized  in  Germany.  Lord  Pelbam  was  then  aecref- 
tai^  of  state  in  Ireland.  The  count  complied  with  bi^  in*- 
vitation  in  the  spring  of  1796,  and  took  that  occasion  o( 
visiting  that  interesting  country.  He  introdiM^ed,  at  Onh^ 
lin,  sevieral  important  improvemeDts  into  the  hoapitais  aad 
houses  of  industry,  and.  left  thenemodelsof  a  number  of 
useful  mechanical  inventions.  £very  testim.aoy  of  honour 
and  grpttitude^  was  lavished  upon  him  in  that  oounliiy*  The 
royal  academy  of  Ireland,  the  society  for  the  encourage* 
ment  of  arts  and  manufactures,  both  elected  him  an  bonoi» 
rary  jnember ;  and  after  having  left  the  country,  he  re<f 
ceived  a  letter  of  thanks  from  the  grand  jury  of  the  county^ 
of  Dublin,  an  official  letter  from  the  lord  mayor  of  the  city, 
and  one  from  the  lord  lieutenant  of  Ireland  ;  ail  filled  with 
the  most  flattering  expressions  o£  esteem  and  of  gratitude* 

On  his  return  to  London  he  directed  the  alterations, 
which  had  been  adopted,  on  his  recommeodatiou,  in  Ibf 

Vol.  XXIX.  X 


506  '  THOMPSON. 

Foandling-hospital ;  and  he  presented  td  the  Board  of  agri- 
culture several  machinesi  as  models  for  imitation.  Tiie 
philanthropic  activity  which  distinguished  this  epoch  of  his 
life  manifested  itself  in  every  form.  It  was  at  this  time 
be  placed  in  the  English  and  American  funds,  two  sums  of 
1000/.  sterling  each,  to  establish  a  premium  to  be  given 
every  two  years  to  the  author  of  the  most  useful  discovery, 
inade  respectively  in  Europe  or  America,  on  light,  or  heat^ 
The  premium  is  a  gold  medal  worth  J  500  francs,  to  be 
adjudged  in  Europe  by  the  royal  society  of  London,  and 
in  America  by  the  academy  of  sciences  of  America. 

Nothing  seemed  sufficient  to  withdraw  him  from  these 
tranquil  and  important  occupations,  when  the  events  of  war 
called  upon  him  to  display  bis  military  talents  for  the  ser« 
vice  of  his  adopted  country.  General  Moreau,  having 
crossed  the  Rhine,  and  defeated  several  bodies, of  soldiers 
who  disputed  with  him  its  passage,  advanced  by.quicfc 
marches  to  Bavaria.  Count  Rumford,  on  receiving  this 
intelligence,  immediately  set  out  to  join  the  elector*  His 
arrival  at  Munich  was  eight  days  previous  to  the  epoch 
when  the  sovereign  was  called  upon  to  quit  his  residence, 
and  to  take  refuge  in  Saxony.  Rumford  remained  iu  Mut- 
nich  with  instructions  from  the  elector  to  wait  events,,  and 
to  act  according  to  the  exigency  of  circumstances :  they 
were  not  long  in  requiring  his  interference.  After/  the 
battle  of  Freidberg,  the  Austrians,  repulsed  by  the  French| 
fell  back  upon  Munich  :  the  gates  of  the  city  were  shot 
against  them.  They  marched  round  it,  passed  the  Inn  by 
the  bridge,  and  posted  themselves  on  the  other  side  of  the 
river  on  a  height  which  commanded  the  bridge  and  th^ 
tttwn.  There  they  erected  batteries,  and  firmly  waited  for 
the  French.  In  this  situation,  some  inconsiderate  transac- 
tions which  happened  in  Munich,  were  interpreted  by  the 
Austrian  general  as  an  insult  pointed  against  himself,  and 
he  demanded  an  explanation  of  them  from  the  council  of 
regency,  threatening  to  order  the  town  to  be  fired  upon  if 
a  single  Frenchman  entered  the  city.  At  this  critical  mo-^ 
ment  the  count  made  use  of  the  eventual  ,orders  of  the 
elector,  to  take  the  command  in  chief  of  the  Bavarian  forces^ 
His  firmness  and  presence  of  mind  awed  both  parties; 
neither  the  French  nor  the  Austrians  entered  Munich ;  and 
that  city  escaped  all  the  dangers  with  which  it  had  beea 
threatened.  t  .         ,  .      ■ 

po  the  return  of  the  elector,  the  count  was  placed  at  the 


THOMPSON.  807 

laead  of  the  department  of  the  general  police  in  Bavaria. 
,The  services  wh^ch  he  rendered  in  that  capacity,  though 
Jess  brilliant  than, military  exploits,  were  not  less  valuable, 
or  less  conspicuous.  But  the  excessive  labour  to  which  his 
zeal  and  activity  betrayed  him,  the  opposition  which  he 
often  experienced  in  the  exercise  of  his  office,  again  af« 
fected  his  health  to  such  a  degree  as  threatened  his  life. 
The  elector,  impressed  with  esteem  and  gratitude  towards 
him,  wished  not  to  allow  him  to  sink  under  a  labour  too 
severe  for  him^  and  desired  to  find  the  means  of  procuring 
him  the  repose  which  he  required,  without  altogether  de« 
priving  himself  of  his  services  :  he  appointed  him  his  en- 
voy extraordinary  and  minister  plenipotentiary  at  the  court 
6f  London.  But  the  rules  of  England  not  permitting  a  sub- 
ject of  the  king  to  be  accredited  as.  a  foreign  minister,  the 
count  did  not  exercise  that  office,  and  continued  to  live 
in  England  after  his  return  in  1798  as  a  private  individual. 

It  being  reported  in  America  that  he  had  quitted  Bavaria 
for  ever,  the  government  of  the  United  States  addressed 
to  him,  through  the  medium  of  the  American  ambassador 
at  London,  a  formal  and  official  invitation  to  return  to  his 
native  country,  where  an  honourable  establishment  was 
destined  for  him.  The  offer  was  accompanied  with  the 
most  flattering  assurances  of  consideration  and  confidence. 
He  replied,  declaring  at  the  same  time  his  profound  gra<» 
titude  for  such  a  mark  of  esteem,  ^^  That  engagements, 
rendered  sacred  and  inviolable  by  great  obligations,  did 
not  permit  him  to  dispose  of  himself  in  such  a  manner  as  to 
be  able  to  accept  of  the  offer  which  was  made  to  himg'' 

The  historical  society  of  Massachusets,  on  electing  count 
Rumford  a  megnber,  communicated  to  him,  by  their  pre- 
sident, about  the  same  time,  their  unanimous  desire  of 
seeing  him  return  to  his  own  country,  and  take  up  his  resi-^ 
dence  among  them.  His  answer,  which  is  to  be  found  in 
the  American  papers  of  that  time,  was  very  much  admired. 

Toward  the  autumn  of  1800,  count  Rumford  went  to 
Scotland.  The  magistrates  of  Edinburgh  paid  him  a  visit 
of  ceremony ;  gave  a  public  dinner  on  his  account,  and  to 
these  marks  of  distinction  added  the  freedom  of  the  city, 
conceived  in  terms  the  most  flattering.  They  consulted  him 
on  the  means  of  improving  the  existing  charitable  institu- 
tions, and  on  the  measures  proper  for  abolishing  mendicity. 
The  work  was  undertaken  without  loss  of  time,  and  that 
great  enterprize  was  finished  in  a  few  months  with  com- 

X  2 


•308  THOMPSON. 

ptete  success*  The  royal  society  of  Edinburgh,  and  the 
college  of  pbysicidns,  elected  him  at  the  same  time,  ri^^' 
spectively,  an  honorary  member ;  and  the  university  be- 
stowed upon  him  the  degree  of  doctor  of  laws.  During  his 
Irtay  in  that  city  he  employed  himself  in  superintending 
the  execution,  in  the  great  -establishment  of  Heriot^s  hos- 
pital, of  improvements  which  he  invented  with  regard  to 
the  employment  of  fuel  in  the  preparation  of  food ;  and  the 
Inanagers,  to  shew  their  gratitude,  sent  him  a  silver  box, 
with  a  very  flattering  inscription,  having  on  one  of  its  sides 
ft  representation,  in  relief  of  gold,  of  the  principal  front  of 
the  building  to  the  improvement  of  which  be  had  so  emi- 
nently contributed. 

Count  Rumford  quitted  England  for  the  last  time  in  the 
month  of  May  1802,  for  Paris.  He  went  that  summer  to 
Munich,  and  returned  to  Parts  in  the  winter.  In  the  sum- 
mer of  1 803,  be  made  a  tour  of  part  of  Switzerland  and  Ba^ 
varia  with  the  widow  of  the  celebrated  Lavoisier,  a  woman 
of  highly  cultivated  mind  and  capacious  understanding ; 
whom  shortly  after  their  return  to  Paris  he  married  ;  but: 
their  union  proved  unhappy,  and  they  at  length  separated, 
the  count  retiring  to  a  house  at  Auteuil,  about  four  miles 
ttbm  Paris,  where  be  passed  the  rest  of  bis  days  in  philo* 
sopbical  pursuits  and  experiments,  almost  secluded  from 
the  world ;  for  after  the  death  of  his  worthy  friend,  the  il- 
lustrious Lagrange,  he  saw  only  his  next-door  neighbour, 
the  senator  Lecouteux  Caneleux,  Mr.  Underwood,  the 
member  of  the  royal  institution,  who  assisted  him  in  the 
experiments,  and  an  old  friend,  Mr.  Parker,  a  learned  Ame- 
rican. He  ceased  to  attend  the  sittings  of  the  National  In- 
stitute; but  for  the  perpetual  secretary  Cuvier,  he  always 
preserved  the  highest  admiration  and  esteem.  One  object 
of  bis  latter  occupations  was  a  work  not  finished,  "  On  the 
Nature  and  Effects  of  Order  ;**  which  would  probably  have 
been  a  valuable  present  to  domestic  society.  No  man  in 
all  his  habits  had  more  the  spirit  of  order :  every  thing  was 
chissed ;  no  object  was  ever  allowed  to  remain  an  instant 
out  of  its  place  the  moment  he  had  done  with  it ;  and  he 
was  never  beyond  his  time  in  an  appointment  a  single  in- 
stant. He  was  also  latterly  employed  on  a  series  of  expe- 
riments on  the  propagation  of  heat  in  solids.  He  had  by 
him  several  unpublished  work#,  particularly  one  of  consi- 
derable interest  on  Meteorolites,  in  which  he  demonstrated 
that  they  came  irom  regions  beyond  the  atmosphere  of  the 
earth. 


THOMPSON, 


.309 


*  This  very  ingenious  philosopher  died  August  21,  1814, 
when  on  the  eve  of  retiring  to  England.    The  literary  pro. 
dttctioBs  of  count  Ruoiford  have  obtained  a  wide  circula- 
tion,  having  been  trandlated*  into  various  languages.     His 
papers  in  ihe  '^  Philosophical  Transactions,"  chiefly  on  mat- 
ters connected  with  the  object  of  his  beneficent  investiga- 
tions, were  rather  distinguished  for  the  useful  application 
€x£  which  they  were  susceptible,  than  for  their,  number. 
Among  them  are,  1.  ^*  Experiments  on  Gun-powder,  with 
a  method  of  determining  the  velocity  of  projectiles,  and  the 
forci^  of  gun-powder.*'     2.  ^'Experiments  on  Heat;  by 
which  it  is  proved  to  pass  more  slowly  through  the  Torri- 
cellian  vacuum,  than  through  the  air.*'     3.  '<  Experiments 
on  the  production  of  dephlogisticated  air  (oxygen  gas)  by 
different  substances,  exposed  under  water  to  the  action  oi 
light."   4.  "  Experiments  on  the  relative  and  absolute  quan- 
tities of  moisture  absorbed  by  difii»'ent  substances^  employed 
as  garments."     5.  '<  Experiments  on  the  communication  of 
heat  in  air."    This  memoir  procured  to  the  author  the  gcild 
jnedal  of  the  royal  society.     6.  <*  The  description  of  a  pba* 
tometer,  and  experiments  on  the  relative  quantity  of  light 
furnished  by  different  combustible  substances,  and  their  i^*- 
lative  prices."     7.  ''Experiments  on  coloured  shades,  apd 
the  optical  Ulusioos  produced  by  the  contrast  of  colours 
actually  present/*    8.  "  Experiments  on  the  force  of  Gun- 
powder, by  which  it. is  proved  that  this  force  is  at  least 
60fiQ0  times  greater  than  the  mew  weight  of  the  atmo- 
sphere, and  that  it  is  probable  that  the  force  of  gun-powder 
(lepends  chiefly  on  the  el^ticity  of  the  vapour  of  water.'* 
9. "  A  letter  to  sir  Joseph  Banks,  president  of  the  Royal  So* 
ciety,  offering  a  capital  of  1000/.  sterling  destined  for  a 
fund  ta  furnish  a  premium  every  two  years  to  the  author 
of  the  most  useful  discovery  made  in  Europe  with  regard 
to  light  or  heat.*'     10.  "  Inquiries  into  the  cause  of  heat 
excited  by  frietien,  &c.  &o." 

His  only  distinct  publication  was  a  series  of  detached 
f'  Essays,  experimental,  political,  economical,  and  phiLo- 
jopbical,"  which  appeared  at  different  times  since  1796, 
and  now  amount  to  eighteen,  forming  four  octavo  voliimes. 
The  c<H)teats  are.  Essay  l.  Account  of  ^n  Establishment 
lor  tbe  Poor  at  Munich^,  together  with  a  detail  of  vari<^s 
public  measures  connectednvith  that  institution,  which  h^ave 
been  adopted  and  carried  into  effect,  for  putting  ah  end 
to  mendicity,  and  introducing  order  and  useful  industry 


SID  Thompson.' 

among  the  more  indigent  of  the  inhabitants  of  Bayaria.'— « 
2.  Of  the^  fundamental  principles  on  which  general  estab* 
lishments  for  the  relief  of  the  poor  may  be  formed  in  a|l 
countries.  —  3.  Of  Food,  and  particularly  of  feeding  the 
poor. — 4.  Of  Chimney  Fire-places,  with  proposals  for  im- 
proving them  to  save  fuel ;  to  render  dwelling-houses  more 
comfortable  and   salubrious;    and  effectually  to  prevent 
chimneys  from  smoking. — 5.  A  short  account  of  several 
Public  Institutions  lately  formed  in  Bavaria.—^.  On  the! 
Management  of  Fire,  and  the  Economy  of  Fuel. — 7.  Of 
the  Propagation  of  Heat  in  Fluids. — 8.  Of  the  Propagation 
of  Heat  in  various  substances,  being  an  account  of  a  num«<' 
ber  of  new  experiments  made  with  a  view  to  the  investiga* 
tion  of  the  causes  of  the  warmth  of  natural  and  artificial 
clothing.  (First  published  in  the  Phil.  Transactions.) — 9«  An 
experimental  inquiry  concerning  the  Source  of  the  Heat 
which  is  excited  by  friction. — 10.  On  the  construction  of 
Kitchen  Fire-places,  and  Kitchen  Utensils,  together  with  re« 
marks  and  observations  relating  to  the  various  processes  of 
cookery,  and  proposals  for  improving  that  most  useful  art. 
1 1.  Supplementary  observations  concerning  Chimney  Fire- 
places.—12.  Observations   concerning  the   Salubrity  of 
Warm  Rooms  in  Cold  Weather.— 13.  Observations  con* 
cerning  the  Salubrity  of  Warm  Bathing,  and  the  principles 
on  which  Warm  Baths  should  be  constructed.-— 14.  Sup* 
plementary  observations  relating  to  the  management  of 
£res  in  closed  Fire-places. — 15.  Of  the  use  of  Steam  as 
a  vehicle  for  transporting  heat  from  one  place  to  another. 
— 16.  Of  the  management  of  Light,  in  illuminations;  to- 
gether with  an  account  of  a  neW  portable  lamp. — 17.  An 
inquiry  concerning  the  source  of  the  Light  which  is  mani«- 
fested  in  the  combustion  of  inflammable  bodies. — 18.  Of 
the  excellent  qualities  of  Coffee,  and  the  art  of  making- it 
in  perfection.  * 

THOMPSON  (Edward),  a  miscellaneous  writer  of  no 
great  fame,  was  the  son  of  a  merchant  at  Hull,  where  he 
was  born  about  1738.  He  was  educated  it  Beverley,  undel* 
the  Rev.  Mr.  Clarke,  and  thence  removed  to  Hampstead, 
under  the  care  of  Dr.  Cox.  He  early  embraced  a  mari- 
time life,  and  in  1750  sailed  on  a  voyage  to  Greenland. 
In  1754  he  was  engaged' on  board  an  Indiaman,  and  be* 

*  Memoirs  published  by  his  friend  Pictet,  «nd  given  in  Baldwin's  Literarv 
Jpurpal.— Gtnt.  Mag.  vol.  LXXXIV. 


T  H  O  M  P  S  O  N.  311 

\ 

Qupe  what  is  called  ^'a  guinea  pig/'  though  othoraccountg 
%ag  that  he  went  to  the  East  Indies  with  sir  Peter  Dennis, 
on  bioarJ  the  Dorsetshire,  and  was  in  the  memorable  action 
off  Quiberon  Bay.  By  his  "  Sailor's  Letters,"  it  appears  that 
he  was  at  Madras,  Ceylon,  and  Bengal.  In  1759  he  was  en- 
gaged in  Uawke's  celebrated  jbattle  with  (!)onflans.  His  other 
naval  movements  seem  to  have  been  of  little  importance ''^^ 
and  on  the  peace  in  1762  he  became  unemployed.  He  novr 
wrptea  licentious  poem,  celebrating  the  most  remarkable 
women  of  the  town,  which  he  published  under  the  title  of  the 
"  Meretriciad,"  This  seems  to  have  been  the  means  of  in- 
troducing him  to  the  acquaintance  of  Churchill,  with  whoip 
he  boasts  on  many  occasions  tp  have  lived  on  terms  of  inti- 
macy, and  with  whose  principles,  political  and  moral,  he 
appears  to  have  been  at  perfect  agreement.  Of  this,  hi« 
subsequent  poems,  "The  Soldier,'-  "The  Courtezan,"  and 
the  "Demirep,"  afford  sufficient  proof.  In  1765,  he  was 
more  laudably  employed  in  soliciting  parliament  for  an  in^ 
crease  of  half-'pay  for  the  lieutenants  of  the  navy,  an  ap-^ 
plication  which  was  attended  with  success. 

In  1767  he  published  his  "Sailor's  Letters,"  2  vols, 
12mo,  in  which  there  are  many  particulars  of  his  life,  froo^ 
17^4  to  1759,  told  in  a  rambling  and  desultory  manner, 
lie  afterwards  edited  the  works  of  Oldham  in  3  vols,  and  ior 
1777,  those  of  Paul  Whitehead,  in  one  vol.  4to,  and  of  An- 
drew Marvell,  in  3  vols.  4to,  none,  of  which  add^d  much  ta 
his  reputation,  either  for  judgment  or  correctness.  WhcA 
the  war  with  France  commenced,  he  was,  in  177S,  appoint?? 
ed  to  the  command  of  the  Hyeena,  and  was  in  Rodney'3 
famous  action  off  Cape  St.  Vincent,  of  which  he  is  said  to 
h^ve brought  home  the  intelligence;  but  this,  and  other  ac- 
counts of  his  progress,  as  related  by  his  biographer,  are 
certainly  erroneous.  There  was  a  capt.  Thompson,  of  the 
America,  who  brought  home  the  news  of  Rodney's  having- 
captured  a  valuable  Spanish  convoy,  but  this -was  capt/ 
3amuel  Thonipson,  a  much  older  officer ;  and  as  to  Rodw 
iiey's  action  off  Cape  St.  Vincent,  a  reference  to  the  Ga-? 
z^tte  will  show  that  it  was  capt.  Uvedale,  of  the  Ajax,  who 
brought  home  that  intelligence.  We  are  told,  which  may 
]be  XMtrjcect,  that  be  was  soon  afterwards  appointed  commpt- 
dore  of  an  expedition  against  Demerara,  and  afterwardu 

*  They  might  still  have  heea  de-     dered  it  a  difficult  matter  to  separate 
tailed  if  we  had  not  discovered  sach     tmth  from  error* 
•aacciiracita  in  our  auttiocitieB,  as  reo« 


$i»  T  H  O  MP  S  O  K.' 

eonveyed  home  a  fleet  of  merchantmen  ftom  St.  Euatathim* 
In  1785  he  was  appointed  commander  of  the  Grampus,  and 
tent  to  the  coast  of  Africa,  where  he  died  on  boanl  of  bis 
ship,  Jan.  17,  17S6.  He  was  considered  as  a  brave  itnd 
skilfol  commander,  and  had  that  infallible  test  of  merit,  the 
affection  of, his  crew.  It  must  also  be  noticed  to  his  ho- 
nour that  when  he  acquired  some  degree  of  opulence,  he 
with  great  alacrity  and  liberality  repaid  his  obligations  to 
many  persons  who  had  before  as»sted  him.  The  most  im- 
partial of  his  biographers  concludes  with  observing  thai 
^  the  merits  by  which  capt.  Thompson  will  be  best  known 
to  posterity,  are  his  sea  songs,  which  are  still  on  every 
one's  lips :  more  espe<iially  those  three  beautiful  and  af* 
fecting  compositions,  beginning  <^  Loose  every  aaii  to  the 
breeze,^'  *^  The  topsail  shivers  in  the  witid,**  and  '^  Behold 
upon  the  gallant  wave.*'  ^ 

THOMPSON  (WiLUAM),  a  scholar  and  poet  of  conai- 
derable  merit,  is  said  to  have  been  the  second  son  of  the  rev. 
Francis  Thompson,  B.  D.  of  Queen's  college,  Oxford,*  and 
vicar  of  Brough  in  Westmoreland,  who  died  August  31| 
1735,  aged  seventy.  His  mother,  who  died  two  years  after, 
in  the  sixty-fiftb  year  of  her  age,  was  the  widow  of  the 
rev.  Joseph  Fisher,  M.  A.  fellow  of  Queen's  college,  Ox^ 
ford,  vicar  of  Brough,  and  archdeacon  of  Carlisle,  by  whom 
she  had  no  children.  Our  author  was  born  probably  in  the 
early  part  of  the  last  century,  but  the  year  cannot  be  as* 
eertained.  ^  He  was  young,  when  in  1734  and  1736^  hi 
wrote  "  Stella,  Sive  Amores,  Tres  LibrI,"  and  **  Six  Pas- 
torals," none  of  which  he  thought  it  proper  to  include  in 
bis  published  works.  In  his  poem,  entitled  ^^  Sickness,^* 
he  laments  the  want  of  a  mother's  tenderness,  and  a  fit* 
tfaer's  eare ;  but,  as  they  died  in  advanced  age,  he  could  not 
have  lost  them  before  he  had  attained  at  least  his  twentieth 
year. 

It  was  on  the  banks  of  the  Eden,  which  runs  near 
Brougb,  that  ^^  bis  prattling  muse  was  first  provoked  to 
numbers,"  and  where,  we  may  suppose,  he  wrote  most  of 
those  smaller  pieces  which  he  thought  worthy  of  preserva- 
tion. In  these  he  frequently  addresses  an  lanthe^  who  was 
probably  a  real  mistress.  At  the  usual  age  he  went  to 
Queen's  college,  Oxford,  and  on  February  26, 1738,  took 
the  degree  of  master  of  arts.    He  afterwards  became  a  fel- 

.    \  Censura  Literaria,  vol.  ^V..— Biog.  0ram> 


THOMPSON.  SIS 

low  of  bis  college,  antl  succeeded  to  the  livings  of  Soath 
Weston  and  Hampton  Poy(e,  in  Oxfordshire.  >  It  waa  pro^ 
babiy  during  his  residence  on  his  living  that  be  publisbed 
**  Sickness,'*  in  1746.  The  origin  of  this  poem  may  be 
found  in  a  note  subjoined  to  the  fifth  book,  but  much  of  it 
must  have  been  written  just  before  publication,  as  be  pays 
tribute  to  the  memory  of  Pope  and  Swift,  who  died  abom 
that  time. 

In  1751,  he  is  said  to  have  been  an  unsuccessful  candid 
date  for  the  poetry  professorship,  against  Hawkins.  In 
1756  he  published  ^*Gratitude,*Va  poem,  on  ait  occasion 
which  certainly  required  it  from  every  true  son  of  Oxford. 
In  the  preceding  year  Henrietta  Louisra,  countess  dowager 
of  Pomfret,  daughter  of  John,  baron  Jeffrys  of  Wemm,  and 
relict  of  Thomas,  first  earl  of  Pomfret,  prt^enled  to  the 
university  ntore  than  one  hundred  and  thirty  statues,  &c; 
which  the  earl*s  father,  William,  baron  of  Lempster,  had 
purchased  from  the  Arundel  collection,  and  preserved  at 
bis  seat  at  Eston  Neston  in  Northamptonshire.  On  the 
525th  February,  1756,  this  lady  received  the  thanks  of  the 
university ;  and  the  year  fallowing,  the  university  cele^ 
brated  a  public  eiicosnia,  on  which  occasion,  ih  an  oration  by 
Mr.  Thomas  Warton,  professor  of  poetry,  she  was  again 
complimented  in  the  most  public  manner  for  ber  noble  and 
generous  benefaction.  Besides  Thompson,  an  anonymous 
Oxonian  offered  a  poetical  tribute  to  ber  liberality ;  and  in 
IT60,  Mr.  Vivian,  afterwards  king^s  professor  o^  modem 
history,  published  ^*A  Poem  on  the  Pomfret  Statues.'* 
Thompson's  poem  is  added  to  the  late  collection,  without, 
it  will  perhaps  be  thought,  adding  much  to  his  poetical  re* 
putation. 

In  1757  he  published  two  vdumes,  or,  as  be  quaintly 
terms  them,  two  tomes  of  poems,  by  subscription,  with  pre* 
faces  and  notes  which  give  us  a  very  high  idea  of  the  ao* 
thor's  modesty,  piety,  and  learning.  He  became  afler* 
>vvards  dean  of  Rapboe  in  Ireland,  where,  it  is  presomed, 
be  died  sometime  before  1766  or  1767. 

It  has  already  been  mentioned,  in  the  life  of  bishop 
Hall,  that  in' 1753  Thompson  superintended  the  publica« 
tion  of  an  edition  of  the  ^  Virgidemiamm.**  To  bis  own 
w>lumes  of  poems  was  added,  <^  Gondibert  and  Bertba,*^  a 
tn^edy,  the  subject  taken  from  Darenapt's  poem  of 
**  Gondibert."  This  tragedy  was  written,  he  informs  us, 
when  <<  he  was  an  undergraduate  in  the  university,  as  an 


f  14  THOMPSON; 

innocent  relaxation  from  thbse  severer  and  more  useful 
studies  for  which  the  college*  where  he  had  the  benefit  of 
his  education,  is  so  deservedly  distinguished.''  He  re- 
printed it  with  all  its  j-uvenile  imperfections,  but,  although 
it  is  not  without  individual  passages  of  poetical  beauty,  it 
has  not  dramatic  form  and  consistency  to  entitle  it  to  higher 
praise.  •     > 

Of  Thompson's  personal  character,  a  very  high  opinion 
may  be  deduced  from  the  general  tenour  of  his  acknow- 
ledged works.  He  appears  to  have  been  a  man  of  warm 
ailectioos  in  the  relative  duties  of  life,  an  ardent  admirer 
of  merit,  with  an  humble  consciousness  of  his  own  defects ; 
a  man  of  real  piety,  and  of  various  learning.  His  studies 
lay  much  among  the  ancient  £nglish  poets,  in  whose  his- 
tory  and  writings  be  was  critically  skilled.  As  a  poet,  al- 
though he  has  not  been  popular,  he  may  be  allowed  to  rank 
above  some  whose  writings  have  been  more  anxiously  pre- 
served. Having  been  in  early  life  an  admirer  of  Spenser, 
lie  became  a  studied  imitator  of  that  father  of  English  poe- 
try; but  like  most  of  his  imitators,  while  he  adopted  his  mea- 
sure^ he  thought  his  imitation  incomplete  without  borrow- 
ing a  greater  number  of  antiquated  words  and  phrases  than 
can  be  either  ornamental  or  useful.  But  if  be  be  censur- 
able on  this  account^  it  must  be  allowed,  that  in  his  <*  Na-^ 
tivity"  he  has  not  only  imitated,  but  rivalled  Spenser  in 
the  sw|Qetiiess  and.  solemnity  which  belong  to  his  canto. 
His  imagery  is  in  geiieral  striking,  and  appropriate  to  th^ 
elevated  subject,  nor  is  he  less  happy  in  his  personifica- 
tions. .  His  ^^  Hymn  to  May*'  has  received  more  praise 
than  any  of  his  other  pieces.  It  is  certainly  more  finislied, 
but  there  are  many  luxuriancies  which  sober  judgment 
would  have  removed,  and.  many  glittering  epithets,  and 
Verbal  conceits,  which  proceeded  from  a  memory  stored 
with  the  ancient  poets,  and.  not  yet  chastened  into  simpli** 
city  by  the  example  and  encouragement  of  the  moderns. 
The  poein  on  ^'  Sickness"  is  the  longest,,  and  altogether, 
perhaps  the  m^Qst  successful  effort  of  bis  muse.  He  chose 
a  new  subject,  and  discovers  considerable  powers  of  inven* 
tion.  *  ;     »        • 

THOMSON  (James),  a  very  eminent  poet,  was.  the  son 
of  a  minister  in  Scotland,  and  bom  at  Ednam  in  the  shire 
of  Roxburgh,  Sept.  the  11th,  1700.     His  mother's  name 

•  * 

>  Effglisb  PoetSj  1810»  91  toU.  Sfo, 


T  H  O  M  son:  315 

was'Beatirix  Trotter,  and  not  Hume,  as  Dr.  Johnson  says, 
Hume  being  the  name  of  his  grandmother.     His  father  was 
minister  6f  Ednam,  with  a  family  of  nine  children.     A 
neighbouring   clergyman,    Mr.  Riccarton,    discovering  in 
James  uncommon  promises  of  future  excellence,  mider- 
took  to  give  him  instructions,  and  provide  him  with  books; 
and,  after  the  usual  course  of  school  education  at  Jed- 
burgh, he  was  sent  to  the  university  of  Edinburgh.     In 
the  second  year  of  his  admission,  his  studies  were  for  some 
time  interrupted  by  the  death  of  his  father ;  but  his  mother 
soon  after  repaired  with  her  family,  whiph  was  very  nu-^ 
merous,  to  Edinburgh,  where  she  lived  in>  a  decent  and 
frugal  manner,  till  her  favourite  son  had  not  oniy  finished 
his  academical  course,'  but  was  even  distinguished  and  pa- 
tronized as  a  man  of  genius.     Though  the  study  of  poetry 
was  about  this  time  become  general  in  Scotland,  the  best 
English  authors  being  universally  read,  and  imitations  of 
them  attempted,  yet  taste  had  .made  little  progress;  this 
major  part  criticized  according  to  rules  and  forms,  and 
thus  were  very  able  to  discern  the  inaccuracies  of  a  poet, 
while  all  his  fire  and  enthusiasm  esoaped  their  notice^ 
Thomson   believed  that  be  deserved  better  judges  than 
these,  and  therefore  began  to  turn  his  views  towards  Lon- 
don, to  which  an  accident  soon  after  entirely  determined 
bim. 

The  divinity-chair  at  Edinburgh  was  then  filled  by  Mr. 
Hamilton,  whose  lectures  Thomson  attended  for  about  a 
year,  when  there  was  prescribed  to  him,  for  the  subject 
of  an  exercise,  a  psalm,  in  which  the  power  and  majesty 
of  God  are  celebrated.  Of  this  psalm  he  gave  a  para- 
phrase and  illustration,  as  the  nature  of  the  exercise  re- 
quired, but  in  a  style  so  highly  poetical,  that  it  surprized 
the  whole  audience.  Mr.  Hamilton  complimented  him 
upon  the  performance;  but  at  the  same  time  told  him, 
smiling,  that  if  he  thought  of  being  useful  in  the  .ministry, 
he  must  keep  a  stricter  rein  upon  his  imagination,  and  ex- 
press himself  in  language  more  intelligible  to  an  ordinary 
congregation.  Thomson  concluded  from  this,  that  his  ex- 
pectations from  the  study  of  theology  might  be  very  pre- 
carious, ev6n  though  the  church  had  been  more  his  free 
choice  than  it  probably  was:  so  that,  having  soon  after 
received  some  encouragement  from  a  lady  of  quality,'  a 
friend  of  his  mother,  then  in  London,  he  quickly  prepared 
}^im§elf  for  bis  journey,  in  1795 ;  and  although  this  encau« 


Sie  THOMSON. 

ff»gemeht  etided  in  uothiog  beneficial,,  it  senred  Iben  for  a 
good  pretext^  to  cover  the  imprudence  of  committiDg  him- 
eelf  to  the  wide  world,  unfriended  and  unpatronized,  and 
with  the  slender  stock  of  money  be  possessed. 
-  But  his  merit  did  not  lie  long  concealed.  Mr.  Forbes, 
afterwards  lord^president  of  the  session,  received  him  verj 
kindly,  and  reeoounended  btoi  to  some  of  his  friends,  par* 
ticutarly  to  Mr.  Aikman,  whose  premature  death  he  has 
with  great  affection  commemorated,  in  a  copy  of  verses 
written  on  that  occasion.  The  good  raceptioo  he  evpe* 
.rienced  wherever  be  was  introduced,  emboldened  him  to 
risque  the  publication  of  his  '<  Winter,'*  in  March  1726, 
which  was  no  sooner  read  than  universally  admired ;  and 
from  that  time  his  acquaintance  was  courted  by  all  men  of 
taste.  Dr.  Bundle,  afterwards  bishop  of  Derry,  received 
him  into  bis  intimate  confidence  and  friendship ;  promoted 
his  reputation  every  where;  introduced  him  to  his  great 
friend  the  lord  chancellor  Talbot ;  and  some  years  after, 
when  the  eldest  son  of  that  nobleman  was  to  make  bis  tour 
of  travelling,  recommended  Mr.  Thomson  as  a  proper 
companion  for  him.  His  affection  and  gratitude  to  Dr. 
Bundle  are  finely  expressed,  in  his  poem  to  the  memory  of 
lord  Talbot  In  the  mean  time,  the  poet's  chief  care  had 
been,  in  return  for  the  public  favour,  to  finish  the  plan 
which  their  wishes  laid  out  for  him ;  and  the  expectatioiis 
which  his  <^  Winter"  had  raised  were  fuUy  satisfied  by  the 
successive  publication  of  the  other  sessons ;  of  ^^  Suiamer^^ 
in  1727;  of '<  Spring,"  in  1728;  and  of  <<  Autumn,"  in  a 
4to  edition  of  his  works,  in  1730.  Some  very  interesting 
remarks  on  the  variations  introduced  int6  these, -in  subse-  * 
qoent  editions,  may  be  seen  in  the  Censura  Lit^raria,  vols. 
II.  III.  and  IV. 

Besides  these,  and  bia  tragedy  of  ^^  Sopbonbha,"'  written 
and  acted,  with  i^q>lause  in  1729,  Thomson  bad,  in  1727, 
published  his  <*  Poetn  to  the  Memory  of  Sir  Isaac  Newton,'' 
then  lately  deceased.  The  same  year,  tbe  resentment  of 
euT  merchants,  for  the  interruption  oif  their  trade  by  tbe 
Spaniards  in  America,  running  very  high,  TbomsfMi  aesh< 
lonsly  took  part  iis  it;  and  wrote  his  poem  named  ^  Britan- 
nia,*' to  rouze  the  nation  to  revenge.  His  poetical  pnrsiiiltf 
were  now  interrupted  by  his  attendance  on  the  honourable 
Mn  Charles  Talbot  in  bis  travels,  with  whom  be  visilfid 
most  of  tbe  coitrts  and  capital  cities  of  £u»ope«  How  p«r« 
ticulaf  and  judicious  his  observations  abroad  were^  a]ppea<s 


THOMSON.  317 

from  his  poem  on  ^*  Liberty,"  in  fire  parts,  thus  entitled^ 
•*  Ancient  and  modern  Italy  compared;"  **  Greece/* 
^«  Korae ;"  «  Britain ;"  "  The  Prospect,"  While  be  was 
writing  the  first  part  of  *^  Liberty/*  he  received  a  severe 
shock,  by  the  death  of  his  noble  friend  and  fellow- traveller^ 
and  thi^  was  soon  followed  by  another  still'  more  sevd^^re, 
and  of  more  general  concern,  the  death  of  lord  Talbot 
himself;  which  Thomson  so  pathetically  laments,  in  the 
poem  dedicated  to  his  memory.  At  the  same  time,  he 
found  himself  from  an  easy  competency  reduced  to  a  state 
of  precarious  dependence,  in  which  he  passed  the  remain* 
der  of  his  life,  excepting  only  the  two  la^t  years  of  it ; 
during  which  he  enjoyed  the  place  of  surveyor-general  of 
the  Leeward  islands,  procured  for  him  by  the  generous 
friendship  of  lord  Lyttelton*  Immediately  upon  his  return 
to  England  with  Mr.  Talbot,  the  ebancellor  had  made  him 
his  secretary  of  briefs,  a  place  of  little  attendance,  suiting 
his  retired  indolent  way  of  life,  and  equal  to  all  his  wants. 
This  place  fell  with  his  patron ;  yet  could  not  his  genius 
be  depressed,  or  his  temper  hurt,  by  this  reverse' of  foT'^ 
tune.  He  resumed,  in  time,  his  usual  cheerfulness,  and 
never  abated  one  article  in  his  way  oif  living,  which,  though 
simple,  was  genial  and  elegant.  The  profits  arising  front 
bis  works  were  not  ineonsiderable ;  his  '^  Tragedy  of  Aga^ 
aiemnon,"  acted  in  1738,  yielded  a  good  sum. 

But  his  chief  dependence^  during  this  long  ititerval,  wa^ 
on  the  protection  and  bounty  of  his  royal  highness  Frederic 
prince  of  Wales,  who,  upon  the  recommendation  of  lord 
Lyttelton,  then  his  chief  favourite,  settled  on  him  an 
handsome  allowance,  and  always  received  him  very  gra- 
ciously.  It  happened,  however,  that  the  favour  of  his 
royal  highness  was,  in  one  instance,  of  some  disadvantage 
to  Mh  Thomson,  in  the  refusal  of  a  licence  for  |iis  tragedy 
of  **  Edward  and  Eieonora,"  which  he  ^  had  prepared  for 
the  stage  in  1739.  This  proceeded  from  the  misunder- 
standings, which  then  subsisted  between  the  court  of  the 
prince  of  Wales  and  that  of  the  king  his  father.  His  next 
dramatic  performance  was  the  masque  of  *^  Alfred,**  written 
jointly  with  Mr.  Mallet,  who  was  his  good  friend  on  many 
occasions,  by  command  of  the  prince  of  Wales,  for  the 
eiUertainment  of  bis  royal  highnesses  court  at  his  suntmer 
itesidence.  In  1745,  his  <*  Tancred  and  Sigismunda,"  taken 
from  the  novel  in  GTil  Bias,  was  performed  with  applause* 
He  had,  in  the  mean  time^  been  finishing  his  **  Castle  of 


318  THOMSON. 

I  , 

Indolence/*  an  Bllegorical  poem,  in  two  cantos  ;  the  stanza 
whicb  be  uses  in  this  work  is  that  of  Spenser,  borrowed 
from  the  Italian  poets.  This  was  the  last  piece  Thomson 
himself  published,  his  tragedy  of  **  Coriolanus*'  being  ovAy 
prepared  for  the  theatre,  when  a  fever  seized  him,  and 
deprived  the  world  of  a  very  good  man,  as  well  as  of  an  ad-' 
mirable  poet.  His  death  happened  Aug.  the  27th,  1748. 
His  executors  were  lord  Lyttelton  and  Mr.  Mitchel ;  and 
by  their  interest,  the  orphan  play,  ^'.  Coriolanus,*'  was 
brought,  on  the  stage  to  the  best  advantage :  from  the  pro- 
fits of  which,  and  from  the  sale  of  his  manuscripts  and 
other  effects,  all  demands  were  duly  satisfied,  and  a  hand- 
some sum  remitted  to  his  sisters.  His  remains  were  de- 
posited in  the  church  of  Richmond  in  Surrey,  ^under  a 
plain  stone,  without  any  inscription;  but  in  1762  a  monu- 
ment was  erected  to  his  memory  in  Westminster-abbey. 

Thomson  himself  hints,  somewhere  in  his  works,  that  hia 
exterior  was  not  the  most  promising,  his  make  being  ra- 
ther robust  than  graceful.  His  worst  appearance  was^ 
when  he  was  seen  walking  alone,  in  a  thoughtful  mood ; 
but  when  a  friend  accosted  him,  and  entered  into  conver- 
sation, he  would  instantly  brighten  into  a  most  amiable 
^pect,  his  features  np  longer  the  same,  and  his  eye  dart- 
ing a  peculiarly  animated  fire.  He  had  improved  his  taste 
upon  the  best  originals,  ancient  and  modern,  but  could 
not  bear  to  write  what  was  not  strictly  his  own.  What  he 
borrows  from  the  ancients,  he  gives  us  in  an  avowed  and 
faithful  paraphrase,  or  translation,  as  we  see  in  a  few  pas- 
sages taken  from  Virgil ;  and  in  that  beautiful  picture  from 
the  elder  Pliny,  where  the  course  and  gradual  increase  of 
the  Nile,  are  figured  by  the  stages  of  a  man*s  life.  The 
autumn  was  bis  favourite  season  for  poetical  composition, 
and  the  deep  silence  of  the  night  the  time  he  commonly 
chose  for  such  studies :  so  that  he  would  often  be  heard 
vi^alking  in  his  study  till  near  morning,  humming  over,  iii 
his  way,  what  he  was  to  correct  and  write  out  the  next  day» 
The  amusements  of  his  leisure  hours  were  civil  and  natural 
history,  voyages,  and  the  best  relations  of  travellers ;  and^ 
bad  his  situation  favoured  it,  he  would  certainly  have  ex- 
celled in  gardening,  agriculture,  and  every  rural  improve- 
ment and  exercise.  Although  he  did  not  perform  on  any, 
instrument,  he  was  passionately  fond  of  music,  and  would 
sometimes  listen  a  full  hour  at  his  window  to  the  nightin- 
gales in  Richmond-gardens.     Nor  was  bis  taste  less  ex(]^ui-^ 


THOMSON.  313 

(site  ia  the  arts  of  paintings  sculpture,  and  architecture. 
In  bis  travels,  he  had  seen  all  the  most  celebrated  monu- 
•ments  of  antiquity,  and  the  best  productions  of  modern.art, 
and  had  studied  them  so  minutely,  and  with  so  true  a 
judgment,  that,  in  some  of  his  descriptions  in  the  poem  of 
.''  Liberty,*^  we  have  the  masterpieces,  there  mentioned, 
placed  in  a  stronger  light  than,  many  visitors,  can  see  them 
with  their  own  eyes.  As  for  the  more  distinguishing  qua- 
lities of  his  mind  and  heart,  they  are  better  represented  in 
his  writings,  than  they  can  be  by  the  pen  of  any  biogra* 
pher.  Inhere  his  love  of  mankind,  of  his  country^  and 
friends;  bis  devotion  to  the  Supreme  Being,  founded  on 
the  most  elevated  and  just  conceptions  of  his  operations 
and  providence,  shine  out  in  every  page«  So  unbounded 
was  his  tenderness  of  heart,  that  it  took  in  even  the  brutb 
creation  :  he  was  extremely  tender  towards  his  own  species. 
He  is  not  indeed  known,  through  his  whole  life,  to  ha^'e 
given  any  person  one  moment^s  pain  by  his  writings,  or 
otherwise.  He  took  no  part  in  the  poetical  squabbles  of 
his  time,  and  so  was  respected  and  left  undisturbed  by 
both  sides.  These  virtues  did  not  fail  to  receive  tbeir  due 
ceward.  The  best  and  .greatest  men  of  bis  time  honoured 
liim  with  their  friendship  and  protection;  the  applause  of* 
the  public  attended  all  his  productions;  his  friends  loved 
him  with  an  enthusiastic,  ardour,  and  sincerely  lamented 
his  untimely  death. 

.-  As  a  writer,  says  Dr.  Johnson,  he  is  entitled  to  one  praise 
of  the  highest  kind  :  his  mode  of  thinking,  and  of  express- 
ing his  thoughts,  is  original.  His*  blank  verse  is  no  more 
|he  blank  verse  of  Milton,  or  of  any  other  poet,  than  the 
rhymes  of  Prior  are  the  rhynfies  of  Cowley.  His  nlumbers^ 
his  pauses,  his  diction,  are  of  his  own  growth,  without 
transcription,  without  imitation*  He  thinks  in-  a  peculiar 
train,  and  he  thinks  always  as  a  man  of  genius ;  he  looks 
round  on  Nature  and  on  Life  with  the  eye  which  Nature 
bestows  only  on  a  poet;  the  eye  that  distinguishes,  in  every 
thing  represented  to  its  view,  whatever  there  is  on  which 
imagination  can  delight  to  be  detained,  and  with  a  mind 
that  at  once  comprehends  the  vast,  and  attends  to  the  mi- 
nute. The  reader  of  the  *'  Seasons'*  wonders  that  he  never 
saw^  before  what  Thomson  shews  him,  and  that  he  never 
yet  has  felt  what  Thomson  impresses..  His  is  one  of  the 
works  in  which  blank  verse  seems  properly  used ;  Thom- 
aon*s  wide  expansion  of  general  views,  and  his  enumera- 


S20  THOMSON. 

lioo  of  circumstuntial  varieties,  would  have  been  obstructed 
and  embarrawed  by  the  frequent  interruptions  of  the  sens#^ 
which  are  the  necessary  effects  of  rhyme.  His  ^ascriptions 
of  extended  scenes  and  general  effects  bring  before  us  the 
whole  nagnificence  of  Nature,  whether  pleasing  or  dread** 
fuL  The  gaiety  of  Spring,  the  splendour  of  Summeri  the 
tranquillity  of  Antuoin,  and  the  horror  of  Winter,  take  in 
ihehr  turns  possession  of  the  mind.  The  poet  leads  us 
through  the  appearances  of  things  as  they  are  successively 
varied  by  the  vicissitudes  of  the  year,  and  imparts  to  us  so 
much  of  bis  own  enthusiasm,  that  our  thoughts  expand  with 
bis  imagery,  and  kindle  with  his  sentiments.  Nor  is  the 
naturalist  without  his  part  in  the  entertainment ;  for  he  is 
assbtod  to  recollect  and  to  combine,  to  arrange  his  disiCO<* 
veries,  and  to  amplify  the  sphere  of  his  contemplation^ 
The  great  defect  of  the  ^  Seasons'*  is  want  of  method  ;  but 
finr  this,  perhaps,  there  was  not  any  remedy.  Of  many 
appearances  subsisting  all  at  once,  no  rule  can  be  given 
mhj  one  should  be  o^endoued  before  another ;  yet  the  m'e-» 
mory  wants  the  help  of  order,  and  the  curiosity  is  not  e%^ 
cited  by  suspense  or  expectation.  His  diction  is  in  the 
highest  degree  florid  and  luxuriant,  such  as  may  be  said  to 
be  to  bis  images  and  thoughts  both  their  lustre  and  their 
Uiade ;  such  as  invests  them  with  splendour,  through  wfaidi, 
perhaps,  they  are  not  always  easily  discerned. '  It  is  ^ too 
exuberant,  and  sometimes  may  be  charged  with  filling  th€ 
ear  more  than  the  mind.  The  highest  praise,  adds  Dr. 
Johnson,  which  he  has  received,  ought  not  to  be  sup«> 
pressed  :  it  is  said  by  lord  Lyttelton,  in  the  prologue  to  his 
posthumous  play,  that  his  works  contained  ^^  No  line  wbich^ 
dying,  be  could  wish  to  blot" 

It  would  be  unnecessary  to  enumerate  the  various  edi'»' 
tions  of  Thomson's  works.  Perhaps  the  most  elegant  is 
that  published  by  Millar  in  1761,  in  2  vols.  4to,  from  the 
profits  >of  which,  partly,  the  expences  of  his  monument  in 
the  abbey  were  defrayed.^ 

THOPHAIL.     See  JAAPHAR. 

THORE8BY  (Ralph),  an  eminent  antiquary,  descended 
from  a  very  ancient  family,  was  bom  at  Leeds  in  Yorksfaire^ 
Aug.  16y  1658,  and  was  the  son  of  a  reputable  merchaTity 
and  after  some  education  at  the  grammar-school  of  that 
place^  was  sent,  in  1677,  for  further  improvement,  to  Lon* 

'  Xjfe  by  Mttidock,  prefixed  to  hU  Workf.^-JohiuMi'ft  Poota* 


T  H  O  R  E  S  B  Y.  .  321 

don.  The  father  possessed  a  good  share  of  learning, 
and  had  a  peculiar  turn  for  the  knowledge  of  antiquities  ; 
which  being  inherited  by  the  son,  he  employed  his  leisure 
hours  in  visiting  remarkable  places,  copying  monumental 
inscriptions,  studying  their  history,  and  particularly  col- 
lecting accounts  of  protestant  benefactions.  His  father, 
designing  him  for  his  own  business,  sent  him  in  1678  to 
Rotterdam,  in  order  to  learn  the  Dutch  and  French  lan- 
guages, and  to  be  perfected  in  mercantile  accomplish- 
ments :  but  he  was  obliged  to  return  the  year  following,  on 
account  of  his  health.  On  the  death  of  his  father,  in  1680, 
he  entered  on  his  busiiiess  :  \aod,  though  merchandize  was 
his  profession,  yet  learning  and  antiquities  took  so  firm  a 
possession  of  his  heart,  that,  contenting  himself  with  a 
moderate  patrimony,  he  made  those  researches  the  great 
employment  of  his  life.  There  is  a  circumstance  relating 
to  him,  in  the  unhappy  times  under  James  II.  which  we 
cannot  pass  over.  He  had  been  bred  among  the  presby- 
terians ;  but,  never  imbibing  -any  of  their  rigid  principles, 
bad  always  occasionally  conformed  to  the  established 
church  :  and  now,  when  popery  began  to  threaten  the  na- 
tion,  he  more  frequentfy  attended  its  worship,  with  a  view 
of  promoting  an  unioa  among  the  protestants  for  their  mu- 
tual preservation.  His  presbyterian  pastor  was  highly  dis- 
pleased with  his  compliance,  and  treated  him  with  a  very 
indiscreet  zeal.  This  prompted  Tboresby  to  examine 
more  closely  the  arguments  on  both  sides,  and. apply  to  his 
diocesan  and  friend  archbishop  Sharp  (who,  by  the  way, 
had  a  good  taste  for  coins  and  medals,  and  collected  a  cu- 
rious cabinet  of  them),  who  treated  him  very  affectionately, 
and  by  letters  and  personal  conversation  settled  him  in  full 
communion  with  the  established  "church. 

Tboresby  was  well  respected  b^  the  clergy  and  gentry  of 
bis  town  and  neighbourhood,  and  by  all  the  eminent  anti- 
quaries and  men  of  learning  of  bis  time.  .It  would  be  al- 
most endless  to  enumerate  the  assistances  which  he  gave  in 
one  way  or  other  to  the  works  of  the  learned.  When  Gib- 
sen  piriilished  his  new  edition  of  Camden's  Britannia,  Mr. 
Thoresby  wrote  notes  and  additional  observations  on  the 
West-riding  of  Yorksliire,  for  the  use  of  it ;  and  trans- 
mitted above  a  hundred  of  his  coins  to  Mr.  Obadiab  Walker, 
who  undertook  that  province  which  related  to  the  Roman, 
British,  ahd  Saxon  monies.  Hearne  often  acknowledged 
in  print  the  favour  of  his  correspondence.     He  coinmuoi- 

VOL.  XXUL  Y 


J^-w 


32«  T  H  O  R  E  S  B  Y. 

cated  to  Strype  som^  original  letters  in  bii  colleoiion.  He 
.imparted  to  Calamy  memoirs  of  several  northern  divines 
ibr  bis  abridgment  of  <^  Baxter's  Life  and  Times  ;^  us  be 
did  also  of  tbe  worthy  royalists  to  Walker,  for  his  *^  Suffer--, 
ings^of  tbe  Clergy,'*  which  was  published  as  an  antidote  to 
Calamy's  book ;  esteeming  good  men  of  all  parties  worthy 
to  have  their  names  and  characters  transmitted  to  poste* 
rity.  His  skill  in  heraldry  and  genealogy  rendered  him  a 
very  serviceable  correspondent  to  Collins  in  his  ^^  Peerage 
of  England."  By  these  kindnesses,  sweetened  with  the 
easiness  of  access  to  his  own  cabinet,  h^  always  found  tb^ 
like  easy  admission  to  those  of  others  ;  which  gave  him  fre- 
quent opportunities  of  enlarging  his  collection,  far  beyond 
what  could  have  been  expected  from  a  private  person,  not 
wealthy.  He  commenced  an  early  friendship  with  the  ce* 
lebrated  naturalist  Dr.  Martin  Lister.  To  this  friend  he 
sent  an  account  of  some  Roman  antiquities  he  had  disco* 
vered  in  Yorkshire,  which  being  communicated  by  him  and 
Dr.  Gale,  dean  of  York,  to  the  Royal  Society,  obtained 
him  a  fellowship  qf  that  learned  body  in  1697  :  and  the 
great  number  of  bis  papers,  in  th^ir  TransactiofiSi  r^latiog* 
to  ancient  Roman  and  Saxon  monuments  in  the  Nocth.of 
England,  with  \  notes  upon  them,  and  the  inscripttoiis  of 
coins,  &c.  shew  how  deserving  he  was  of  that  honour. 

He  died  in  1725,  in  his  sixty-eighth  year,  and  was  in-' 
terred  among  his  ancestors  in  St.  Peter's  church  at  Leeds* 
Qis  character  for  learning  is  best  seen  in  the  books  be  pub^ 
lisbed,  which  shew  him  to  have  been  a  great  master  «f  the 
history  and  antiquities  of  his  own  country ;  to  attain  which, 
it  became  necessary  for  him  to  be  skilled,  as.  he  was,  in 
genealogy  and  heraldry.  He  appears  from  these  books  to 
have  been  also  an  industrious  biographer :  but  that  which 
sets  his  reputation  the  highest  as  a  scholar,  was  his  uncom- 
mon knowledge  of  coins  .and  medals.  He  had  long  formed 
a  design  of  doing  honour  to  his  native  town  and  its  en* 
virons,  by  writing  the  history  of  them ;  and  had  accumu* 
lated  a  vast  quantity  of  materials  for  the  work,  whioh  wajp 
published  in  1715,  under  the  title  of  *^  Ducatus  Leodiensis ; 
or,  The  Topography  of  Leeds  and  the  parts  adjacent,*'  fol. 
To  which  is  subjoined,  ^'Museum  Thoresbeianum ;  or,  a 
Catalogue  of  the  Antiquities,  &c.  in  the  Repository  of 
Ralph  Thoresby,  gent.  &c."  In  the  former  piece,  he  fre- 
quently refers  to  the  historical  part,  intended  for  giving  a 
riew  of  the  state  of  the  northern  parts  of  tbe  kingdom 


T  H  O  R  E  S  B  Y. 


323 


during  the  dark  ages  of  the  Britons  and  the  Romans  ;  and' 
of  the  alterations  afterwards  made  by.  the  Saxons,  Danes, 
and.  Normans  ?  aiid  be  proceeded  so  far,  as  to  bring  his 
narration  iii  a  f^ir  copy  nearly  to  the'end  of  the  sixth  cen- 
tury, illustrating  and  confirming  his  history  by  his  coins. 
This^tiurious  unfinished  manuscript  is  inserted  in  the- Bio- 
grapbia  Britannica,.  in  order  to  excite  some  able  writer  to 
carry  it  on,  and  complete  the  noble  de^gn  of  the  author*. 
His  advancement  in  years  hindering  him  from  completing 
this  work,  he  contented .  himself  with  committing  to  the 
press  bis  ^^  Vicaria  Leodiensis  :  or,  The  History  oJF  the 
Church  of  Leeds,  &c."  which  was  published  in  172i,  8vo. 
The  subject  of  this  work  being  narrow  and  confined,  hey 
has  enriched  it  with  observations  on  the  original  of  paro- 
chial ehurches,  and  the  ancient  manner  of  building  them ; 
as  also  on  the  old  way  of  passing  estates  by  delivery  of 
pledges,' subscription  of  golden  crosses,  pendent  seals,  &c.; 
and,  besides  the  memoirs  of  many  worthy  divines  succes* 
sively  vicars  of  Leeds,  he  has  added  the  lives  of  the  doc- 
tors, Matthew  Hutton,   Edwyn  Sandys,,  Tobie  Matthews, 
John  Thoresby,  archbishops  of  York,  and  of  Henry  earl 
of  Huntingdon.     His  character  is  thus  given  by  his  bio- 
grapher :    *^  However  diligent  he  wa3  in   cultivating  the 
laudable  accomplishments  of  the  gentleman  and  the  scho- 
lar, yet  he  never  suffered  his  beloved  studies  to  interfere 
with  his  religion,  but  managed  all  his   affairs  iti  subser- 
viency to  it.     He  often  lamented  the  great  consumption 
of  time,  occasioned  by  the  numerous  visitants  to  see  his 
museum,  but  took  care  that  they  should  not  hinder  his  pri-. 
vate  or  public  worship.     In  his  principles,  after  his  conver- 
sion, he  was '  orthodox  ;  in  his  affections,  catholic,  com- 
prehending therein  all  denominations  of  Christians.     He 
was  modest  and  pure,  temperate,  and.  abstemious  tq,  an  un- 
common degree ;  though,  being  one  of.  the  lojcd^  of  the 
manor,  and  a  governing  -  member  of  the.  corporation,  he 
could  not/ always  avoid  public  meetings  ai>d  festivities,  yet 
he  was  a  sparing  partaker,  even  of  innocent  divei^ions* 


*  While  this  mrticle  was  going 
through  the  press,  we  read  with  plea- 
sure the  notice  of  a  new,  edition  of  the 
«*  Ducati|s,''  "  with  corrections  and  nn- 
merous  additions,  together  with  an  en- 
tire Volume  of  original  matter;  cod- 
taining  an  accouni  of  the  district  sup- 
posed  to  be  comprehended  by  Venera- 
iile  Bc!d9,  under  the  terms  Loidii  and 


Elmete,  containing  the  modern  parishes 
of  Berwick,  Sherburne,  Methley,  Swil- 
lington,  Castleford,  Wakeaeld,  Tfooru-' 
hill,  Dewsbury,  Mirdeld,  Batley,  Hud- 
dersfield,  Almonbury,  Bradford,  Ha- 
lifax; &c.«  By  Thomas  Dunham  Whi- 
Uker,  LL.  D.  F.  S.  A.  vicar  of  Whalley, 
and  rect6r  of  Heysham,  in  Lancashire.'' 


Y   2 


t84  T  H  O  R  E  S  B  Y. 

fie  was  constant  and  regular  at  his  private  devotions,  which 
were  invigorated  with  an  unusual  degree  of  fervency.  Ex 
emplary  in  the  government  of  his  familyi  he  called  them 
together  morning  and  evening  to  prtiyer,  and  reading  the 
Scriptures.  Extremely  careful  of  the  religious  instruction 
of  his  children,  he  was  not  unmindful  of  the  moral  beha- 
viour of  his  servants.  He  was  a  kind  relation,  compro- 
mising the  distressed  affairs  of  some  that  were  very  near  to 
him,  by  expensive  journeys,  irksome  applications,  and 
money  almost  beyond  his  abilities.  He  was  very  charitable 
to  the  utmost  of  bis  power,  not  seldom  solicited  others,  and 
was  always  a  faithful  dispenser  of  whatever  was  entrusted 
to  his  care.''  - 

Mr.  Thoresby's  widow  survived  him  near  fifteen  years. 
By  her  he  had  ten  children,  of  whom  three  only,  a  daugh- 
ter and  two  sons  survived  him.  The  eldest  son,  Ralph, 
was  of  Queen's  college,  Cambridge,  vicar  of  Rickmans- 
worth  in  Hertfordshire,  and  rector  of  Stoke  Newington  in 
Middlesex,  where  he  died  in  1763.  The  younger,  Richard, 
was  of  Catherine-hall,  and  rector  of  St.  Catherine  Colman, 
London,  and  died  about  1774.^ 

THORIE,  or  THORIU8  (John),  one  of  a  family  of 
that  name,  of  foreign  extraction,  but  settled  in  England,  is 
said  by  Wood  to  have  been  the  son  of  John  Thorius,  a  phy- 
sician, who  called  himself  *'  Balliolenus  Flandrus,"  a  na- 
tive of  Bailleul  in  Flanders.  It  is  more  probable,  however, 
that  his  father's  name  was  Francis^  whom  Foppen  calls 
<'  Balliolenus,  Flander,"  who  published,  in  1 562,  <*  Joannis 
Straselii  Comment,  in  aurea  Carmina  Pythagorse,"  8vo. 
He  published  also,  according  to  the  same  biographer,  a 
poem  on  peace,  translated  into  Latin  from  the  French,  and 
wrote  some  epigrams  and  satires.  According  to  Wood, 
John  Thorius  was  born  at  London  in  1568,  and  in  15^6 
became  a  member  of  Christ  church,  Oxford, ,  but  whether 
be  took  a  degree^  Wood  says,  '<  appears  not,  though  ih 
one  of  his  books  he  writes  himself  '  a  graduate  of  Oxen- 
ford.'  "  When  he  died  is  uncertain.  He  published  <<  A 
Spanish  Dictionary,"  Lond.  1590,  4to,  along  with  a  trans^ 
lation  of  Anthony  de  Corro's  <<  Spanish  Grammar."  He 
translated  from  the  Spanish  ^  The  Councellor ;  a  Treatise 
of  Councils  and  Councellors  of  Princes,^'  Lond.  l58Sf,  4to, 
written  by  Barth.  Phillip.    It  is  iq.  this  he  calls  himself> 


T  H  O  R  I  E.  S«S 

not  "  a  graduate  of  Oxenford,"  but "  graduate  in  Oxford." 
It  is  dedicated  to  the  right  hon.  John  Fortescue,  master 
of  her  majesty^s  wardrobe.  He  also  translated  from  the 
Spanish  of  Valdes,  **  The  Serjeant  Major :  or,  a  Dialogue 
of  the  office  of  a  seijeant  major/^  Lond.  1590^  4to,  ^ 

THORIUS  (Raphael),  whether  of  the  same  family  with 
the  preceding  we  know  not,  for  Wood,  says  he  wns  a  French- 
naan  born,  and  called  Thoris,  became  a  physician  and  Latir^ 
poet,  and  admired  in  both  characters  in  the  reign  of 
James  I.  He  appears  to  have  studied  medicine  at  Oxford, 
but  took  no  degree  in  that  faculty.  He  afterwards  settled 
in  London,  and  was  yery  successful  in  practice.  If\  the 
first  year  of  the  reign  of  Cb'arles  I.  when  the  plague  raged 
in  London,  his  humanity  led  him  to  expose  himself  too 
much  to  the  infection,  and  he  died  of  that  dreadful  disorder 
in  July  or  August  1625,  and  was  probably  buried  in  St. 
Bennet  Fink  church,  as  his^  residence  was  in  that  parish. 
It  is  related  of  this  physician  that  he  was  immoderately  ad- 
dicted to  wine,  and  seldom  saCtisfied  unless  he  made  his 
friends  keep  p&ce  with  him  in  prinking.  Gassendi  informs 
lis,  that  Thorius  being  in  company  with  Peiresc,  whom  be 
strongly  pressed  to  drink  a  large  glass  of  wine,  the  latter 
at  length  consented,  upon  condition  that  he  would  promise 
to  pledge  him  in  return.  When  it  came  to  the  turn  of 
Peiresc  be  filled  a  large  glass  of  water,  and  drinking  it  ofi^ 
insisted  that  Thorius  should  do  the  same.  This,  with  much 
hesitation,  and  after  pouring  out  execrations  against  the 
vile  liquor,  and  citing  a  multitude  of  classical  invectives 
against  it,  he  at  length  performed.  The  story  reached 
kinor  James  I.  and  much  amused  him. 

His  works,  all  Latin  poems,  were  mostly  published  after 
his  decease:  1.  "  Hymnus  Tabaci,"  which,  Wood  says,  was 
first  published  at  London  in  1627,  8vo;  but  Eioy  men- 
tions' two  editions  at  Leyden  in  1622  and  1623,  4to.  it  wa^ 
afterwards  reprinted  at  the  same  place  in  1628,  4to;  and 
at  Utrecht  in  1644,  li2mo,  in  a  collection  mentioned^  by 
Haller,  under  the  title  of  "  Colle<:tio  opusculorum  de  Ta- 
baco.**  2.  "  Cheimonopegnion,  a  Winte